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[Unpublished] 1989. 7 p.The World Bank President at a meeting of the World Resources Institute in 1989 addressed the issues of World Bank accomplishments, public awareness, industrial nations' responsibilities, and the link of poverty to population and the environment. Collective responsibility is urged. The cumulative effect of human activity will determine the fate of the planet. The World Bank has created a central Environment Department. Staff assigned full time to environmental issues has increased to 65 over 3 years. Environmental Issues Papers have been prepared for the most active borrowers, which in August 1989 included 70 countries. The Environmental Technical Assistance Program has US$5 million to distribute for environmental projects. Regional studies in an Asian urban environmental clean up and a Mediterranean environmental project were initiated and jointly funded with the European Investment Bank. By June 30, 1989, more than 100 projects with environmental components will be approved for funding, which is 35% of total yearly projects. 60% of all agricultural projects funded have environmental components. Funding for forestry projects is expected to double to US$950 million in the next 3 years, and US$1.3 million will be lent for environmental projects. Bringing environmental awareness to developing countries has been made difficult be fears that advanced countries are trying to impede economic development and to interfere with foreign sovereignty. Collective responsibility has not been agreed upon. Industrialized countries must be prepared to accept and remedy their own environmental shortcomings. 71% of industrial emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) comes from North America and Western Europe, which has only 8.2% of the world's population. Meanwhile, 7% of CO2 emissions come from developing countries, which have 70% of the world's population. The US produces 5 tons of CO2/person, while the world average is 1 ton/person. The US exports agricultural chemicals that are hazardous to human health. The US leads all industrial nations, except Canada, in energy use/unit of production of goods and services. 33% of all chlorofluorocarbons are released in the US. The population growth rate has a serious and life-threatening impact on human life. Natural resource constraints will limit growth. The solution is to provide family planning and expand the carrying capacities right now.
Paris, France, OECD, 1985. 271 p.The 1985 state of the environment is presented in terms of the progress and concerns, the pressures on, and the responses to the state of the environment. Concern is expressed for the condition of the air, inland water resources, the marine environment, forest resources, wild life resources, solid waste, and noise. The policy agenda is defined and includes past problems identified in 1979 as well as new concerns. The economic and international context in which these problems should be considered is established. The pressures on the environment are reflected in the following sectors: agriculture, energy, industry, and transportation. Responses pertain to the government, enterprises, and the public. The objective is to help member states define, implement, and evaluate environmental policies, and to include environmental concerns decision making. Member countries of the Group on the State of the Environment have 17% of the world's population and account for 69% of the gross domestic product and world trade and 75% of forest product imports. Achievements are identified as reduced urban air pollution by sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide; improved water quality; decreased oil tanker accidents and oil spills; improved management of municipal waste, reduced use of DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury compounds; and improved protection and management of some species of game, flora, and fauna. Progress has been unevenly distributed throughout the member region, by level, problem, and country. Air quality problems pertain to sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide and fluorocarbon emissions. Urban areas are still problematic. Remaining problems for inland waters the marine environment, and for hazardous substances are also identified. Progress has been slow, as has economic growth, but nonetheless environmental policies must be strengthened. New pollution concerns are identified as "new" pollutants, diffuse emission of pollutants, multiple exposure, and cross-media pollution. Natural resource concerns are interdependent with economic development and involve water, land, wildlife, and forest resources. The 3 major longterm risks are related to health, to the environment from industrial accidents, and to the environment from natural disasters. Profound structural changes are ahead. More accurate environmental data is needed based on existing systems and relevant to policy makers. The public is supportive of environmental policy and has a right to know.l
Washington, D.C., World Resources Institute, 1991 Jan. , 98 p.The US contribution to understanding the role of greenhouse warming is presented. After an overview is presented, the following topics are addressed: the ozone hole, multilateral agreements (both Vienna and Montreal), elements of a treaty on climate change, a proposed structure for an international convention on climate change, alternative legal and institutional approaches to global change, managing until an agreed upon treaty is reached, and negotiating for control of global warming. The themes all relate to early and effective action. An opportunity for effective action is approaching with the UN Conference on the Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro. Lack of global agreement, however, does not prevent industrialized nations from limiting carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions. Nations should be credited for acting individually or within a regional or economic context. It is argued that a general framework convention will appear first and will be followed by implementing protocols, such as in the Vienna convention and Montreal protocols. Chlorofluorocarbons are a useful guide to managing greenhouse gases. It is also argues that a greenhouse agreement should be stronger than the Vienna model, and implementation should be included in the initial stage. A constraint might be the imposition of optimal solutions in the early stages. A framework treaty might include a general code of obligations, procedures for negotiating protocols, reinforcing measures to ensure the voluntary adoption by national governments, and compliance with the commitments and mobilization of public opinion. It is suggested that a new international institution may be needed as well as international data collection and monitoring. Policy must include a commitment at the national level. Action plans should be developed before a framework treaty complimented by voluntary emission reductions is adopted by industrialized countries. The action plan would constitute a political statement not requiring ratification. Enforcement would be achieved through systematic reporting, consultation, and surveillance in a public manner. The target for 1992 is to draw up "transitional arrangements," and "customized" national plans.