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Patrifocal concerns in the lives of women in academic science: continuity of tradition and emerging challenges.
Indian Journal of Gender Studies. 2003 May-Aug; 10(2):279-305.This paper examines the social milieu of women academic scientists, parental influence in decision making in regard to the career of their daughters, parents’ expectations, importance of marriage and the criteria involved therein. The support of parents and spouse are vital for the success of women scientists. Nevertheless, the “dual burden” has an impact on professional work, and the consequent redefinition of “success” is clearly a product of patrifocal social structures and ideology. (author's)
Paris, France, Universite de Paris I, Institut de Demographie de Paris [IDP], 1988 May. 68 p. (Travaux et Recherches de l'IDP No. 1)This is a collection of papers originally presented in May 1988 at a conference on children and families, organized by the Institute of Demography at the University of Paris. Papers are included on demographic indicators of the family in France in censuses and family surveys; the child and family from historical, sociological, and demographic perspectives; and public opinion on the current state of the family in France. Results from a recent survey on attitudes toward marriage and family formation are also provided. (ANNOTATION)
The cultural meaning of AIDS and condoms for stable heterosexual relations in Africa: recent evidence from the local print media.
[Unpublished] 1989 Mar. Paper presented at the Seminar on Population Policy in Subsaharan Africa: Drawing on International Experience, sponsored by the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP), Committee on Population and Policy, with the collaboration of Departement de Demographie de l'Universite de Kinshasa, Commission Nationale de la Population du Zaire (CONAPO), Secretariat au Plan du Zaire, held at the Hotel Okapi, Kinshasa, Zaire, 27 February to 2 March 1989. 27 p.This paper draws on the authors previous research experience in Liberia and Sierra Leone, and articles in local newspapers and journals from Central, Eastern and Western Africa. To research the AIDS epidemic in terms of: 1) problems for fertility that condoms pose 2) the association of condoms with promiscuity 3) economic pressures that induce women to contract lovers and men to enter polygamous relationships 4) the importance of fertility and 5) the association of AIDS with promiscuity. There is great concern for the uninfected children of parents who die of AIDS. Women are generally being blamed for spreading the HIV virus to their partners and being promiscuous making all her children suspicious as products of illicit unions. The father and his kin often repudiate these offspring. Questions are raised as to where these children will go and, what is the economic and social effect of their geographical mobility? Young women, school girls in particular, now comprise one of the groups at high risk for contracting the HIV virus because private schools expose girls to older, wealthier, married men. Parents may begin growing reluctant to send their daughters to school to avoid the AIDS virus, while encouraging them to marry early, leading to higher fertility rates and low interest in contraception. Yet secondary schools are the best arenas to introduce condoms and AIDS education because the girls are highly motivated. The use of condoms in Africa is controversial because they prevent fertility and suggest promiscuity. 2 major philosophies are common among health manpower: 1) minimizing the demographic impact of AIDS in light of continued high fertility rates, or 2) emphasizing the crisis brought on by death and destruction. Government efforts to publicize the AIDS epidemic and the utility of condoms as a prophylactic are doing the greatest service to women and society by providing them with credible elements of ambiguity and deniability.
[Natality and family models in Council of Europe countries and in France] Natalite et modeles familiaux dans les pays du Conseil de l'Europe et en France.
REVUE FRANCAISE DES AFFAIRES SOCIALES. 1987 Jan-Mar; 41(1):113-30.The author compares public opinion on fertility and family issues in selected European countries using responses to a 1986 opinion survey conducted for the Council of Europe. Consideration is given to attitudes concerning fertility levels and family size, fertility decline, family policies, employed women and family life, family formation, marriage, cohabitation, and divorce. Discrepancies between attitudes and observed behavior are noted; similarities in opinion among the countries are described in terms of family and fertility norms. In addition to the tables of comparative data, several tables contain data for France alone.
DEMOGRAPHISCHE INFORMATIONEN. 1986; 7-21, 144.The authors study illegitimacy, its historical roots, and variations in the frequency of illegitimate births in three regions of Austria. They discuss historical centers of illegitimate births, social traditions, benefits available to unwed mothers, and differences in regional attitudes toward illegitimacy. Changes in marriage patterns and illegitimacy by administrative district are also discussed (SUMMARY IN ENG) (ANNOTATION)
Italians' attitudes towards the births decline and the acceptance of a population policy concerning fertility
In: Contribution of Italian scholars to the IUSSP XX General Conference/Contribution des Italiens au XX Congres General de l'UIESP, Firenze, 5-12 giugno 1985. Rome, Italy, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, 1985. 125-42.This paper reports the results of a survey carried out in Italy in 1983-84 of attitudes and opinions concerning current demographic trends and population policy. The 1503 respondents answered questions on topics such as nuptiality, the image of marriage, life style changes, population structure, the causes and effects of the recent fertility decline, ideal and actual family size, birth spacing, and state intervention in population issues. 93% of respondents were aware that births have declined in the past 10 years, and most attributed this to economic factors. 52% of respondents indicated the fertility decline is a positive trend in light of socioeconomic factors such as unemployment and the housing crisis. In addition, 56% expressed the opinion that ideal family size in Italy (2.2 children) is congruent with actual family size. 67% of respondents indicated that the State should not interfere in any way in the reproductive behavior of Italian citizens. 26% favored intervention, either to increase (12%), maintain (8%), or decrease (6%) present fertility levels. In general, respondents equated state intervention in fertility with repression and violation of personal freedom akin to that which occurred under the fascist regime. The minority of respondents who were in favor of state intervention, either to increase or decrease fertility, expressed a preference for noncoercive measures such as public information campaigns and removal of economic barriers to parenthood. These results suggest that Italy's family policy should be based on democratic consensus and guarantee reproductive choice to couples without outside interference or reference to questions of national welfare.
[Reversal of trends--or change of attitudes? Attitudes on marriage and parenthood of 18- to 28-year-old German women in 1978 and 1983] Wende--oder Einstellungswandel? Heiratsabsichten und Kinderwunsch 18- bis 28jahriger deutscher Frauen 1978 und 1983
Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft. 1985; 11(1):89-110.Changing attitudes toward marriage, consensual unions, and family formation in the Federal Republic of Germany are analyzed using data from surveys carried out in 1978 and 1983 among German women aged 18-28. Each survey included 1,000 women in first marriages and 1,000 single women. The findings, which reveal clear differences between the two birth cohorts, indicate increasing acceptance of consensual unions and a decreasing tendency to marry; however, they also indicate a trend toward a more pro-natalist orientation. A comparison with data from a longitudinal study "suggests that the differences between the women interviewed in 1978 and those interviewed in 1983 are less cohort-specific, but rather due to external factors of the social context which gained significance between the spring of 1982 and the autumn of 1983." (summary in ENG, FRE) (EXCERPT)
International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 1983; 21(4):440-462.Add to my documents.