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JOURNAL OF SEX RESEARCH. 1998 Nov; 35(4):390-6.Using both national surveys and surveys of self-identified gay men in the United States, the numbers, age distribution, life expectancy, and marital status of men who have sex with men is examined. It is concluded that five types can be distinguished.... These five categories have different patterns of sexual behavior, and the numbers in each category are influenced by changing social conditions, in particular the growth of gay neighborhoods, and public tolerance. The typology is used to explain the low rate of reported HIV transmission from bisexual men to their female partners. (EXCERPT)
WORLDAIDS. 1992 Jan; (19):10.White, U.S. homosexual males were primarily affected in the early stages of the AIDS pandemic. Some Western researchers argued, however, that the syndrome originated in Africa. Strong political and social response to this notion resulted in only an anemic response to the growing AIDS epidemic in Nigeria. Nonetheless, the Stop AIDS Organization finally launched the Motor Park AIDS Education Program (MPAEP) in 1988, for health and education outreach to populations at risk of STDs and HIV infection. Specifically targeted are long-distance truck drivers, their young male assistants known as motor boys, and the barmaids, prostitutes, and homeless juveniles who frequent motor parks where these drivers rest while on the road. Many of these long-haul drivers have unprotected casual and commercial sex, both homosexual and heterosexual, take drugs, and suffer high rates of STDs. Marginalized, 75% illiterate, and speaking a variety of languages, these populations tend to be largely ignorant of the incurable nature of AIDS. Over 45% of motor park populations are estimated to be infected with an STD, or to have a future re-infection. These drivers are optimal vectors for the spread of HIV both internationally and within Nigeria. MPAEP workers work 6 days/week in the larger interstate motor parks to reach out to their predominantly male customers. They meet a host of primary health needs, and refer STD clients for testing and treatment. Drug use and homosexuality are 2 topics of discussion especially taboo in African society which have nonetheless been vigorously researched by MPAEP. Many drivers are unacknowledged bisexuals who have sex with their motor boys. Workers therefore explain the need to use condoms in same-sex activity without specifically mentioning homosexuality. Many Nigerians deny the existence of HIV and AIDS, are reluctant to speak about sex, and consider MPAEP workers to be intruders. Despite opposition in Muslim- dominated Northern Nigeria, however, program efforts continue.
AIDS ACTION. 1991 Sep; (15):4.Bombay has a teeming and mobile, yet comparatively invisible, population of approximately 600 male prostitutes who ply their trade on and from Chowpatty beach. These men, aged 12-50 years, masturbate and/or perform fellatio for male clients in exchange for financial reward ranging from US$0.75 - $2. Unprotected penetrative anal sex also takes place, though it is generally not acknowledged by the prostitutes. These men and their clients are therefore in great need of information and access to condoms for the practice of safer sex. Both self- and social denial of the practice of anal sex must, however, be overcome. To this end, Bombay Dost, the 1st openly gay organization in India, distributes condoms and information to gay men on railway platforms, and in public toilets and parks. These efforts are unfortunately not welcomed by the prostitutes of Chowpatty beach for fear that acceptance of the intervention would imply their practice of anal sex and a more substantial degree of homosexuality within their subpopulation. Recruiting and training men as health educators from their ranks may be a viable, effective promotion approach. Any interventions must also understand the friendly and supportive, yet competitive, relationships within this community.