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South African Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2006; 12(1):16, 18.The past 10 years have seen major advances in health care policy and services that support sexual and reproductive rights in South Africa. Significant milestones include the legalisation of termination of pregnancy (TOP) and the provision of free public sector services for maternal and child health (MCH) and contraception. At the same time the HIV epidemic has expanded rapidly during the last decade, and today an estimated 29% of women of reproductive age (15 - 49 years) in South Africa are HIV-infected. Despite these parallel developments, little attention has been paid to the way in which advances in sexual and reproductive rights in South Africa are extended to HIV-infected individuals. (excerpt)
In: Enquete Demographique et de Sante, Mauritanie, 2000-2001, [compiled by] Mauritania. Office National de la Statistique, [and] ORC Macro. MEASURE DHS+. Nouakchott, Mauritania, Office National de la Statistique, 2001 Dec. 185-208.Force-feeding, a practice existing almost exclusively in Mauritania, involves forcing young girls to eat large amounts of food in order to become fat and, in keeping with Mauritanian society’s cultural values, pretty and ready to marry. Force-feeding occurs in response both to this society’s perception of beauty and the desire to manifest the social status of a woman’s family, since obesity is a sign of family wealth. Old Mauritanian society valued excessive obesity to such an extent that a social proverb argued women occupied a place in the heart equal to their volume. However, the Mauritanian government is now trying to organize population awareness campaigns upon the adverse effects upon women of force-feeding. Beyond affronting women’s rights, and in addition to the suffering induced by force-feeding itself, this practice has adverse consequences upon women’s entire lives, including eventual problems with mobility, social participation, and higher risks of morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease. Results of the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) conducted in Mauritania during 2000-01, are presented upon the knowledge and practice of force- feeding, as well as related opinions and attitudes.
International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 2000; 38(6):103-33.South Africa prides itself on having one of the most progressive constitutions in the world. The Bill of Rights guarantees a host of basic political, cultural, and socioeconomic rights to all who are resident in the country. Yet there have been persistent reports that citizen intolerance of non-citizens, refugees, and migrants has escalated dramatically since 1994. This article documents this process through presentation of results of national public opinion surveyed by the Southern African Migration Project. The surveys show that intolerance is extremely pervasive and growing in intensity and seriousness. Abuse of migrants and refugees has intensified, and there is little support for the idea of migrant rights. Only one group of South Africans, a small minority with regular personal contact with non-citizens, is significantly more tolerant. These findings do not augur well for migrant and refugee rights in this newly democratic country, or early acceptance of the UN Convention on the protection of migrant workers. (author's)
JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH. 1991 Aug; 61(6):279-80.Despite strong protests from a minority group of critics, the New York City Board of Education adopted a measure February 27, 1991, approving universal availability of condoms in city high schools to students without the need for parental consent. This expanded HIV education program allows the system's 261,000 students in 120 public high schools to procure condoms from any of 17 clinics and any teacher or staff member volunteering for the program. While a few, small U.S. school districts have implemented such programs in efforts to curb the incidence of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases infections, and unwanted pregnancies, this move by New York city's enormous school district could set the trend for similar action by other large school systems. The Centers for Disease Control document 691 cases of AIDS in youths aged 13-19, and 7,303 among those aged 20-24. More than 20% of U.S. AIDS cases are among those aged 20-29. Given the long incubation period for HIV, many if not most of these case probably stem from HIV infection during the teenage years. New York City accounts for 20% of all reported AIDS cases among youths aged 13-21, placing New York teens at disproportionate risk for infection. The number of infected adolescents doubles every 14 months. More than adults, these youths are likely to have contracted HIV through heterosexual contact instead of through IV-drug use or homosexual intercourse. Making condoms readily and confidentially available to adolescents, youths vulnerable to HIV infection will no longer fail to procure them due to embarrassment, fear of resistance from store clerks, and cost. The Youth News Service reveals youths to have been most supportive of the new program for several months, and anxious for its implementation. A random poll of adults found support for condom distribution in high schools and junior high schools to be 64% and 47%, respectively.
St. Paul, Minnesota, Greenhaven Press, Inc., 1988. 223 p. (Opposing Viewpoints Series)This book presents opposing viewpoints on AIDS issues such as its seriousness, its control ability, civil rights, governmental response, and its effects on society. The design of this book is to encourage critical thinking on the topic. The 1st chapter debates the vulnerability of society to AIDS. From the writings in this chapter, it appears that no consensus is reached concerning the seriousness of AIDS. The 2nd chapter discusses the need to control the transmission of AIDS. >1.5 million people are infected with the HIV virus, and about 5 million people are estimated to be carriers of the disease. Means of control debated in this chapter include education, mandatory testing, and illegalizing homosexuality. The issue of civil rights and controlling AIDS is presented in chapter 3. On one side, it is debated that controlling for AIDS promotes discrimination against AIDS patients. However, the opposing view argues that control is needed through legal measures, restrictions, and behavioral changes. Chapter 4 addresses the government's response to AIDS. Problems encountered by the government include assessing AIDS' impact on society and its sexual transmission. The last chapter discusses ways in which AIDS has affected our society. As a result of AIDS, sexual behavior has changed and the number of deaths have risen.
INTERNATIONAL QUARTERLY OF COMMUNITY HEALTH EDUCATION. 1988-89; 9(2):111-24.This retrospective examination looks at the strengths and weaknesses of anti-sterilization abuse organizing in the US, and draws out lessons for other areas of work. It begins by exploring the problem of sterilization abuse and the history of the movement against it. Theoretical concepts of community organizing, such as, the concept of community and the concept of movement, are defined and discussed. Issue selection and strategy, 2 crucial aspects of any successful organizing effort, are examined as are organizational forms and coalition building. An evaluation indicates that the anti-abuse efforts were successful and rich with lessons for reproductive rights and other popular health struggles today. (Author's modified)