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JOURNAL OF SEX RESEARCH. 1998 Nov; 35(4):390-6.Using both national surveys and surveys of self-identified gay men in the United States, the numbers, age distribution, life expectancy, and marital status of men who have sex with men is examined. It is concluded that five types can be distinguished.... These five categories have different patterns of sexual behavior, and the numbers in each category are influenced by changing social conditions, in particular the growth of gay neighborhoods, and public tolerance. The typology is used to explain the low rate of reported HIV transmission from bisexual men to their female partners. (EXCERPT)
[Unpublished] 1989 Jan. ii, 60,  p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-3028-C-00-4079-00)Results and recommendations are presented from an island-wide survey of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and AIDS in Jamaica. In addition to providing broad baseline data for future studies of changes in KAP related to STDs and AIDS, the survey was conducted to examine the effect of earlier communication programs upon KAP, and family planning attitudes and practice. Researchers were specifically interested in the extent to which the image of the condom was affected as a family planning method and prophylactic. 1,200 interviews were completed for the survey. Findings are presented on the demographic and social characteristics of the sample; knowledge and awareness of STDs, AIDS, AIDS symptoms, and AIDS tests; impressions about AIDS cures; attitudes toward a person with AIDS; AIDS information sources; knowledge of measures to prevent or reduce the rick of contracting AIDS; perceptions of personal risk; changes in AIDS-related behavior; and the knowledge, image, use, and availability of condoms. Recommendations address the development of new revised media messages, education for the prevention of HIV infection, and the need to ensure the public of the safety of blood supplies in Jamaica. Interventions should be targeted to a broad audience, and efforts made to discourage fatalistic views on contracting HIV.
Attitudes towards demographic trends and population policy: a comparative multi-variate analysis of survey results from Italy and the Netherlands.
[Unpublished] 1987. Presented at the European Population Conference, 1987, Jyvaskyla, Finland, June 11-16, 1987. 18 p.The results of surveys of the attitudes toward current demographic trends and population policies conducted in Italy and Netherlands were compared. The Dutch and Italian surveys were comparable because their aims and parts of the questionnaire were similar, making it possible to analyze the common aspects. The Italian data were taken from a recent survey of the National Institute of Population Research. The survey population included all those of reproductive and marriageable age. 1503 interviews were conducted. The survey was initiated in November 1983 and terminated in February 1984. 952 people were interviewed in the Dutch survey, initiated in 1983. It comprised a representative 2-stage stratified random sample of the Dutch population aged 20-64 years. Both the Dutch and the Italians knew that the birthrate had been declining: 93% of the Italians and 63% of the Dutch. This trend was rated positively by 52% of the Italians and 46% of the Dutch. 52% of the Italian respondents and 58% of the Dutch wanted the population to remain stationary in the future. The 1st important difference was that in Italy the number of respondents who evaluated the birth decline negatively was about 2.5 times as high as in the Netherlands where there was a very high percentage of people who were indifferent to the problem--40% in the Netherlands, 10% in Italy. In Italy, 15% favored an increase in population size in contrast to 8% in the Netherlands. The respondents in both countries had clear ideas on the causes of the fertility decline, but the Italians generally had less set ideas than the Dutch. The economic crisis and the lack of confidence in the future were identified as the most important causes; in the Netherlands, women's work outside the home was considered to be more important than in Italy. In both countries, state intervention concerning fertility was rejected in the majority of cases--67% of the Italians and 81% of the Dutch. A 2-step elaboration was carried out for the identification of typologies of respondents. The Multiple Correspondence Analysis was carried out on 2 subjects: Knowledge and evaluation of current demographic trends; and the acceptance of population policies concerning fertility in relation to their perception of the falling birthrate. The analysis identified typologies of respondents with different levels of information and opinion towards population trends, and 4 clusters for Italy and 4 for the Netherlands were comparable. both the "pronatalist" and the antinatalist" respondents in both countries were, in general, well informed, and in both countries the "interventionists" were, in general, people with a low level of education.
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY. 1986 Mar; 91(5):1,154-69.The author uses 1980 survey data for the United States to test the hypothesis that "community size leads to heterogeneity in values and attitudes that compose the sets of cultural elements of a subculture....An independent size-heterogeneity relationship is found for political and sexual attitudes....It is concluded that community size does increase social heterogeneity, but, consistent with subcultural theory, the relationship is restricted to subcultural elements." (EXCERPT)
[Demographic aging and local activities. Study carried out at the request of and with the cooperation of the Authority for Resource Development and Regional Action (DATAR)] Vieillissement de la population et activites locales. Etude effectuee a la demande et avec le concours de la DATAR
Paris, France, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED], 1985. viii, 318 p. (INED Travaux et Documents Cahier no. 109)This study of the impact of demographic aging on local economic activities in rural France is based on fieldwork and analysis in 3 arrondissements selected for their geographic, demographic, and economic diversity: Saint-Girons in the Pyrenees, in which 40% of the population was aged 65 or over, Rochefort on the Atlantic Coast, a traditional attraction for retired persons, and Forcalquier in Provence, which had a higher rate of population growth in the study period than the other areas. The 1st part of the volume consists of a comparative analysis of the relationship between demographic aging and local economic activity in the 3 areas, and also analyzes the process of demographic aging. The 2nd part examines the viewpoints of local authorities and others interviewed personally and by mail concerning problems resulting from demographic aging. During the period under study, 1962-75, the trend toward population aging was always greater in rural than in urban areas, and the rural population showed a tendency to concentrate in specific zones rather than dispersing throughout the sparsely populated territory. The aging trend was more marked in the more urban communes of rural areas. In all 3 arrondissements, overall contractions in the economically active population were always due exclusively to the rural communes, and when there were increases in the active population they were stronger in urban than in rural communes. Only a minority of communes in the 3 arrondissements had increased activity rates between 1962-75. The total active population tended to become younger during the study period because of both the entry of younger workers and the departure of older workers. Women played a preponderant role in the labor force changes in all 3 arrondissements, and the role of agriculture became less important in all 3. Saint-Girons was, in the view of its inhabitants, the arrondissement most lacking in resources and services to assure a good quality of life. Decision makers in all 3 areas expressed a need for new economic activities to revitalize their communities, but few were in favor of increasing the population of elderly as an "activity". Demographic aging appeared to hamper local activity by rendering the affected areas inhospitable to innovation and renewal.
Italians' attitudes towards the births decline and the acceptance of a population policy concerning fertility
In: Contribution of Italian scholars to the IUSSP XX General Conference/Contribution des Italiens au XX Congres General de l'UIESP, Firenze, 5-12 giugno 1985. Rome, Italy, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, 1985. 125-42.This paper reports the results of a survey carried out in Italy in 1983-84 of attitudes and opinions concerning current demographic trends and population policy. The 1503 respondents answered questions on topics such as nuptiality, the image of marriage, life style changes, population structure, the causes and effects of the recent fertility decline, ideal and actual family size, birth spacing, and state intervention in population issues. 93% of respondents were aware that births have declined in the past 10 years, and most attributed this to economic factors. 52% of respondents indicated the fertility decline is a positive trend in light of socioeconomic factors such as unemployment and the housing crisis. In addition, 56% expressed the opinion that ideal family size in Italy (2.2 children) is congruent with actual family size. 67% of respondents indicated that the State should not interfere in any way in the reproductive behavior of Italian citizens. 26% favored intervention, either to increase (12%), maintain (8%), or decrease (6%) present fertility levels. In general, respondents equated state intervention in fertility with repression and violation of personal freedom akin to that which occurred under the fascist regime. The minority of respondents who were in favor of state intervention, either to increase or decrease fertility, expressed a preference for noncoercive measures such as public information campaigns and removal of economic barriers to parenthood. These results suggest that Italy's family policy should be based on democratic consensus and guarantee reproductive choice to couples without outside interference or reference to questions of national welfare.
Journal of Communication. 1985 Spring; 35(2):69-81.Diaspora Jewry is being diminished in numbers by intermarriage, assimilation, and a low birth rate. In Israel, the establishment has strongly pronatalist convictions and tends to see family planning as synonymous with promotion of the use of contraception to limit births. In 1978 and 1979, a series of programs entitled "It's Not A Children's Game" was broadcast on Israel's state-owned radio broadcasting system. The motto of the series was "to help families have as many children as they want, when they want them." Its goals were to give the public basic information about services and about various means of contraception or of fertility improvement. The letters to the radio station in response to these programs are analyzed in this study. Based on the form and content of the letters, one is able to derive information about the marital status, sex, residence, and religious observance of the letter writers and to classify them as primarily help-seekers or opinion-givers. Help-seeking letters were usually very clear and direct in their requests for help. The opinion-giving letters ranged from strongly negative to strongly positive about the program and the theme of family planning. These letters can provide insights about the specific group of people who sought information or help outside of their immediate surroundings. Thus, an analysis of the written responses to a radio series on family planning suggests that radio can offer a nonthreatening way to disseminate information on sensitive and controversial social issues, and that it is possible to tentatively identify subgroups with special needs.
American Journal of Public Health. 1985 Jan; 75(1):73-5.In this study of 1600 men ages 25-50 from semirural Guatemala, 3/4 had heard of vasectomy. Among these, 54% approved of it. However, the survey reveals a widespread lack of knowledge regarding the procedure, as well as negative perceptions or doublts about its effect on sexual performance, ability to do hard work, health, and manhood. 1/4 of the respondents who knew of vasectomy and who desired no more children expressed interest in having the operation, a finding which raises questions as to the potential (unrecognized) demand for vasectomy in other developing countries. (author's modified)
American Demographics. 1984 Jun; 6(6):18-23.A review of differences among religious groups in the United States is presented. The data are from the General Social Surveys conducted by the National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago. Consideration is given to differences in moral views, family values, attitudes, and class structure, as well as to differences in religious practices. (ANNOTATION)
Urban Indian attitudinal response and behavior related to family planning: possible implications for the mass communication program.
Journal of Family Welfare. 1968; 14:31-38.In 1967 the Indian Institute of Public Opinion conducted a survey of 837 males and 163 females in 11 urban areas obtaining attitudes towards family planning and personal and national concerns. All in the sample were literate, with 72% having completed secondary school. 94% had heard of family planning and believed it was necessary for India. 58% know the location of a family planning clinic. Of those with 2 children, 94% said they did not want any more while 53% reported ever having practiced family planning. The average number of desired children was 2.9. The survey indicated that the family planning program has been successful in communicating awareness of family planning but that there needs to be greater emphasis on the communication of the relationship of controlling family size to individual and national fears regarding well-being, and for creating an awareness of the importance of reducting the family size norm to 2 children regardless of sex.
Demography. February 1970; 7(1):53-60.A survey of 134 adult women, in a small and isolated American community, living in a limited-income family housing project suggests that the view of continued population growth as a problem is more strongly held than the view that the couple has a responsibility to limit its fertility because of overpopulation. Concern with population growth is only loosely associated with acceptance of the attitude of individual responsibility. Among subgroups of respondents, Catholics were more likely to hold a negative attitude toward population growth than to possess the individual responsibility view. They exhibited a correlation between the 2 attitudes. Protestants were distinguished by no difference in or correlation between the acceptance of the 2 attitudes. A correlation between the attitudes was especially pronounced among Catholics with high achievement values. The author suggests that measures explicitly intended to control population growth probably cannot be adopted until there is a strong correlation between the 2 attitudes.(Author's, modified)