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A summary of the findings from national omnibus survey questions about teen pregnancy conducted for the Association of Reproductive Health Professionals and the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.
Washington, D.C., National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 1997 May 2. 13 p.This report summarizes the findings of an omnibus survey of adults aged 18 or older and teenagers aged 12-17 on topics related to teen pregnancy in the US. This nationwide representative survey was conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates on behalf of the Association of Reproductive Health Professionals and the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. The survey aimed to ascertain the public's basic perceptions and attitudes about sexual activity and pregnancy among teenagers by asking four questions. These questions, annotated with results based on total respondents, and the demographic characteristics of each sample are contained in the appendix. In the results, many Americans (62%) stated that teens should not be sexually active, even if they take precautions against sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy. Moreover, a vast majority of the public believed that it is important for society to encourage teenagers to practice abstinence. Even though the majority of adults do not think teenagers should be sexually active, many also said that teens who are engaged in sexual activity should have access to contraception. It was further found out that most Americans have misperceptions about the number of teenage girls in the US who become pregnant before age 20.
[Qualitative study on the intrauterine device (IUD) in Morocco] Etude qualitative sur le dispositif intra uterin au Maroc.
Rabat, Morocco, Ministere de la Sante Publique, Direction de la Population, Programme de Planification Familiale, 1996 Nov. 80 p.Morocco s National Family Planning Program (PNPF) offers a range of contraceptive methods to its population and the Ministry of Public Health encourages the informed, voluntary choice of couples in contraceptive matters. However, the success of this approach depends upon the involvement of service providers to help people decide which contraceptive option is best for them. While the overall level of contraceptive prevalence rose from 20% in 1980 to 50% in 1995, a larger proportion of urban women compared to rural women use contraception, women use especially short-term methods, and there remains unmet need for family planning. Moreover, there exists a large gap between the level of contraceptive knowledge and method use. The IUD, introduced in Morocco in 1965, remains the second most widely used contraceptive method in the country behind the oral pill, at 4.3% and 32.2%, respectively. The PNPF plans to promote the IUD to both health professionals and the general population. This study examines the attitudes, behaviors, and perceptions of family planning service providers and the population with regard to the IUD. The goal was to identify rumors about the IUD, the population s expectations, the competence levels of service providers, and the quality of services. Relations between service providers and the population were also evaluated.
PASSAGES. 1990 Summer; 10(2):1-3.Both others and young men themselves perceive boys and young men as being mischievous and interested only in sex from girls. These perceptions need to change in the interest of fostering male reproductive health. Several health service and education agencies have realized that a significant factor in the lack of male involvement in reproductive health decisions is that men have been excluded from the planning of relevant programs and services. Furthermore, there is only little information on the feelings and needs of young men. Programs which focus upon the many aspects of boys' lives will tend to be more successful than those which focus only upon their reproductive capacities. Programs which collaborate with families and other community resources help boys learn appropriate male roles and manly behavior, including the need to become fathers only at the proper, chosen point in their lives. New approaches to meeting young men's needs in New York, Africa, Mexico, and Costa Rica are described.
In: Redefining security: population movements and national security, edited by Nana Poku and David T. Graham. Westport, Connecticut, Praeger, 1998. 187-201.This chapter analyzes the process by which cross-border migration in Sweden has developed into a security issue. The analysis is contextualized broadly within the current globalization process.... The chapter also raises the question of what kind of national security a democratic state like Sweden should strive for. When the linkage between migration and security is analyzed academically, a common hypothesis is that a securitization of migration discourse--that is, a change in the official migration discourse of a state--is more likely to precede the securitization of the migration policy--that is, changes in the migration policy of the entity.... This chapter argues that the development of the link between migration and security in Sweden has been the other way around--security as a policy making act preceded the speech act. (EXCERPT)
DAEDALUS. 1995 Summer; 124(3):209-18.`Refugees' has long been the only category of immigrants for which Sweden has had any policies. Traditional immigration, in which men and women enter a foreign country in search of jobs or other social or economic goods, has for all practical purposes ceased to exist in Sweden. The clash between policies and opinions--in this instance between political myth and social realities--has become a matter of great importance. (EXCERPT)
SOCIAL SCIENCE QUARTERLY. 1997 Jun; 78(2):249-68.The specific purposes of this paper are (1) to develop a portrait of the recent major migration flows to the United States, (2) to assess their implications for the racial/ethnic composition of the U.S. population, and (3) to examine the economic context in which they have occurred. Our general goal is to try to explain not only why recent migration flows have come to be negatively perceived, but also why they appear increasingly to be seen as violating the prevailing sense of social contract in the United States. The authors conclude that "devising immigration policies that are fair as well as sensitive to their environmental, developmental, trade, and foreign-policy implications may prove difficult unless the public sense of economic security increases enough to strengthen what appears to be an increasingly fragile sense of social contract." (EXCERPT)
Family Planning Perspectives. 1997 Mar-Apr; 29(2):70-5.A 1994-95 survey of men and women aged 18-44 years in the US, Canada, and the Netherlands revealed considerable differences in public knowledge and perceptions about unplanned pregnancy and contraception. The proportion who believe that unplanned pregnancy is a "very big problem" is 60% in the US, 36% in Canada, and 6% in the Netherlands. Americans are more likely than their Canadian or Dutch counterparts to cite societal problems as significant factors in the rate of unplanned pregnancy; higher proportions of Americans also cite the cost of contraceptives (52% vs. 46% of Canadians and 34% of the Dutch) and an inability to obtain methods (66%, 51%, and 33%, respectively). In all three countries, adults are generally well informed about the relative effectiveness of commonly used contraceptives, but Americans are more skeptical about method safety and effectiveness. For example, 17% think the pill is "very safe," compared with 21% of Canadians and 40% of the Dutch; and whereas 64% of Americans consider the pill "very effective," 73% of Canadians and 90% of the Dutch give it this rating. Health care professionals are the most frequently cited source of contraceptive information, but only 51-63% of adults have ever discussed contraception with such a practitioner. (author's)
Cairo, Egypt, Wafai and Associates, 1993 Dec. , 52 p.In 1993 in 5 areas of Egypt, in-depth interviews were conducted with polluters, victims of pollution, concerned individuals, and specialists, so that researchers could better understand what Egyptians think about environmental pollution, particularly water pollution. The findings will be used to develop a film about environmental pollution. Most Egyptians understood the definition of environment. Polluters denied that water pollution was a problem. Farmers said that water pollution destroys their key source of income, the land. Adverse effects of water pollution noted by farmers included illness (e.g., schistosomiasis and kidney problems), crop failure, and reduced agricultural productivity. Strong groups of fishermen on the Nile keep unpolluted areas of the river full of fish for their own use. Many fishermen claimed that rich Egyptians with the support of the government pollute the Nile with public sewage. Many fishermen and farmers also used the water to dispose of their own wastes. Many explained their acts of pollution as having no choice. Farmers tended to use polluted Nile water to irrigate their crops because it is free and the cost of using clean, underground water is prohibitive. Some of the most polluted areas are Bahr Elbaqar and Zomor Lake in Giza and several areas in Damietta. Most of those interviewed considered industrial disposal to be the major cause of water pollution. Farmers and fishermen did not feel a duty to the environment until tragic consequences of pollution (e.g., death due to water-related illness) occur. Apparent determinants of industrial pollution were limited resources and inadequate funding. Everyone proposed solutions to water pollution. The government is implementing efforts to curb pollution but few people know about them. All those interviewed agreed that greater awareness of the pollution problem is needed and that current regulations and enforcement are too lenient. Most considered TV to be the best channel to raise awareness. Muslims were more likely to mention the relationship between water and religion than were Christians. Most of those interviewed considered the Nile to be the best water resource in the world.
[Unpublished] . 155 p. (Communication for Action)In preparation for a social mobilization response to the goals outlined in the "Presidential Declaration of a Decade for the Protection and Development of the Egyptian Child, 1989-99" and the "World Summit for Children," a baseline study was conducted in 1990 to assess communicators' knowledge and perceptions of basic child care issues. Mini-rapid studies were conducted with six groups of personnel in a position to influence public opinion: mass media professionals (230), health professionals (225), members of active nongovernmental organizations (160), educators (224), religious leaders (123), and public figures (41). The questionnaire included basic health knowledge, perceptions of general problems facing Egyptian society, several attitude scales, and 6 different modules addressed to each of the groups. The majority of communicators identified Egypt's economic situation and population explosion as the most pressing social issues. Knowledge about child health issues, especially oral rehydration therapy, was generally inadequate for the needs of the child survival campaign. The mean knowledge score was 17.35 out of a maximum of 24, with health workers scoring highest and public officials lowest. Electronic mass media were ranked as most influential for disseminating health messages. Although health workers have the most direct contact with families, they were not perceived by other influentials as a major source of information because of their lack of training in communication. The importance placed on economics and population growth suggests that child welfare advocates should relate campaign messages to these issues, e.g., the impact on the economy of improved maternal-child health.
ACTA UNIVERSITATIS CAROLINAE: GEOGRAPHICA. 1993; 28(1):73-85.The author reports on a 1991 survey in the Czech and Slovak Republics "concerning the attitudes towards demographic tendencies, family formation and population-related policies....The objective was to gain a better knowledge of the opinions and perceptions of the Czech and Slovak populations on these matters, as well as the demands to the government arising from society, both regarding its present position on the subject and its future responsibilities." Sections are included on family formation, the meaning of parenthood, and family policy and fertility intentions. (SUMMARY IN CZE) (EXCERPT)
[Unpublished] 1991. Presented at the Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, Washington, D.C., August 5-7, 1991. 32 p.Brazil's National Survey of Maternal-Child Health and Family Planning, conducted in 1986 as part of the international program of Demographic and Health Surveys, consolidated and extended the findings of 9 previous state-level surveys. This work outlines the impact of survey data on Brazil's private sector family planning organizations, donor agencies, the press and opinion leaders, and the federal government and legislators. The finding of the survey that the rate of contraceptive usage among women aged 15-44 married or in union was much higher than expected at 65.4%, initially suggested that the family planning organizations and donors had completed their tasks, but more careful scrutiny pointed up serious problems. Family planning problems identified in the survey included low levels of knowledge and use of contraception in the impoverished northeast and among groups with low levels of income and education; a very high proportion of users (80%) of just 2 methods, oral contraceptives (OCs) and female sterilization; low rates of use of other effective and reversible methods; a large number of unnecessary caesareans performed only to give the woman access to sterilization services, with fully 72% of sterilized women undergoing the procedure during a cesarean delivery; low average age (31.4 years) of sterilization acceptors and low parity of a substantial proportion; use of pharmacies to obtain supplies by over 93% of OC users and OC use at inappropriate ages; low male participation in family planning; and lack of family planning services for adolescents. The survey demonstrated the reality of family planning in Brazil and prompted a rethinking of the aims and goals of family planning programs. Many aspects of maternal-child health and sexual and reproductive health in addition to provision of contraceptives should be included in a high quality family planning program. The survey findings did not completely resolve all the polemics and controversies that have beset the family planning program in Brazil, but they helped dispel some charges against the program. For the most part, only the most strongly ideological opponents have remained unmoved.
The cultural meaning of AIDS and condoms for stable heterosexual relations in Africa: recent evidence from the local print media.
[Unpublished] 1989 Mar. Paper presented at the Seminar on Population Policy in Subsaharan Africa: Drawing on International Experience, sponsored by the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP), Committee on Population and Policy, with the collaboration of Departement de Demographie de l'Universite de Kinshasa, Commission Nationale de la Population du Zaire (CONAPO), Secretariat au Plan du Zaire, held at the Hotel Okapi, Kinshasa, Zaire, 27 February to 2 March 1989. 27 p.This paper draws on the authors previous research experience in Liberia and Sierra Leone, and articles in local newspapers and journals from Central, Eastern and Western Africa. To research the AIDS epidemic in terms of: 1) problems for fertility that condoms pose 2) the association of condoms with promiscuity 3) economic pressures that induce women to contract lovers and men to enter polygamous relationships 4) the importance of fertility and 5) the association of AIDS with promiscuity. There is great concern for the uninfected children of parents who die of AIDS. Women are generally being blamed for spreading the HIV virus to their partners and being promiscuous making all her children suspicious as products of illicit unions. The father and his kin often repudiate these offspring. Questions are raised as to where these children will go and, what is the economic and social effect of their geographical mobility? Young women, school girls in particular, now comprise one of the groups at high risk for contracting the HIV virus because private schools expose girls to older, wealthier, married men. Parents may begin growing reluctant to send their daughters to school to avoid the AIDS virus, while encouraging them to marry early, leading to higher fertility rates and low interest in contraception. Yet secondary schools are the best arenas to introduce condoms and AIDS education because the girls are highly motivated. The use of condoms in Africa is controversial because they prevent fertility and suggest promiscuity. 2 major philosophies are common among health manpower: 1) minimizing the demographic impact of AIDS in light of continued high fertility rates, or 2) emphasizing the crisis brought on by death and destruction. Government efforts to publicize the AIDS epidemic and the utility of condoms as a prophylactic are doing the greatest service to women and society by providing them with credible elements of ambiguity and deniability.
Social Science and Medicine. 1989; 29(4):545-53.This article addresses the high incidence of AIDS in Puerto Rico (PR). Reasons include the high incidence of homosexuality and drug usage on the island, and the high rates of return migration and tourism between New York and PR. Since there is very little material on AIDS in PR, much of the data on the public's knowledge and awareness of the disease has been taken from the daily press. All copies of the 5 major daily newspapers were reviewed from January 1981 to the present. 1981 was the 1st year that AIDS was accepted as a disease, the year the 1st medical articles appeared describing it, and the year it was named. Nearly all information regarding the AIDS epidemic in PR has been turned into major controversies: the incidence of the disease (actual cases), testing for it, funding of AIDS research and patient care, methods of preventing the disease (education), the use of condoms, methods of contacting the disease and how infection can be avoided, and protection of prisoners. The victims of AIDS: the homosexuals, drug addicts, and hemophiliacs were left out of the controversies as participants. The controversies were nonmedical and nonscientific, suggesting that the public perceived insufficient interest on the part of medical and political leaders and was expropriating the problem. AIDS was seen as more of a political question than a medical one, with politicians turning the controversies into debates. It can be concluded that unless a strong apolitical socially organized assault is mounted on AIDS by the people, a society such as PR will have difficulty surviving the epidemic.