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Alliance News. 2001 Dec; (12): p..Increasing attention is being paid to the role of stigma as a major contributory factor in the global HIV/AIDS pandemic. Stigma associated with HIV/AIDS is especially powerful and pervasive because the disease is usually closely associated with such fundamental issues as life and death, sex and sexuality, and morality. (excerpt)
Dacca, Bangladesh, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, April 1977. 41 p.Reports on a survey conducted to identify the formal and informal opinion leaders as perceived by the people of Bangladesh, and to assess their attitude towards family planning. Findings indicate that the contraception practice rate among opinion leaders is significantly higher than the average, and it is recommended that specific orientation and training in the skills of interpersonal and group communication be arranged for them to effect a transfer of motivation to the people in their locality. Also established is the fact that obstacles to family planning due to religious belief is more a function of the leaders' perception of people's attitude than a function of reality. Opinion leaders fail to identify population as the root problem, so that family planning education should be structured around the felt problems of food, unemployment, poverty, and so forth. The need for a greater degree of husband-wife communication about family planning is indicated, as well as a change in the traditional status of women. A family planning program with an incentive-disincentive aspect should be deemphasized. Finally, the survey reveals that the local leadership is not yet ready to take major responsibility in family planning communication.
Ascertaining the user perspectives on community participation in family planning programme in Thailand.
[Bangkok], Thailand, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, 1991 Dec. , 132 p. (IPSR Publication No. 156)A study of community members, family planning program staff and managers, community-based distributors (CBDs), and local leaders in 4 regions of Thailand was undertaken to determine the extent to which community members are willing to participate in family planning programs, and which activities they prefer. 400 married women aged 15-44, 100 of their spouses, with a contraceptive prevalence rate of 69% taken equally from 12 villages, 16 CBDs from 12 communities, 69 village leaders divided into 1 focus group per village, and 17 staff were interviewed from May to July 1989. 5 variables that determine attitudes were measured: sociocultural norms for participatory behavior, values and beliefs underlying norms, institutionalized participatory behavior, government policies, and the family planning program. Some of the responsibilities open for participatory activity were promotion of family planning in the community,k educating potential users, target-setting, selecting, paying, training and supervising CBDs, record keeping, storing commodities, identifying potential acceptors, and transportation to clinics. Staff and CBDs considered community participation a valuable strategy. Community members considered participation attractive if it were perceived as beneficial to the community. They liked the idea of having services locally, but showed some doubts about the competence of CBDs. They expressed hesitancy about participating in such a personal realm as family planning. Most thought that program staff would be better able to do IEC work. Community members would consider participating in transportation to clinics, selection of CBDs, identification of acceptors, and referral to clinics. Community members were strongly motivated to work in collective, social activities. Managers wanted to make community people more self-reliant and cooperative. No one wanted community participation to duplicate current programs, or to pass program expenses on to localities.
HEALTH FOR THE MILLIONS. 1991 Aug; 17(4):20-3.Until recently, the only sustained AIDS activity in India has been alarmist media attention complemented by occasional messages calling for comfort and dignity. Public perception of the AIDS epidemic in India has been effectively shaped by mass media. Press reports have, however, bolstered awareness of the problem among literate elements of urban populations. In the absence of sustained guidance in the campaign against AIDS, responsibility has fallen to voluntary health activists who have become catalysts for community awareness and participation. This voluntary initiative, in effect, seems to be the only immediate avenue for constructive public action, and signals the gradual development of an AIDS network in India. Proceedings from a seminar in Ahmedabad are discussed, and include plans for an information and education program targeting sex workers, health and communication programs for 150 commercial blood donors and their agents, surveillance and awareness programs for safer blood and blood products, and dialogue with the business community and trade unions. Despite the lack of coordination among volunteers and activists, every major city in India now has an AIDS group. A controversial bill on AIDS has ben circulating through government ministries and committees since mid-1989, a national AIDS committee exists with the Secretary of Health as its director, and a 3-year medium-term national plan exists for the reduction of AIDS and HIV infection and morbidity. UNICEF programs target mothers and children for AIDS awareness, and blood testing facilities are expected to be expanded. The article considers the present chaos effectively productive in forcing the Indian population to face up to previously taboo issued of sexuality, sex education, and sexually transmitted disease.