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Nairobi, Kenya, Program for Appropriate Technology in Health [PATH], Scouting for Solutions, 2006 Oct.  p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. GPO-A-00-05-00009-00)Scouting for Solutions is a five-year project that aims to prevent the spread of HIV and AIDS by promoting health sexual behavior amongst Scouts in Kenya and Uganda, including the promotion of abstinence until marriage, fidelity in marriage, and monogamous relationships. The project, funded by the US Agency for International Development, is being implemented by the US-based nongovernmental organization PATH, in conjunction with national Scouts associations in Kenya and Uganda. By 2009, the project with reach as estimated 325,000 girls and boys aged 12-15 years with intensive and repeated HIV prevention strategies and health promotion activities. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., Advocates for Youth, 2005.  p. (The Facts)The Responsible Education about Life (REAL) Act, formerly the Family Life Education Act, would provide federal money to support responsible sex education in schools. This education would include science-based, medically accurate, and age appropriate public health information about both abstinence and also contraception. Representative Barbara Lee (D-CA) and Senator Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ) introduced the REAL Act in Congress (H.R. 2553 and S. 368). (excerpt)
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 2006 Nov; 160(11):1151-1156.The objective was to examine US public opinion on sex education in schools to determine how the public's preferences align with those of policymakers and research scientists. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: July 2005 through January 2006. Participants: Randomly selected nationally representative sample of US adults aged 18 to 83 years (N=1096). Main Outcome Measures: Support for 3 different types of sex education in schools: abstinence only, comprehensive sex education, and condom instruction. Approximately 82% of respondents indicated support for programs that teach students about both abstinence and other methods of preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Similarly, 68.5% supported teaching how to properly use condoms. Abstinence-only education programs, in contrast, received the lowest levels of support (36%) and the highest level of opposition (about 50%) across the 3 program options. Self-identified conservative, liberal, and moderate respondents all supported abstinence-plus programs, although the extent of support varied significantly. Our results indicate that US adults, regardless of political ideology, favor a more balanced approach to sex education compared with the abstinence-only programs funded by the federal government. In summary, abstinence-only programs, while a priority of the federal government, are supported by neither a majority of the public nor the scientific community. (author's)
Comprehensive sex education: strong public support and persuasive evidence of impact, but little funding.
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 2006 Nov; 160(11):1182-1184.The article by Bleakley et al strong evidence that a very large majority of adults in this country supports comprehensive sex education programs that teach about abstinence and also other methods of preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease, whereas only a minority of adults supports the teaching of only abstinence. These results build on numerous somewhat similar surveys that have been conducted for decades demonstrating such support. Indeed, as long ago as 1943, the Gallup Poll found that 68% of adults approved of sex education in schools. By 1985, that support had increased to 85%. Furthermore, for decades these polls have demonstrated that adults want the instruction to include both abstinence and condoms and other methods of contraception. Notably, this support is not limited to only certain parts of the country; similar polls in more conservative southern states, such as North Carolina, South Carolina, and Texas, have demonstrated strong support for programs that encourage abstinence but also encourage the use of condoms and other contraceptives among those who do have sex. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, .  p.There is reason to be concerned about adolescents having sex at an early age. Early sexual activity has been linked to a greater number of sexual partners over time and an increased risk of both teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In addition, the younger a girl is the first time she has sex, the more likely it is that the experience was unwanted. The information in this fact sheet, collected from nationally representative data sets and public opinion surveys, provides some insights into the sexual attitudes and behavior of young adolescents. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Putting What Works to Work, 2004 Feb.  p. (Science Says No. 7)Who most influences teens' decisions about sex? Do parents or peers matter more? Should society strongly encourage adolescents to abstain from sexual intercourse? What do adults and teens think about topics such as contraception, virginity, and the influence of the media? Understanding Americans' attitudes about these topics helps point to strategies for addressing teen pregnancy prevention. To that end, the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy commissions annual surveys of adults and adolescents seeking answers to these and related questions. This Science Says brief summarizes some of the key findings from the National Campaign's 2003 survey. Data in this brief are drawn from the publication, With One Voice 2003: America's Adults and Teens Sound Off About Teen Pregnancy. The surveys were conducted via telephone in August and September 2003 with over 1,000 adults (aged 20 and over) and 1,000 adolescents (aged 12--19). All results are considered nationally representative. See the methodology section below for more information on how these surveys were conducted. (excerpt)
Asia-Pacific Population Journal. 2004 Dec; 19(4):3-5.The debate between the protagonists of the Condoms, Needles and Negotiating Skills (CNN) and the Abstinence, Be Faithful and Use Condoms (ABC) approaches could go on forever. It is time for the proponents on each side to put aside their differences and begin working together to address the HIV/AIDS pandemic. To claim that either approach is superior to the other is to fail to recognize the potential benefits that each approach can have for various individuals, communities and cultures. We must recognize that all individuals are different. It is therefore foolish to limit ourselves by this "either-or" way of thinking. (excerpt)
Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms International, 1990. xv, 279 p. (Order No. 9023517)The determinants of family size preferences and traditional child-spacing practices in West Africa were examined. The working hypothesis is that there is a difference in the locus of control over decisions about family size in contrast with the locus of control in decision about traditional child spacing practices. While individual women perceive a powerful cultural and religious pressure for continued childbearing, nevertheless they have considerable flexibility in determining length of breastfeeding and postpartum abstinence. Data were from the World Fertility Surveys of Senegal (1978), Cote d'Ivoire (1990), Ghana (1979), and Cameroon (1979). An empirical analysis defined socioeconomic, cultural and institutional factors of ethnic groups, and ethnographic descriptions were also consulted. First multiple regression analysis, then REML/Bayesian multilevel estimation were employed. Economic modernization had an impact on desired family size, limited to the elite classes. Societies with higher gender inequalities have larger desired family sizes; while those where female status is high have greater individual control over childbearing, so that modernization has more impact over costs and benefits of fertility. Because the locus of control regarding desired family size is external, neither Islamic religion nor kinship ties have a significant effect on desired family size. In contrast, traditional spacing practices of women at all economic levels were affected by modernization: all reduced length of breastfeeding and abstinence, with larger impacts on the lower classes. Matrilinear/double descent societies have shorter durations of breast feeding than patrilinear societies. There was no difference in length of breast feeding between Islamic and non-Islamic societies. In societies where female status is high, economic modernization is a more important determinant of desired family size, but inequalities were less important regarding child-spacing. The results were discussed in terms of the adverse effect of modernization in Western Africa on population growth rate and maternal and child health.
A study of contraceptive drop-outs in Lesotho: using focus groups to determine causes of discontinuation.
[Unpublished] . , 36,  p.Focus groups of married women aged 25-40 from Lesotho who has used contraception for at least 3 months, but discontinued within the last 12 months, were conducted in 1989 to learn reasons for discontinuation. Groups had 3, 5, 6, and 9 participants, and other groups of staff were also held. In warm-up discussion topics it was learned that Basotho families desired families of 2-6 children; that men wanted the maximum number of children and believed that family planning promoted promiscuity in wives; that most people believed in spacing births and practiced traditional methods to do so, primarily breastfeeding and abstinence. Women liked injection because they can be used without husband's knowledge, and do not require daily medication or constant resupply. Misinformation was common on all methods, and lists of examples are included for each method. Some of the many reasons for discontinuing were real or impugned side effects. Many women complained of vaginal wetness (which was also a reason for accepting contraception). Many also accepted and others stopped to keep husbands at home. High cost of pills and exams was a reason cited. Program-related reasons were long lines at clinics and unavailability and brand-switching by the clinics. Staff focus groups identified several characteristics among drop-outs: husbands disapproved of contraception; negative rumors used to pressure women; inadequate counseling on side effects; pressures from in-laws and husbands to have more children. Screening out of potential drop-outs was not considered a viable policy. Staff groups suggested that the government emphasize IEC campaigns for men, the public and private doctors, and maintain supplies of the same brands of contraceptives at its clinics.