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JINKO MONDAI KENKYU/JOURNAL OF POPULATION PROBLEMS. 1996 Jul; 52(2):1-16.This study...[explores] the changing determinants of attitudes toward projected population aging and possible acceptance of alternative population policies to slow it down in Japan. Differences in attitudes between 1990 and 1995 are analyzed, with a focus on support for immigration policy and pronatalist policy. Determinants considered include age, sex, marital status, education, occupation, and place of residence. (EXCERPT) (SUMMARY IN JPN)
ACTA UNIVERSITATIS CAROLINAE: GEOGRAPHICA. 1993; 28(1):73-85.The author reports on a 1991 survey in the Czech and Slovak Republics "concerning the attitudes towards demographic tendencies, family formation and population-related policies....The objective was to gain a better knowledge of the opinions and perceptions of the Czech and Slovak populations on these matters, as well as the demands to the government arising from society, both regarding its present position on the subject and its future responsibilities." Sections are included on family formation, the meaning of parenthood, and family policy and fertility intentions. (SUMMARY IN CZE) (EXCERPT)
PEOPLE. 1991; 18(1):16-7.This report on the turnaround in Madagascar population policy notes the importance of the educational experience provided at the 1984 Mexican World Population Conference. The author describes his experiences in developing and implementing a population policy. When people were informed that past food was exported and now imported (265,000 tons in 1985), increasing land usage was not seen as a solution to population growth. The National Environmental Action Plan now in effect helps to underscore the importance of population distribution so that land is not needlessly cultivated. The public response was disinterest initially, but education has been successful in convincing people. The dominant Catholic religion has recognized the population problem and there is only disagreement on the means ( Catholics prefer natural means). Cultural attitudes are changing at all levels due to the economic crises and greater number of people being unable to feed their children. In 1989, the Population Unit of the Ministry of Economy and Planning provided detailed studies of the consequences of population growth, thus forming the basis of the present policy. The plan targets a reduction of population growth from 3.1% to 2% for the year 2000, increasing life expectancy from 55 to 60, and reducing infant mortality from 120 per 1000 live births to 70 and the number of children per family from 6 to 4. Although the policy has been accepted and people ready to use family planning, services to urban centers as well as rural areas is yet unavailable.
ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE. 1986 Sep; 487:201-12.US attitudes toward both legal and illegal immigration tended to be highly restrictionist during the 1st half of the 20th century. Both legislative and executive-branch policy supported this restrictionist outlook up until the 1940s, when a gradual liberalization of immigration policy toward refugees began to occur because of foreign policy requirements and the onset of the cold war. Although only a very small percentage of Americans have advocated increasing the number of immigrants, the percentage who feel that the numbers should be decreased began to decline during the 1950s and 1960s. Liberalization of public opinion and governmental policy occurred. During the past 15 years, however, public opinion and government policy began to diverge. Because of economic and other problems, Americans became more restrictionist toward immigrants, at least when surveyed by public opinion polls. But the government has difficulty implementing a more restrictionist policy for a variety of reasons, among them the strong lobbying efforts of pro-alien activist groups combined with American ambivalence toward the plight of immigrants as individuals. (author's)
YEARBOOK OF POPULATION RESEARCH IN FINLAND. 1986; 24:29-42.The goal in this paper is to present and discuss results from several Dutch research projects dealing with the acceptance and demographic effects of new policy measures aimed at increasing fertility. The discussion covers the history of Dutch population policy since 1945, research on the acceptance of future pronatalist policy measures, a preliminary test of Mancur Olson's collective action theory applied to the relationship between population concern and acceptance of population policy, and evidence from social demographic research on the demographic impact of 1 particular type of pronatalist policy. The population has increased by over 10 million people over the last 100 years with some 45% of the increase taking place after 1945. The years immediately following the war were characterized by high birthrates. Natural population growth, mainly in the early 1950s, was attenuated by the number of persons leaving the country. This lasted until about 1960. Since then there has been an immigration surplus, yet in the 1970s the annual population growth was smaller than in the early years. A marked decrease in fertility was responsible for this. The fertility decrease is caused mostly by the fact that the number of high parity births has decreased. Since 1970, the number of 1st births also has decreased. The 1st stage in Dutch population policy covers the period 1945 to the late 1960s. In the first 15 years after World War II, the annual marked increase in population numbers worried the government and several segments of the general population, but an explicit interest on the part of the government in steering (natural) population growth did not exist. The 2nd stage of population policy covers the period from 1970 to the early 1980s. A Royal Commission on Population was established in 1972, and the essential message of their 1974 report was the termination of natural growth as soon as possible. 2 years after the publication of the Commission's final report the government stated their position, that is, for the Netherlands to reach a stationary population. During the 1970s, the total fertility rate declined from 2.6 (1970) to 1.6 (1980). It was this decline, combined with the aging of the population, that led the Interdepartmental Commission on Population Policy (ICB) in 1982 to become alert to the forecast that a stationary population of 12-14 million might not be reached in the near future. In early 1983 the government formulated a new position. The government now considers as imperative a change in the fertility trend over the next several years. If this change fails to occur, they maintain that it may be necessary to implement pronatalist policy measures. A public opinion survey conducted in early 1983 showed that 22% of the respondents responded affirmatively to the question about whether or not they would like to have more children when a pronatalist policy is introduced, yet only 12% indicated a willingness to reconsider their fertility intention upon implementation of this type of policy (N=250). Only 1/3 indicated a willingness to change their fertility intention in a pronatalist way. A government that uses data obtained from public opinion surveys instead of information stemming from demographic policy research may be deceived in the long run. More attention needs to be paid to demographic policy research.
Attitudes towards demographic trends and population policy: a comparative multi-variate analysis of survey results from Italy and the Netherlands.
[Unpublished] 1987. Presented at the European Population Conference, 1987, Jyvaskyla, Finland, June 11-16, 1987. 18 p.The results of surveys of the attitudes toward current demographic trends and population policies conducted in Italy and Netherlands were compared. The Dutch and Italian surveys were comparable because their aims and parts of the questionnaire were similar, making it possible to analyze the common aspects. The Italian data were taken from a recent survey of the National Institute of Population Research. The survey population included all those of reproductive and marriageable age. 1503 interviews were conducted. The survey was initiated in November 1983 and terminated in February 1984. 952 people were interviewed in the Dutch survey, initiated in 1983. It comprised a representative 2-stage stratified random sample of the Dutch population aged 20-64 years. Both the Dutch and the Italians knew that the birthrate had been declining: 93% of the Italians and 63% of the Dutch. This trend was rated positively by 52% of the Italians and 46% of the Dutch. 52% of the Italian respondents and 58% of the Dutch wanted the population to remain stationary in the future. The 1st important difference was that in Italy the number of respondents who evaluated the birth decline negatively was about 2.5 times as high as in the Netherlands where there was a very high percentage of people who were indifferent to the problem--40% in the Netherlands, 10% in Italy. In Italy, 15% favored an increase in population size in contrast to 8% in the Netherlands. The respondents in both countries had clear ideas on the causes of the fertility decline, but the Italians generally had less set ideas than the Dutch. The economic crisis and the lack of confidence in the future were identified as the most important causes; in the Netherlands, women's work outside the home was considered to be more important than in Italy. In both countries, state intervention concerning fertility was rejected in the majority of cases--67% of the Italians and 81% of the Dutch. A 2-step elaboration was carried out for the identification of typologies of respondents. The Multiple Correspondence Analysis was carried out on 2 subjects: Knowledge and evaluation of current demographic trends; and the acceptance of population policies concerning fertility in relation to their perception of the falling birthrate. The analysis identified typologies of respondents with different levels of information and opinion towards population trends, and 4 clusters for Italy and 4 for the Netherlands were comparable. both the "pronatalist" and the antinatalist" respondents in both countries were, in general, well informed, and in both countries the "interventionists" were, in general, people with a low level of education.
[Unpublished] 1973 Aug. Paper presented at Annual Meeting, American Sociological Assn., New York City, Aug 27-30 1973. 11 p.Add to my documents.
[Changes in public opinion between 1983 and 1985: the reception of population policy measures] Valtozasok a kozvelemenyben 1983-1985 kozott: a nepesedespolitikai intezkedesek fogadtatasa.
DEMOGRAFIA. 1986; 29(2-3):169-92.The results of a 1985 public opinion survey conducted in Hungary concerning population policy are presented and compared to results of a similar survey carried out in 1983. Particular attention is paid to the impact of population policy measures adopted in 1984. The results indicate that people generally are aware of declining fertility, but uncertain of how the policy measures adopted will rectify the situation. Improved housing conditions are seen as the major factor that might induce people to have more children. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS) (ANNOTATION)
[Emancipation and population problems: a secondary analysis of the CBS survey on different aspects of life, 1974] Emancipatie en bevolkingsproblematiek: een secundaire analyse op het leefsituatie-onderzoek 1974.
BEVOLKING EN GEZIN. 1985 Jul; (1):7-23.Findings from a sample survey in the city of Leiden and pertaining to the relationship between background variables and attitudes towards population policy, are compared with results from a nationwide survey among the Dutch population in 1974. Multivariate analyses confirm the relationship between indicators of emancipation, population policy variables, and political orientation. People in favour of information regarding population growth, are often in favour of measures promoting birth control and they also advocate the extension of child care facilities. (SUMMARY IN ENG) (EXCERPT)
Italians' attitudes towards the births decline and the acceptance of a population policy concerning fertility
In: Contribution of Italian scholars to the IUSSP XX General Conference/Contribution des Italiens au XX Congres General de l'UIESP, Firenze, 5-12 giugno 1985. Rome, Italy, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, 1985. 125-42.This paper reports the results of a survey carried out in Italy in 1983-84 of attitudes and opinions concerning current demographic trends and population policy. The 1503 respondents answered questions on topics such as nuptiality, the image of marriage, life style changes, population structure, the causes and effects of the recent fertility decline, ideal and actual family size, birth spacing, and state intervention in population issues. 93% of respondents were aware that births have declined in the past 10 years, and most attributed this to economic factors. 52% of respondents indicated the fertility decline is a positive trend in light of socioeconomic factors such as unemployment and the housing crisis. In addition, 56% expressed the opinion that ideal family size in Italy (2.2 children) is congruent with actual family size. 67% of respondents indicated that the State should not interfere in any way in the reproductive behavior of Italian citizens. 26% favored intervention, either to increase (12%), maintain (8%), or decrease (6%) present fertility levels. In general, respondents equated state intervention in fertility with repression and violation of personal freedom akin to that which occurred under the fascist regime. The minority of respondents who were in favor of state intervention, either to increase or decrease fertility, expressed a preference for noncoercive measures such as public information campaigns and removal of economic barriers to parenthood. These results suggest that Italy's family policy should be based on democratic consensus and guarantee reproductive choice to couples without outside interference or reference to questions of national welfare.
[Attitudes toward population policy in the Netherlands: results of a survey] Einstellungen zur Bevolkerungspolitik in den Niederlanden: Ergebnisse einer Untersuchung
Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft. 1985; 11(1):45-56.This article reports on some of the results of a  sample survey among 952 inhabitants of the Netherlands, aged 20-64 years. Attitudes and evaluations on aspects of current family policy as well as on hypothetical regulations for the benefit of people with children are presented. A new pronatalistic policy was welcomed most by respondents below age 35 who did not yet have children. General support was primarily given to arrangements for leave or for adjustment of working hours. A model is also presented for measuring the possible direct effect of new family policy regulations on reproductive intentions. The results suggest that the direct effect is limited. (summary in ENG, FRE) (EXCERPT)
Journal of Social History. 1985 Spring; 18(3):399-411.The transition from resistance to acceptance of birth control in the US can be characterized as a 3 stage process, with each period facing its own issues and choices. The 1st stage -- the fight over birth control in the early 20th century -- has been documented by historians like James Reed, Linda Gordon, and David Kennedy. A 2nd stage, approximately the years from 1936-60, has not been fully explored although the period was crucial in shaping the current system of contraceptive health care. This discussion focuses on this transitional period, particularly its 1st decade, 1936-47. Physicians' attitudes, as revealed through American Medical Association (AMA) policy and a national survey conducted in 1947, are considered in relation to reported data on clinic and private practice. This evidence reveals that despite the liberalization of laws and public opinion in the mid-1930s, contraception did not become widely available until after 1960 -- the beginning of the 3rd stage in the history of American contraception -- and that the restriction of birth control information during the period was traceble in large part to the medical profession. Analysis of the 1936-47 decade, particularly with regard to the concerns of doctors, provides a framework for understanding the forces that affected contraceptive health care in the mid 20th century and suggests conditions that continue to shape the politics of birth control. In 1936, when the AMA's committee on contraception submitted its 1st report, it was clear that legal and public opinion had moved decisively toward more liberal attitudes concerning birth control. In 1937 the AMA passed a qualified endorsement of birth control, indicating that the organized medical profession as represented by the AMA held views on birth control at the beginning of the 2nd stage that were more conservative than those of most middle-class Americans. Its conservatism was challenged by lay groups who threatened to circumvent standard office practice if physicians failed to modify their views. Public opinion and behavior thus had a demonstrable effect on medical attitudes. 10 years after the AMA resolution a suvey found that more than 2/3 of physicians approved of contraception for any married women who requested it. The 1937-47 period witnessed 2 important changes in medical attitudes toward contraception: the profession's public, though cautious, endorsement of birth control; and the apparent adoption of liberalized standards for the prescription of contraceptive materials. The period also was a time of tremendous growth for the new birth control clinics that offered services to women who could not afford private care. Available evidence suggests that physicians' attitudes toward contraception, and particularly toward birth control clinics, were more important than either laws or public opinion in limiting the availability of those contraceptives considered most efficient (and most compatible with sexual pleasure) between 1936-60.
Genus. 1984 Jan-Jun; 40(1-2):155-71.State intervention in population and family planning has been gradually increasing on the assumption that unregulated population growth poses serious national problems requiring public action. Among 152 developing nations in areas surveyed with respect to population and family planning policies in 1980, 52 supported family planning primarily from a demographic rationale and 65 from a health or human rights rationale, while only 35 provide no support. There appear to be 4 major underlying sociophilosophical perspectives on the role of the state in population planning: 1) the deontic/utilitarian whose prime concern is with the rights and obligations of present generations to future generations; this view provides a very vague basis for a general policy of population planning, 2) the environmentalist, which with varying degrees of pessimism in different formulations argue the need to limit population and economic growth because of the limited nature of the world's resources; this view ignores a considerable body of evidence that more than just overpopulation is involved in environmental problems, 3) the family planning perspective, advocated and supported by various international organizations and conferences, holds that decisions about birth control should be made by prospective parents. The assumption is that making birth control methods and education readily accessible to everyone will eventually result in birth rates which are desirable for the society as a whole. In practice, it is difficult to establish whether such voluntaristic measures are enough to control population, 4) the developmental distributionist position sees low birth rates as resulting from modernization, including such factors as more equitable distribution of income and increased educational and social services. Pakistan's family planning program has undergone 3 major bureaucratic reorganizations and shifts in strategy consequent on changes in national leadership since services were 1st offered in 1965. Singapore's leadership has supported family planning actively and consistently since 1966, and the country's socioeconomic development has contributed to its remarkable fertility decline. A 1975 survey of 864 persons in Singapore and a 1981 survey of 584 persons in Pakistan included questions on opinions of the appropriate role of the state in population planning. In Singapore and Pakistan respectively, 31 and 17% felt that the government should have a strict role in controlling family size, 32 and 10% felt that the government should primarily provide advice and pass laws, 18 and 18% felt the government should provide advice only, 17 and 37% felt it should be left to the married couple, and 2 and 18% didn't know. The empirical evidence suggests that the political legitimacy of the state and public policies to promote distributive justice, are both more developed in Singapore than Pakistan, have significant influence on the degree of public acceptance of state intervention in family planning.
London, England, Population Concern, 1984 May. 64 p.This publication highlights some of the major popular misconceptions of population. It is divided into 5 sections: 1) population growth; 2) United Kingdom 3) food; 4) family size; and 5) planned parenthood. Misconceptions of population growth include lack of concern about birth rates, and poverty. It is unreasonable to assume that social and economic development will automatically curb the high levels of population growth in less-developed countries. Population policy should be formulated and implemented as an integral part of socioeconomic planning. In discussing Britain's population misconceptions, chart is used to show the ratio of numbers of children and old people to the working age population. Population matters in Britain are often presented as if population and the national economy were Siamese twins. There is anxiety that if the population stops growing the nation will somehow stagnate. Charts present total food production in the UK and imports and exports. Food concerns include hunger and an unequal distribution of food. World food production is presented along with food losses, and available food divided by the population. Total food production figures are given for the US and Canada, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Africa, Latin America, the Near East, Far East, Asian centrally planned economics, USSR and Eastern Europe, less-developed countries, and more-developed countries. Concerns about family size include the relationship of poverty to large families, child labor, effects of family composition on reproductive behavior, and infant mortality. Many people believe that reduction of infant mortality automatically leads to reduction in family size. Certain groups feel that women do not want fertility control programs, and that unsafe methods of contraception are being pushed at them--chiefly by men. The monograph includes many photographs.
Journal of Environmental Management. 1978 Jan; 14(1):35-44.The relationships between leaders' and citizens' income levels, citizens' sex, race, marital status, and employment status and their attitudes toward population growth within a context of regional water quality planning was examined. The relationship between leaders' and citizens' predispositions toward economic growth and environmental protection, and their attitudes toward population growth were also analyzed. The data were drawn from a 1976 survey of western New York State officials and citizens conducted by the Environmental Studies Center at the State University of New York at Buffalo. The survey results were used by officials of a regional, federally funded water quality planning operation as additional public input. The study indicates that a large majority of the public in the Niagara Frontier Region wanted to see the size of the population remain the same. In comparison, the areas leaders were more inclined to prefer increased growth. Sex was not associated with citizens' opinions on population growth, but citizens who were black, or married, or employed, and leaders and citizens with high incomes tended to prefer more economic and population growth. Leaders' and citizens' income levels were related to their predispositions toward growth. The data revealed that respondents who favored more economic growth, even if it means possibly harming the environment, also tended to prefer more population growth. The survey revealed that a large majority of western New York State's residents opposed the power of eminent domain (the right of the government to take away private land for a public purpose). Government must be able to exercise this power, in highway construction for example, so that the entire region can benefit. On this question the wise course would be for officials to ignore public opinion. Due to the local nature of this inquiry, care must be taken not to overgeneralize its findings. Yet, compared to the nationwide survey, there are advantages to a regional approach. If a regional survey project is closely linked to a specific planning operation, it can provide officials with valuable information during a programs' development stage. The data reported here can aid "208" water quality planners in western New York State to develop a population policy strategy that is acceptable to area residents as part of the final plan. From a representation standpoint, approaches like this in conjunction with traditional means of active citizen participation can bring the views of the uninterested but affected public into the planning process.
Paper prepared for Population Association of America Annual Meeting, Toronto, April 1972. 12 p. plus tablesAdd to my documents.
In: Godwin, R., ed. Comparative policy analysis: the study of population determinants in developing countries. Lexington, Massachusetts, D.C. Heath, 1975. p. 157-172During the past 20 years, which have been a period of change in the acceptance of fertility control, a number of public opinion surveys were conducted in many countries. While these studies were often limited by the methodology used, they may still be viewed as historical documents that are indicative of general social conditions, which may in turn be represented as a set of abstract variables. The techniques of scale analysis, multivariate analysis, and clustering are the tools appropriat e for this task; rank order of size or approximate order of magnitude is the result to be achieved. An example is given using 2 sets of multinational surveys, one by USIA and the other by CELADE.
[The problems connected with the unfulfilled wish to have children] Zur Problematik der unerfullten Kinderwunsche
Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft. 1983; 9(3):401-11.The advocates of a pronatalist policy use as their major point of argument that the true desire for children [is] greater than the actually prevailing number of children would indicate. Consequently, it should also be in the interest of society to remove the barriers which impede the realization of the wish to have children. The article deals with this contention in a critical manner and questions the correctness of the argument. It is suggested that the results of opinion polls relating to the desire for children convey false impressions and that in view of modern life-styles and goals, it is difficult to find reasons for having several children. "The author nevertheless advocates a general improvement in the situation of families who have several children. Although this should contribute only little to changes in today's reproductive behaviour, such a policy might after all in the long run still have a favourable influence on...values." The geographic focus of the paper is on the Federal Republic of Germany. (summary in ENG, FRE) (EXCERPT)
[Public opinion on the population problem and on policy orientations: results from a regional survey in the Netherlands] Opinies over het bevolkingsvraagstuk en daarop gericht beleid: een beschouwing en resultaten uit een Nederlands, regionaal onderzoek
Bevolking en Gezin. 1983 Sep; (2):227-54.Public opinion concerning population growth and population policy in the Netherlands is examined for the period 1960-1983. Aspects investigated include attitudes toward population growth and decline, the changing age distribution of the population, and policy measures such as tax incentives to encourage larger families and paid maternity leaves. Respondents are characterized according to educational status, age, number of children, and political preferences. (summary in ENG) (ANNOTATION)
Demografie Nidi. 1983 Oct; (51):7-10.The results of a survey of 952 adults in the Netherlands are presented. The survey focused on opinions concerning population developments. Topics covered include population trends, demographic aging, population policy, and quality of life. (ANNOTATION)