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Your search found 14 Results

  1. 1

    Guidelines for activating opinion leaders in population communications.

    Bangladesh. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting

    Dacca, Bangladesh, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, April 1977. 41 p.

    Reports on a survey conducted to identify the formal and informal opinion leaders as perceived by the people of Bangladesh, and to assess their attitude towards family planning. Findings indicate that the contraception practice rate among opinion leaders is significantly higher than the average, and it is recommended that specific orientation and training in the skills of interpersonal and group communication be arranged for them to effect a transfer of motivation to the people in their locality. Also established is the fact that obstacles to family planning due to religious belief is more a function of the leaders' perception of people's attitude than a function of reality. Opinion leaders fail to identify population as the root problem, so that family planning education should be structured around the felt problems of food, unemployment, poverty, and so forth. The need for a greater degree of husband-wife communication about family planning is indicated, as well as a change in the traditional status of women. A family planning program with an incentive-disincentive aspect should be deemphasized. Finally, the survey reveals that the local leadership is not yet ready to take major responsibility in family planning communication.
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  2. 2

    [Experience of the Centre de Djoliba in the campaign] Experience du Centre de Djoliba en matiere de lutte.

    Kone VM

    In: Seminaire Sous-Regional sur l'Excision. Theme: Echanges Sous-Regionaux et Strategies Combinees, Ziguinchor du 29 au 31 Janvier 1996. Rapport final. Ziguinchor, Senegal, Enda-ACAS, 1996 Feb. 60-4.

    The promotion of women at the Djoliba Center was first established in 1981 in communes V and VI of Bamako district. In 1983, the center responded to a request to help eradicate the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM). The different phases of the struggle since that year, the intervention strategy, results obtained, difficulties encountered, and perspectives on the future are discussed. Neither the general public nor most of Mali s medical body is ready to directly consider the subject of FGM. On the other hand, information and education sessions on the topic have encouraged populations, popular beliefs, and political and health leaders to not treat FGM as a taboo topic. The use of simple materials adapted to raise awareness is recommended. Attitudes are changing on FGM and people must now decide whether it makes sense to perpetuate a custom that so affects the lives of the people who undergo it. In order to eradicate FGM, information and awareness campaigns must be strengthened. The Djoliba Center is increasingly solicited by organizations and international and national organizations for training and education assistance in a number of areas.
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  3. 3

    Religion and roll-call voting in Idaho. The 1990 abortion controversy.

    Witt SL; Moncrief G

    In: Understanding the new politics of abortion, edited by Malcolm L. Goggin. Newbury Park, California, Sage Publications, 1993. 123-33.

    This document is the seventh chapter in a book which provides a framework for considering the "new" politics of abortion in the US (created when the Supreme Court gave states more leeway in regulating access to abortion) and the second of four chapters in a section devoted to an exploration of conflict in a variety of institutional settings. This chapter analyzes the legislative behavior of politicians in Idaho during a 1990 abortion controversy caused by the passage and veto of bill H625 which would have created the most restrictive abortion law in the US. In this study, the unit of analysis was the individual legislator and the dependent variable was the vote. Independent variables were the legislator's gender, party affiliation, and religion and the legislative district's religious composition. After an introduction, the chapter describes the Bill and its legislative journey from its introduction on February 9th to its veto on March 31st. The literature on legislative decision-making is reviewed to explain that this vote can be categorized as an "abnormal" decision based on factors which differ from the norm. It was found that 41/46 members of the Mormon church, 21/59 Protestants, and 10/20 Catholics voted for H625. The pro-choice position was supported by 65% of the female and 36% of the male legislators and by 26/39 Democrats but only 27/86 Republicans. In the subsequent 1990 election, the primary sponsor and author of the Senate version of the bill and the Senate Majority Leader were defeated by pro-choice women. The sponsor won reelection in 1992 after promising not to pursue abortion legislation. Anti-abortion groups have indicated that they will again seek legislation to restrict abortion rights if a pro-life governor is elected in the state.
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  4. 4

    Ascertaining the user perspectives on community participation in family planning programme in Thailand.

    Soonthorndhada A; Buravisit O; Vong-Ek P

    [Bangkok], Thailand, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, 1991 Dec. [8], 132 p. (IPSR Publication No. 156)

    A study of community members, family planning program staff and managers, community-based distributors (CBDs), and local leaders in 4 regions of Thailand was undertaken to determine the extent to which community members are willing to participate in family planning programs, and which activities they prefer. 400 married women aged 15-44, 100 of their spouses, with a contraceptive prevalence rate of 69% taken equally from 12 villages, 16 CBDs from 12 communities, 69 village leaders divided into 1 focus group per village, and 17 staff were interviewed from May to July 1989. 5 variables that determine attitudes were measured: sociocultural norms for participatory behavior, values and beliefs underlying norms, institutionalized participatory behavior, government policies, and the family planning program. Some of the responsibilities open for participatory activity were promotion of family planning in the community,k educating potential users, target-setting, selecting, paying, training and supervising CBDs, record keeping, storing commodities, identifying potential acceptors, and transportation to clinics. Staff and CBDs considered community participation a valuable strategy. Community members considered participation attractive if it were perceived as beneficial to the community. They liked the idea of having services locally, but showed some doubts about the competence of CBDs. They expressed hesitancy about participating in such a personal realm as family planning. Most thought that program staff would be better able to do IEC work. Community members would consider participating in transportation to clinics, selection of CBDs, identification of acceptors, and referral to clinics. Community members were strongly motivated to work in collective, social activities. Managers wanted to make community people more self-reliant and cooperative. No one wanted community participation to duplicate current programs, or to pass program expenses on to localities.
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  5. 5

    Smoking and health in China [letter]

    Tomson D

    Lancet. 1987 Aug 15; 2(8555):394.

    I have questioned 1000 people in 4 sample populations in China about their attitude to and knowledge of health information on smoking and about smoking habits. I then interviewed 50 people from this sample in greater detail. I also studied past smoking control efforts in China. Greater attention must be given to health education in schools and to young people. Smoking is common among schoolchildren and, and at least in Guangzhou, Canton, health education about smoking appeared limited. Of 250 schoolchildren only 40% reported exposure to health education. Smoking is banned in schools and the attitude seemed to be that there was therefore no need for education about the dangers. On the other hand, 70-80% of the whole sample seemed aware that smoking is harmful to health. Thus there is a need to increase not only the level of health education but also its sophistication, so that the gap between health knowledge and behavior can be closed. Attention must be given to women's attitudes to smoking. Generally I found a small proportion of female smokers (a study in Tianjin excepted), and the impression at interview is that smoking among women is considered impolite or "not done." Add this to the fact that women were more aware of the dangers of smoking (77% of 286 females vs 63% of 701 males, with 62% of women saying smoking was "very" harmful compared with 37% of men) and the potential for using women as health educators becomes apparent. The increasing understanding of passive smoking and the fact that women are usually the casualties might also be useful ammunition in this context. However, there may be competition for the attention of women--'Slim Kings' aimed specifically at the female market, have already been introduced into Hong Kong. 1 of the most important elements in any approach to smoking control must be an attempt to influence public policy. The history of government China is 1 of sporadic initiatives originally formulated by a joint committee involving several departments (public health, finance, agriculture, and light industry), but more recently only involving the Department of Public Health. Some action has been taken but a question mark remains over the strength of political will. Many factors operate against a reduction in cigarette production, which earned the state $6 million in 1984. Remarks by a representative of the State Tobacco Company suggest enthusiasm for increased production and more joint ventures with the multinational tobacco companies. Both British American Tobacco and Reynolds are now working in China, and the Canton Biannual Trade Fair and Grand Prix Tennis Tournament were sponsored by tobacco companies. I recently revisited China after 2 years and was struck by the volume and increasing sophistication of advertising and by the continuing cheapness of cigarettes which are now sold by increasing numbers of private entrepreneurs. Deregulation of the market and farmland may encourage increased tobacco production. These are all worrying developments for the "antismokers", who will need all the determination Sir John Crofton talks of to help them push forward a multipronged attack on the smoking pandemic and the vested interests that support it. (full text)
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  6. 6

    Television tackles a taboo.

    Gorney C

    WASHINGTON POST. 1987 Feb 3; E1, E8.

    This newspaper feature story documents how the major U.S. television networks are breaking their self censorship of mentioning contraception and sexual responsibility in programs and advertisements. The first direct screening of word "condom" occurred on the series "Cagney and Lacey" in January 1988, followed by screening an image of a condom package on "Valerie" in February. At the same time, some stations are broadcasting tasteful 15-second ads for condoms. Phrases used in these ads included "for all the right reasons," and "I'll do a lot for love...but I'm not ready to die for it." It is likely that the threat of AIDS has prompted the revolutionary airing of the forbidden word during family viewing hours. The public response, particularly that of educators, has been largely favorable, although a Catholic spokesman complained that the ads encourage illicit sex purely to enlarge market share of condom markers. Five references to the value of sexual responsibility were cited on prime time shows in recent months. The vice president of CBS said that the network was trying to do anything that would help prevent AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases. They have permitted no reference to practice of contraception in programming so far, even though characters are frequently shown in sexually explicit situations.
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  7. 7

    AIDS, Africa, and academics [letter]

    Klopper A; Fisk NM

    Lancet. 1987 Sep 5; 2(8558):575.

    Dr. Seaman (Aug. 8, p. 339) expresses his concern at Edinburgh and Glasgow Universities' advice to medical students not to undertake electives in certain African countries for fear of HIV infection. To this sad list must now be added the University of Aberdeen, which has included staff visiting these countries in respect of academic interests in their "very strong advice", and has produced a waiver for staff to sign. As Dr. Greenwood points out (June 13, p. 1374) the risk of acquiring AIDS during a trip to Africa as a result of emergency treatment with infected instruments or blood is remote; much more so than the health and travel risks to which students and staff are exposed in other elective activities. 2 issues seem clear to us--1 medical and the other academic. It is a contradiction of professional ethics that doctors (either those in the making or the finished article) should shrink from the sick. The academic judgment is more open to question. Many of us believe that by being members of a university we belong to a wider community of learning than is encompassed by our local campus, a community to which we owe an obligation as teachers. We feel a commonality of purpose and a duty to our colleagues in the universities of Africa. It is a remarkable coincidence that such controversial adviceshould have been issued simultaneously by 3 of the 4 Scottish medical schools. It is a pity that the Aberdeen advice was distributed during vacation time when few were available to benefit from the instruction and when an adequate response to it could not be organized. Perhaps the deans of the medical shools concerned should write to The Lancet to explain their stand and state how they expect members of their universities to respond to academic invitations from, for example, Uganda, Zambia, Kenya, Nigeria, and The Gambia, all countries with which we in this department have academic connections. To ask us to ostracize our colleagues in Africa is a serious matter. It marks a profound departure in university attitudes and policy. (full text)
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  8. 8

    Immunization in Nigeria: public awareness is inadequate [letter]

    Chiwuzie JC

    WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1986; 7(2):165.

    The Expanded Program on Immunization has proved to be the most cost-effective public health scheme yet undertaken in Nigeria, as it costs very much less to prevent diphteria, pertussis, tetanus, measles, poliomyelitis and tuberculosis than it does to cure them. About US$5 are sufficient to fully immunize a child against all these diseases, allowing for a nurse's salary, vaccines, syringes, cold chain equipment, and all other items. This is about 5% of the cost of treating a child with any one of the diseases (and the child could still die). It is quite possible to achieve a high level of immunization initially, but maintaining a satisfactory level is more difficult. Consistent government support, and public awareness of the importance of immunization, are vital for the success of any immunization scheme. Because the attitudes and understanding of mothers to immunization are crucial, we interviewed 575 women of childbearing age in Bendel State, 320 of whom had failed to complete or had not even started the immunization of their children. The replies of the latter group (in table) show that for maximum gains to be made from the Expanded Program on Immunization, which receives strong financial support from the Nigerian authorities, as well as from the WHO and the UN Children's Fund, community education and the mobilization of mothers have to be stepped up. This becomes even more obvious when it is realized that the women in this study had received some form of health education in antenatal clinics, infant welfare clinics, general practice clinics, and immunization centers. This group represents less than 25% of women of childbearing age in Nigeria: over 75% in most rural areas and in improverished urban areas have no access to modern health facilities. Consequently, there is a need to create and sustain public and official support, and to induce a widespread demand for immunization. (full text)
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  9. 9

    Public policy and public opinion toward sex education and birth control for teenagers.

    Reichelt PA


    Government policy toward provision of sex education and contraception for adolescents is influenced by public opinion. This is reflected in the fact that recent program formulation appears to follow the conventional wisdom of a general conservative shift among the American public; i.e., recent policy toward adolescent pregnancy is conservative in the sense of being reactive rather than preventive. The validity of this conventional wisdom was checked by examining available data on public opinion toward sex education and birth control services for teenagers. However, these data reveal an upward, not a downward, trend in public approval of such services for adolescents, which runs counter to the conventional wisdom. The available data on American opinions and values demonstrate that the overall movement in attitudes decisively contradicts the idea of a simple conservative swing. Provision of more and better contraceptive services and sex education to teenagers is an important policy goal that would lower the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and would be supported by the American people. (author's modified.)
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  10. 10

    Interview with Mr. Morkeh-Yamson, Public Relations Co-ordinator, National Population Census Secretariat.

    Popleone. 1985 Aug; 2(3):8-11.

    In an interview, Morkeh-Yamson, the public relations coordinator for the National Population Census Secretariat (Sierra Leone) stated that the success or failure of any population census depends ultimately on the cooperation of the public to respond willingly to the questionnaire. To realize this, the census publicity strategy must be directed towards educating the population on the need for and the benefits which would result from the 1985 National Population Census. Sierra Leone's publicity program is aimed at motivating the general public for maximum cooperation during the enumeration. The publicity campaign has been structured to cover the various target groups, with program content designed to meet the perceived requirements of each group. At the public relations level, contacts have been established with most of the important institutions in the country. At the level of the masses, the basic effort has consisted of public meetings, street campaigning, and film shows at which the census message is conveyed. In the province, it is effective to operate at the grassroots level, through the paramount chiefs and chiefdom authorities. The school publicity program works to involve all the secondary schools. On return to their respective schools, teachers are expected to explain and disseminate the census message in some organized form to their students. In addition, there has been wide press and radio coverage of census activities. At this stage it is rather presumptuous to make any definite pronouncement as to the effectiveness of the publicity strategy, but there are indications that the campaign is progressively achieving its goals in terms of evoking popular support at the grassroots level. During the last 4 days of May 1985 the Census Secretariat carried out a pilot census in 57 specially selected enumeration areas covering the entire country. The objective was to test certain aspects of the modalities of the census operation, including the effectiveness of the publicity campaign. The degree of support and cooperation revealed by the favorable reaction of most of the respondents to the census questionnaire suggests that the publicity strategy is achieving results. In answering the question of how much success has been achieved in correcting the negative attitudes toward the census exercise, Morkeh-Yamson reported that instances of negative attitudes toward the census have been minimal. He also indicated that a serious handicap in the publicity campaign is the inadequacy of the national radio coverage and that more vehicle and mobile cinema vans are needed. Morkeh-Yamson urged readers to cooperate with the census and to help create awareness about the census so that other people also would cooperate.
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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    Radio and family planning in Israel: letters to broadcasters.

    Shtarkshall R; Basker E

    Journal of Communication. 1985 Spring; 35(2):69-81.

    Diaspora Jewry is being diminished in numbers by intermarriage, assimilation, and a low birth rate. In Israel, the establishment has strongly pronatalist convictions and tends to see family planning as synonymous with promotion of the use of contraception to limit births. In 1978 and 1979, a series of programs entitled "It's Not A Children's Game" was broadcast on Israel's state-owned radio broadcasting system. The motto of the series was "to help families have as many children as they want, when they want them." Its goals were to give the public basic information about services and about various means of contraception or of fertility improvement. The letters to the radio station in response to these programs are analyzed in this study. Based on the form and content of the letters, one is able to derive information about the marital status, sex, residence, and religious observance of the letter writers and to classify them as primarily help-seekers or opinion-givers. Help-seeking letters were usually very clear and direct in their requests for help. The opinion-giving letters ranged from strongly negative to strongly positive about the program and the theme of family planning. These letters can provide insights about the specific group of people who sought information or help outside of their immediate surroundings. Thus, an analysis of the written responses to a radio series on family planning suggests that radio can offer a nonthreatening way to disseminate information on sensitive and controversial social issues, and that it is possible to tentatively identify subgroups with special needs.
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  12. 12

    The pill on trial.

    Kistner RW

    American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. April 15, 1971; 109(8):1118-1127.

    The 1970 Nelson Committee hearings were held to determine whether Pill users were properly told about the side effects and suspected complications. The author charges the Committee hearings of sensationalizing adverse results of the Pill, causing 18% of all U.S. users to stop this treatment and another 23% to seriously consider quitting. A survey following the Nelson hearings showed 97% of the 13,000 U.S. obstetricians and gynecologists questioned believed oral contraceptives to be medically acceptable. The Scowen report of England (1970) said the Pill is the best contraceptive available, and the low-estrogen pill (50 mcg) is the safest. Because of the relationship of the pill to thromboembolism brought out by Nelson hearings oral contraceptives now must carry a health warning, and the result of the Scowen Committee will most likely encourage doctors to prescribe low dosage estrogen pills.
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  13. 13

    Overcoming cultural and psychological barriers to vasectomy.

    Bertrand JT

    [Unpublished] 1982. Presented at the Conference on Vasectomy, Colombo, Sri Lanka, October 4-7, 1982. 13 p.

    There are 2 general types of barriers to vasectomy acceptance, cultural and individual. Cultural barriers include: 1) the idea that contraception should be the woman's responsibility, 2) that vasectomy represents a tampering with the natural processes of reproduction and this conflicts with many religions, 3) there is confusion over the legal status of vasectomy even though very few countries actually prohibit it, 4) the idea that men, due to their higher status in many societies, should not be exposed to unnecessary risks, 5) the idea that men who are not capable of reproducing have no worth in society, and 6) that men may need to be able to reproduce at a future date since in many societies only men are permitted to remarry. Research on psychological barriers to vasectomy is based on followup studies of vasectomized men and shows that negative male attitudes toward vasectomy stem from negative perceptions about the nature of consequences of the operation. Some men feel that vasectomy is like castration, that it is painful, has demasculinizing effects, causes a loss of vitality, and is irreversible. The population must be educated in order to overcome these barriers. Any communication program must include: 1) identifying existing sources of motivation for vasectomy, 2) increasing awareness of vasectomy through mass media and interpersonal channels, 3) increasing awareness through wider availability of the operation, and 4) improving the public attitude by publicizing client satisfaction with the operation. Men should be encouraged to seek vasectomy for the intrinsic benefits of the operation.
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  14. 14

    Informational barriers to contraception.

    Allgeier AR

    In: Byrne D, Fisher WA, ed. Adolescents, sex and contraception. Hillsdale, New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1983. 143-69.

    Focusing on informational barriers to contraception, this discussion reviews legal barriers, research on sexual and contraceptive knowledge, and sex education in the future. The effects of accurate information about sexuality and contraception on the recipient's behavior have been the subject of an ongoing debate in the US over the last 2 centuries. Proponents of sex education base their argument on the assumption that people will make rational decisions about their sexual behavior if they are adequately informed about sexuality. At the other end of the spectrum are those who believe that sexual information will lead to experimentation. The courts and legislatures have been the chief arbitrators of this debate. The battle has waxed and waned between the opponents and proponents of sex education, but it appears that the advocates of sex education have been gradually overcoming their opposition. Discussion includes a brief overview of this struggle. Of direct concern to the problems addressed in this volume was the enactment of Public Act No. 226 which was passed by the Michigan legislature on November 30, 1977. This law culminated a long battle to have contraception included among the topics taught in sex education courses in the state of Michigan. The legal barriers to sex education have, in large part, been removed, yet there is still no widespread movement toward sex education in the schools. The majority of states have adopted a variety of formal positions in relation to sex education. The most popular approach appears to be the issuing of formal guidelines on the subject. For many sexologists, the material that has been excluded by these guidelines would undermine the effectiveness of sex education. Teaching of birth control methods is frequently forbidden. A national survey conducted for the Commission on Obscenity and Pornography revealed that a clear majority of citizens favor sex education in the schools. Sex education programs in public schools was approved by 58% of the men and 54% of the women, with an additional 13% of men and 16% of women giving a qualified approval. Although the preferred source of information was parents, the most common actual source was peers. There are a number of plausible explantions for the lack of parent child communication about sex, including "benign neglect," incest taboo, and socialization. Formal sex education can change attitudes about sexuality. The evidence at this point allows for 2 general conclusions: a lack of sexual/contraceptive knowledge does not inhibit sexual activity; and a lack of sexual/contraceptive knowledge can inhibit contraceptive behavior.
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