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  1. 1

    The current and future contraceptive needs of Japanese women.

    Kobayashi T


    Between 1945-1948, the population of Japan increased by 5 million people. Further, between 1947-1950, 2.7 million recorded births occurred each year resulting in the population growing from 72-83.2 million. The crude birth rate fell from a high of 34.3 in 1947 to a low of 11.1 in 1986. The population is expected to increase from 117-130 million (1090-2010) and then fall to and stabilize at 118 over 70 years. 80% of married women in Japan want to have 2-3 children. In 1984, 59% of married women used a family planning method and 83.1% ever used such a method. In 1979, the condom was the leading contraceptive among married couples (82%) followed by the rhythm method (23%). Since 1948 japanese women have been able to obtain a legal abortion. 600,000 induced abortions occur annually in Japan today. Even though the number of abortion have fallen steadily from 1955, the percentage of abortions among teenagers has increased from 1.6-4.7% between 1975-1985. Japanese would like to reverse this trend and the expected approval of oral contraceptives (OCs) could help do so. In 1979, only 3% of married couples depended on OCs. A concern of OCs many people worldwide held for many years was the cardiovascular risk of the high dose OCs. In Japan, however, the rate of thrombosis is lower than it is among Europeans and Americans. Thus Japanese women appear to be suitable candidates for Ocs, but, in 1986, 52% of married women had not formed an opinion on the pending approval of OCs. Further 43% said they would not use an OC. These results indicated a great need for OC education as well as for education on all contraception. Since 99% of all births occur under the guidance of skilled health workers, the health workers could inform women about contraceptives, but often are too busy to do so.
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  2. 2

    Looking at abortion and contraception.

    Khomassuridze AG

    INTEGRATION. 1991 Sep; (29):8-15.

    This article describes the urgent need for modern family planning (FP) services and supplies in the Soviet Union, and presents the nation's high induced abortion rate as one of its most serious medical and social problems. With more than 6 million legal abortions per year, and another estimated 6 million performed illegally, the problem of induced abortion is placed on par with heart disease and cancer in the Soviet Union. Induced abortion is the primary method of birth control, responsible for terminating 2 out of 3 pregnancies. Many abortion seekers, especially those employing illegal services, suffer complications resulting in loss of ability to work or even death. The maternal mortality rate for 1988 was 43.0/10,000. Efforts to decrease the level of abortion have increased during reconstruction, and have been witness to a decline in the number of abortions by 866,000 over the period 1985-1988. Contributory factors behind this decline, as well as the decrease of the abortion ratio, are an increased contraceptive prevalence level totalling 13.7% of reproductive-age women, stabilization of the birth rate at a low level, a smaller proportion of reproductive-age women in the population, and rate reporting changes. Nonetheless, inadequate family planning services prevail in the Soviet Union. Instead of focusing upon abortion and contraception, services focus upon diagnosing and treating infertility, and offer neither FP information nor services for premarital youths. Moreover, contraceptive supplies suffer serious, ongoing shortages. Research is needed on the social, demographic, medical, and biological aspects of reproductive behavior in the Soviet Union. Regional differences, abortion law, public opinion on illegitimate pregnancy, abortion methods, health personnel training, and maternal and child health are also discussed.
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  3. 3

    [Population growth, 1986] Bevolkerungsentwicklung, 1986.

    Proebsting H; Fleischer H

    WIRTSCHAFT UND STATISTIK. 1987 Aug; (8):610-7.

    The authors examine recent population growth in the Federal Republic of Germany and present population statistics, the most recent of which are for 1986. A section on natural increase includes information on marriages and marriage age; births, including data on national origin; mothers' age structure; deaths, including stillbirths and infant deaths; births among resident foreigners; and public opinion concerning population size and growth. A section on growth due to migration examines internal migration and the international migration of German citizens and foreigners. Data and estimates are based on a variety of official and nonofficial sources.
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  4. 4

    Population misconceptions.

    McGraw E

    London, England, Population Concern, 1984 May. 64 p.

    This publication highlights some of the major popular misconceptions of population. It is divided into 5 sections: 1) population growth; 2) United Kingdom 3) food; 4) family size; and 5) planned parenthood. Misconceptions of population growth include lack of concern about birth rates, and poverty. It is unreasonable to assume that social and economic development will automatically curb the high levels of population growth in less-developed countries. Population policy should be formulated and implemented as an integral part of socioeconomic planning. In discussing Britain's population misconceptions, chart is used to show the ratio of numbers of children and old people to the working age population. Population matters in Britain are often presented as if population and the national economy were Siamese twins. There is anxiety that if the population stops growing the nation will somehow stagnate. Charts present total food production in the UK and imports and exports. Food concerns include hunger and an unequal distribution of food. World food production is presented along with food losses, and available food divided by the population. Total food production figures are given for the US and Canada, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Africa, Latin America, the Near East, Far East, Asian centrally planned economics, USSR and Eastern Europe, less-developed countries, and more-developed countries. Concerns about family size include the relationship of poverty to large families, child labor, effects of family composition on reproductive behavior, and infant mortality. Many people believe that reduction of infant mortality automatically leads to reduction in family size. Certain groups feel that women do not want fertility control programs, and that unsafe methods of contraception are being pushed at them--chiefly by men. The monograph includes many photographs.
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  5. 5

    Demography and pronatalism in France in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

    Ogden PE; Huss MM

    Journal of Historical Geography. 1982 Jul; 8(3):283-98.

    Historical and contemporary works on the history of population ideas in France are reviewed. Trends in the birth rate over the past 150 years are discussed, and attitudes and reactions toward these trends are examined. Emphasis is on "the form, effects and regional diffusion of pronatalist propaganda during the period 1890-1939" and on the current demographic situation in France. (ANNOTATION)
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  6. 6

    [Demographic trends and policy responses] Tendenzen der Bevolkerungsentwicklung und politische Reaktionen/Tendances demographiques et reponses politiques/Tendenze demografiche e risposte politiche

    Switzerland. Bundesamt fur Statistik

    Bern, Switzerland, Bundesamt fur Statistik, 1982. 39 p. (Beitrage zur Schweizerischen Statistik/Contributions a la Statistique Suisse/Contributi alla Statistica Svizzera no. 95)

    This document is the text of a report prepared by the Swiss government on the objectives and measures of its policies affecting demographic trends. The Swiss population increased by 1.42%/year between 1950-60 and 1.45% from 1960-70, but by 1970-80 the growth rate had declined to .15%/year. Switzerland, with a population in 1980 of 6,366,000, has been a country of immigration for over a century. The declining population growth rate of the 1970s was caused by increasing controls on the number of foreign immigrants and guest workers and by a decline in the birth rate. The Swiss population is aging; in 1980 13.7% were 65 or over and only 27.7% were under 20. The proportion of never married adults has increased, the number of divorces has increased, and the age at 1st marriage has increased to 27.4 for men and 24.9 for women in 1979. Women in 1980 had an average of 1.53 children each, up from 1.49 in 1978. Life expectancy in 1979 was 72.1 for men and 78.7 for women, and infant mortality in 1980 was 9/1000 live births. The Swiss government has tended to play a passive role in matters of population, with the exception of the rapid increase in foreigners in the 1960s and 70s. Few studies of the attitudes of the Swiss population toward the country's demographic development have been done, but 5 surveys undertaken betwen 1970-81 demonstrate widespread support of the government's restrictive migration policies. Apart from its desire for a balance between the native and foreign populations, the Swiss government has not indicated its demographic preferences for the future. However, issues of fertility and family constitution have played a role in some measures such as family allowances. The migration policy, in addition to seeking a balance between the foreign and native populations, also aims to assure the integration of longterm foreign residents into the Swiss population. No official institute of demographic studies exists in Switzerland, but a number of agencies and commissions carry out some demographic functions. Responsibility for demographic functions is shared by federal and local governments.
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  7. 7

    [Demographic situation and population policy in Hungary] Demographische Lage und Bevolkerungspolitik in Ungarn

    Senker W

    Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft. 1982; 8(4):589-605.

    An overview of demographic trends in Hungary over the past three decades is presented, and possible reasons for the decline in the birth rate are discussed. It is noted that a decrease in population is evident beginning in 1981. The pro-natalist policy measures that have been adopted in response to these trends are then reviewed, and their impact is evaluated. Public opinion concerning these policies is also examined. (summary in ENG, FRE) (ANNOTATION)
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