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  1. 1
    070073

    Retail audit of the Turkish condom market. Draft report.

    ZET Market Research Services

    [Unpublished] 1990 Apr. [2], 103 p.

    This study was conducted to help guide the design of the marketing strategy component of a condom brand for a contraceptive social marketing project in Turkey. Specifically, it was undertaken to estimate category sales, brand sales, market shares, prices, inventory practices, type of outlets, and distributor coverage of the Turkish commercial condom market; and to better understand retailer margins, pricing structures, inventory practices, and in-store placements and promotions of condom products. Baseline information will therefore be obtained on the nature of the condom market before the introduction of the project product. The audit was conducted in 150 urban pharmacies over 6 cities. Pharmacies were found to be the major retial outlets for condoms, with over 90% of those audited selling condoms over the study period. 17-25 million/year are sold through these channels at the average price of 390TL/condom. High profit margins exist at each level of distribution. Jellia held the largest market share at 58%, with inadequate distribution generally observed for the major brands. Condoms were visible in 49% of selling pharmacies, though advertisement materials were found in only 2% of audited pharmacies. Some pharmacists are reluctant to display condom advertisements for fear of offending conservative customers. Finally, pharmacies generally do not maintain large inventories of condoms. Recommendations applicable to the development of the project are included in the report.
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  2. 2
    069547

    The use of private sector marketing research techniques in CSM projects in the developing world.

    Tipping S

    [Unpublished] 1989. Presented at the IIDSS Conference, August 18-20, 1989. [15] p.

    The author explains the operations of and rationale behind the Social Marketing for Change (SOMARC) project of the Futures Group. Using indigenous private sector company commercial channels in developing countries, SOMARC helps develop advertising campaigns and other marketing approaches to sell branded condoms, oral contraceptives, vaginal foaming tablets, and sometimes IUDs. Commercial marketing research techniques are employed in these exercises, and include developing and evaluating advertising and marketing strategies, designing and testing advertising messages, and selecting and improving product names and packaging for their contraceptive products. Although technical assistance is generally required in most countries, local companies are nonetheless depended upon to develop and manage the projects overall. The importance of brand image research in reaching target markets is discussed, followed by examples of testing and evaluating marketing strategies, product names, package testing, and advertising messages.
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  3. 3
    032326

    American physicians and birth control, 1936-1947.

    Ray JM; Gosling FG

    Journal of Social History. 1985 Spring; 18(3):399-411.

    The transition from resistance to acceptance of birth control in the US can be characterized as a 3 stage process, with each period facing its own issues and choices. The 1st stage -- the fight over birth control in the early 20th century -- has been documented by historians like James Reed, Linda Gordon, and David Kennedy. A 2nd stage, approximately the years from 1936-60, has not been fully explored although the period was crucial in shaping the current system of contraceptive health care. This discussion focuses on this transitional period, particularly its 1st decade, 1936-47. Physicians' attitudes, as revealed through American Medical Association (AMA) policy and a national survey conducted in 1947, are considered in relation to reported data on clinic and private practice. This evidence reveals that despite the liberalization of laws and public opinion in the mid-1930s, contraception did not become widely available until after 1960 -- the beginning of the 3rd stage in the history of American contraception -- and that the restriction of birth control information during the period was traceble in large part to the medical profession. Analysis of the 1936-47 decade, particularly with regard to the concerns of doctors, provides a framework for understanding the forces that affected contraceptive health care in the mid 20th century and suggests conditions that continue to shape the politics of birth control. In 1936, when the AMA's committee on contraception submitted its 1st report, it was clear that legal and public opinion had moved decisively toward more liberal attitudes concerning birth control. In 1937 the AMA passed a qualified endorsement of birth control, indicating that the organized medical profession as represented by the AMA held views on birth control at the beginning of the 2nd stage that were more conservative than those of most middle-class Americans. Its conservatism was challenged by lay groups who threatened to circumvent standard office practice if physicians failed to modify their views. Public opinion and behavior thus had a demonstrable effect on medical attitudes. 10 years after the AMA resolution a suvey found that more than 2/3 of physicians approved of contraception for any married women who requested it. The 1937-47 period witnessed 2 important changes in medical attitudes toward contraception: the profession's public, though cautious, endorsement of birth control; and the apparent adoption of liberalized standards for the prescription of contraceptive materials. The period also was a time of tremendous growth for the new birth control clinics that offered services to women who could not afford private care. Available evidence suggests that physicians' attitudes toward contraception, and particularly toward birth control clinics, were more important than either laws or public opinion in limiting the availability of those contraceptives considered most efficient (and most compatible with sexual pleasure) between 1936-60.
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