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Bringing the family back in? Attitudes towards the role of the family in caring for the elderly and children.
YEARBOOK OF POPULATION RESEARCH IN FINLAND. 1994; 32:80-95.In the last few years, demands [for] replacing the welfare state with family responsibility for the care of children and the elderly have become more and more insistent. Using data from a recent postal survey [in Finland] (N=1,737), the article's aim is to estimate the caring possibilities and caring potential of the family. The results show that compared to outside-home care and especially publicly provided outside-home care, family care is not supported by public opinion. However, the results provide no evidence of a decline in the caregiving potential of the family. Thus, the introduction of new family care-oriented policies and cuts in the public welfare services aimed at increasing family responsibility for the care of dependents could even be counterproductive, as families would soon be overloaded with caring tasks. (EXCERPT)
YEARBOOK OF POPULATION RESEARCH IN FINLAND. 1989; 27:53-9.The fertility level in Finland, after decades of decline, has stabilized at 1.6; attitudes and practical obstacles to reversing this negative growth are presented. The low fertility in Finland has a long history and complex causation, but is now so entrenched as to be embedded in the culture. People, women included, think as individuals, and consider family development to be their private business. The small family is such an accepted cultural norm that political speeches about raising fertility are considered inappropriate. The lack of adequate affordable housing, the high taxation and indebtedness experienced by young people, and the lack of institutional support, especially day care are practical factors preventing childbearing. Many women are used to having a job and being independent, and do not relish taking on double labor. Others have had bad experiences with poor day care and housing arrangements with 1 child and do not want to repeat it with another. The breakup of traditional extended families has eliminated child care, but also raises the question how elderly people will be cared for. While there is an evident lack of political solutions to the problem of population structure, even larger is the problem of social renewal, of creating a new society where children will fit in.
DEMOGRAFIA. 1987; 30(1):11-26.Some theoretical considerations concerning the development of population policies are explored. The author notes that the objectives of such policies might include the acceleration or slowing down of the rate of population growth, changes in population structure, or changes in spatial distribution. The elements of policies designed to meet these varied objectives are described, including economic measures such as the provision of health, education, and child care services at reduced or no cost, tax incentives, child allowances; and legal measures, such as laws designed to protect the family and control employment. The need to develop public opinion to support population policies is noted. Problems concerning the evaluation of the impact of such policies are also considered. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)
[Emancipation and population problems: a secondary analysis of the CBS survey on different aspects of life, 1974] Emancipatie en bevolkingsproblematiek: een secundaire analyse op het leefsituatie-onderzoek 1974.
BEVOLKING EN GEZIN. 1985 Jul; (1):7-23.Findings from a sample survey in the city of Leiden and pertaining to the relationship between background variables and attitudes towards population policy, are compared with results from a nationwide survey among the Dutch population in 1974. Multivariate analyses confirm the relationship between indicators of emancipation, population policy variables, and political orientation. People in favour of information regarding population growth, are often in favour of measures promoting birth control and they also advocate the extension of child care facilities. (SUMMARY IN ENG) (EXCERPT)