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Your search found 11 Results

  1. 1

    The U.S. International AIDS Policy.

    Miller N

    AIDS and Society. 1991 Jan-Feb; 2(2):4.

    In fact, an integrated policy has not occurred for one basic reason: in the United States, public policy follows public opinion, and public opinion is driven at least in part by media exposure. The issue of AIDS has been seen as a domestic tragedy that has beset homosexuals and I.V. drug users. Only as AIDS has begun to affect new-born children, adolescents and heterosexuals, and only as the cost of AIDS has exploded, has broad concern crystalized. Even so, international AIDS is removed from the consciousness of most Americans. It can be argued that only when television coverage of third world suffering children and sick and dying mothers reaches the living rooms of America will an integrated strategy emerge. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Contraceptives and minors: the emperor has no clothes.

    Radosh A


    The rate of teenage pregnancy in the US is significantly higher than in any other industrialized nation. Studies have shown the teenagers in other countries are not more sexually active. The biggest difference between US and the rest of the industrialized world is the US failure to make contraceptives easily available to teenagers. There are only 2 ways to prevent teenage pregnancy: 1) get them to shop having sex, or 2) get them to use contraceptives. When forming policy it is important to know which method will be more successful. Policymakers, educators, and health professionals are all guilty of rationalizing why option 1 will work better than option 2, even though their is little or no research or anecdotal evidence to support their claim. The facts are clear: in other industrialized countries the more freely available contraceptives are to teenagers, the lower the pregnancy rate. In New York City, 840 condoms were distributed in just 4 months upon request to participants in a male responsibility discussion group. Nationwide 2000 teenage boys were sent a coupon for free condoms by mail and 6% returned their coupons (the normal rate of return would be 3%). A 1988 study revealed that condom usage between 1979-88 among 17-19 year old males in metropolitan areas doubled. A 1987 Harris poll found that 60% of all adults favored condom advertising on television. A 1989 follow-up study revealed that 89% of parents of adolescents favored condom advertising on television. The most common reason given for not increasing access to contraceptives is that teenagers will receive the wrong message. Another fear is that parents will complain, yet in the 2000 condom coupon example, less than 1/3 of 1% of the parents complained. Is the rest of the industrialized world giving their teenagers the wrong message by making contraceptives easily available? Clearly, US policy against contraceptive access for teenagers is giving the worst message and the high teenage pregnancy rate is the best evidence.
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  3. 3

    The uneasy case for a national law on abortion.

    Correia EO

    AMERICAN PROSPECT. 1991 Spring; (5):84-90.

    The abortion debate is currently in a period of transition as in moves from the courts to the legislative branches. All across the country, state legislatures are reviewing their abortion laws and many are preparing to enact restrictions. Congress may be a good avenue to ensure abortion rights by passing national legislation. There is a risk involved because all legislation is passed through a process of compromise and the pro-choice side should be very careful about what they give up in the process. It is possible that concessions will have to be made that previously would never have been considered. Further, if the national legislation gives away too much, it will restrict states that want to ensure liberal access to abortion. Attempts to arrive at a compromised minimum level, may be too low to ensure the protection of many women. To illustrate the variety of issues involved with abortion legislation, the support of certain justifications for abortion varies greatly. In a 1990 National Opinion Research Center poll, 89% approved of abortion to save the life of the mother, 81% in cases of rape, 78% if there was a strong chance of birth defect, 43% if the woman is married and does not want any more children, 43% if the woman is single and does not want to marry the man, and 42% if she wanted an abortion for any reason. In a time magazine survey, 69% of the people agreed with the idea that even in cases where they thought in immoral to have an abortion, the government should not have the right to prevent her from having it. Also, 69% of the people agreed that if a state does institute restrictions, it should not be judges or government officials, but rather the women's doctor who decides if the abortion should be restricted.
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  4. 4

    Catholicism and the economics of fertility.

    Sander W

    [Unpublished] 1991. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Washington, D.C., March 21-23, 1991. 15, [16] p.

    The effect of Catholicism on fertility in the US is examined. Data came from the National Opinion Research Center's General Social Survey, 1973-1989. Asserting that many such studies are fundamentally flawed by failing to understand and account for fertility norm differences between ex-Catholics and new Catholics, and whether or not he or she is of current Catholic status are considered. Theoretical economics and religion as related to fertility are discussed. Assuming out-migrants from Catholicism to have lower than average interest in childbearing, and in-migrants to have higher than average interests, current status as Catholic inflates an already positive effect on fertility. The study also found Catholic norms to have a highly significant positive effect on fertility for respondents born, prior to 1920. Fertility variations after that period are weakly related to Catholic upbringing. The US fertility transition is claimed to be partly due to changing Catholic fertility norms, and the direct effect of women's earnings has been possibly overestimated by economists. Challenging the strength of women's earnings as a factor affecting fertility trends, it is suggested that economic variables most likely affect norms which in turn affect fertility. Estimates calculated are presented in tabular format.
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  5. 5

    Using age at first union to explain the relationship between cohabitation and divorce.

    Cohen BA

    [Unpublished] 1991. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Washington, D.C., March 21-23, 1991. [25] p.

    Experience in the US and in other industrialized nations indicates that cohabitors are more likely to value individual freedom and nontraditional sex roles and are less likely to bear and raise children. These values and practices may lead to an increased risk of marital disruption. Incorporating an additional variable, the effect of age at 1st union on subsequent marital stability was examined based upon data from 13,017 male and female interviewees 19 years of age and older sampled in the 1987-88 National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH). The hypothesis tested predicts that higher rates of marriage dissolution are due to age at 1st union not age at marriage, differential attitudes, or other selection effects. Results show that differences between cohabitors and noncohabitors in the incidence of marriage dissolution are minimal when using age at 1st union. Cohabitors still display a higher percentage of divorces than noncohabitors. Members of the 25 and older cohorts of cohabitors have a lower percentage of divorces when controlling for union instead of total marital duration. For couples beginning their union prior to 1975, comment was made regarding an independent effect of cohabitation on marital dissolution due to changes in social norms and attitudes on cohabitation and divorce.
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  6. 6

    [The impact of the DHS survey in Brazil] Impacto de la pesquisa DHS en el Brasil.

    Arruda JM

    [Unpublished] 1991. Presented at the Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, Washington, D.C., August 5-7, 1991. 32 p.

    Brazil's National Survey of Maternal-Child Health and Family Planning, conducted in 1986 as part of the international program of Demographic and Health Surveys, consolidated and extended the findings of 9 previous state-level surveys. This work outlines the impact of survey data on Brazil's private sector family planning organizations, donor agencies, the press and opinion leaders, and the federal government and legislators. The finding of the survey that the rate of contraceptive usage among women aged 15-44 married or in union was much higher than expected at 65.4%, initially suggested that the family planning organizations and donors had completed their tasks, but more careful scrutiny pointed up serious problems. Family planning problems identified in the survey included low levels of knowledge and use of contraception in the impoverished northeast and among groups with low levels of income and education; a very high proportion of users (80%) of just 2 methods, oral contraceptives (OCs) and female sterilization; low rates of use of other effective and reversible methods; a large number of unnecessary caesareans performed only to give the woman access to sterilization services, with fully 72% of sterilized women undergoing the procedure during a cesarean delivery; low average age (31.4 years) of sterilization acceptors and low parity of a substantial proportion; use of pharmacies to obtain supplies by over 93% of OC users and OC use at inappropriate ages; low male participation in family planning; and lack of family planning services for adolescents. The survey demonstrated the reality of family planning in Brazil and prompted a rethinking of the aims and goals of family planning programs. Many aspects of maternal-child health and sexual and reproductive health in addition to provision of contraceptives should be included in a high quality family planning program. The survey findings did not completely resolve all the polemics and controversies that have beset the family planning program in Brazil, but they helped dispel some charges against the program. For the most part, only the most strongly ideological opponents have remained unmoved.
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    AIDS update. Condom availability in New York City schools.

    Kerr DL

    JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH. 1991 Aug; 61(6):279-80.

    Despite strong protests from a minority group of critics, the New York City Board of Education adopted a measure February 27, 1991, approving universal availability of condoms in city high schools to students without the need for parental consent. This expanded HIV education program allows the system's 261,000 students in 120 public high schools to procure condoms from any of 17 clinics and any teacher or staff member volunteering for the program. While a few, small U.S. school districts have implemented such programs in efforts to curb the incidence of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases infections, and unwanted pregnancies, this move by New York city's enormous school district could set the trend for similar action by other large school systems. The Centers for Disease Control document 691 cases of AIDS in youths aged 13-19, and 7,303 among those aged 20-24. More than 20% of U.S. AIDS cases are among those aged 20-29. Given the long incubation period for HIV, many if not most of these case probably stem from HIV infection during the teenage years. New York City accounts for 20% of all reported AIDS cases among youths aged 13-21, placing New York teens at disproportionate risk for infection. The number of infected adolescents doubles every 14 months. More than adults, these youths are likely to have contracted HIV through heterosexual contact instead of through IV-drug use or homosexual intercourse. Making condoms readily and confidentially available to adolescents, youths vulnerable to HIV infection will no longer fail to procure them due to embarrassment, fear of resistance from store clerks, and cost. The Youth News Service reveals youths to have been most supportive of the new program for several months, and anxious for its implementation. A random poll of adults found support for condom distribution in high schools and junior high schools to be 64% and 47%, respectively.
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  8. 8

    The abortion issue -- again.

    Kramer M

    TIME. 1991 Nov 25; 46.

    The article reviews national debate over abortion law in the context of approaching 1992 general elections. While reluctant to discuss the issue, U.S. President George Bush has nonetheless vetoed legislation expanding abortion rights 5 times. As the White House, the Republican party, and the nation prepare for the next round of Presidential elections, Bush's failure to make proper choices on abortion legislation over the short to medium term could reduce his chance of gaining re-election. Specifically, Bush will have to consider a recent Congressional decision to overturn the federal regulation forbidding doctors of federally-funded family planning clinics to mention abortion as an option for pregnant women. He may also have to endure the resultant political fallout from the potential overturning of Roe vs. Wade by the Supreme Court prior to elections. White House and Republican campaign advisors are split over the political repercussions for the President and the Party, realizing in effect that economic problems facing the nation are sufficiently problematic in and of themselves. Republicans for Choice describes the issue as one of freedom from governmental tampering with individual rights, and hopes to find numerous supporters within the party. They emphasize that the Republican party can accommodate ideological diversity, and that being pro-choice does not necessarily equate with being pro-abortion. Where a majority of 1988 Republican convention delegates are pro-choice, they supported a pro-life stance in 1988 out of loyalty to Bush. Republicans for Choice will encourage these delegates to vote with their conscience in 1992, without recrimination from the Party. Regardless, Party members should not wait for leadership on this issue from President Bush, for his position will vacillate in murk for as long as possible, defining itself only in accordance with what he perceives to be most helpful in gaining re-election.
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  9. 9

    Women and AIDS. What shall we do with these Uruguayan girls?


    A dilemma exists over who should care for, and where to place 4 delinquent female runaways with AIDS. These girls have also engaged in prostitution, crime, and are addicted to drugs, thus prompting society to view them more as dangerous adults than aberrant adolescents. While they are presently in the hands of the National Institute for Minors (Iname), organizations in Uruguay are ill-equipped to face such challenges presently by these and other HIV+\AIDS adolescents. Discussion of the issue and society's views is suggested. The views of a few civil servants from Iname are briefly presented in the text. They generally disagree with incarceration of such youths, and recommend there placement in a semi-open environment supported by specially trained doctors, psychologists, psychiatrists, and nurses. Ideally, a home-like setting is preferred where these young women and others in similar situations may undergo treatment while carrying on with their lives.
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  10. 10

    Trends in HIV / AIDS behavioural research among homosexual and bisexual men in the United States: 1981-1991.

    Adib SM; Ostrow DG

    AIDS CARE. 1991; 3(3):281-7.

    Reviewing the existing research, this article traces the behavioral change among homosexual and bisexual men in the US between 1981-91, and discusses behavioral research goals for the future. First detected in 1981, AIDS quickly became associated with the homosexual and bisexual male community. Between 1981 and 1984, the research community made remarkable advances in coming to understand the epidemic. Case-control studies pointed out the high AIDS risk associated with some of the sexual practices of homosexual and bisexual men: multiple sex partners, anonymous partners, and unprotected anal intercourse. With the aid of behavioral experts, the gay community began conducting an array of information and education programs. In 1983, the Center for Disease Control developed "safer sex" guidelines, which revolved around the use of condoms. From 1984-88, education efforts led to dramatic behavioral changes, which led some to believe that AIDS had been conquered among the homosexual and bisexual population. But the AIDS epidemic brought along with it discrimination against gays. Calls for HIV counseling and testing intensified. As the epidemic moves into its second decade, researchers have noticed a relapse into unsafe sexual practices. Researchers have also found that the incidence of HIV has not decreased among special subgroups of the homosexual and bisexual community: younger men who recently became sexually active, blacks and Hispanics, men of lower socioeconomic status, those who life outside large urban centers, and those who do not identify with the gay lifestyle. For this decade, behavioral research goals include maintaining the existing educational programs and revising them as new developments necessitate, and working towards long-term maintenance of behavioral change.
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  11. 11

    Policymakers - stand up and be counted]

    Mann JT

    TEC NETWORKS. 1991 Sep; (30):1, 8-9.

    The author expresses concern over the lack of legislative interest in and support for reducing and rate and incidence of pregnancy and childbearing in the adolescent and teenage population. While experts and professionals have some of the answers needed to reduce these rates, often misinformed, ill-advised, and ignorant policymakers provide neither cooperation nor support for effective changes. Policymakers who have pledged to address the needs and social conditions of this age group, yet have failed to deliver once elected, should be removed from office. Those few who do support the interests of youths need help in the form of citizen advocacy and leadership. The reader is called upon to remain informed and abreast of local, state, and federal legislation regarding the needs of at-risk, pregnant, and parenting adolescents. Policymakers must, in turn, be educated about social factors directly contributing to the continued prevalence and incidence of teen pregnancy and childbearing. Systemic change, institutions, laws, and policies are required to better meet the needs of youths. Reasons for the decreased incidence of teen childbearing over the period 1970-88 include a decrease in the size of the adolescent population since 1988, increased use of contraception, and more abortions. In closing the Title X family planning program recently approved by the House Energy and Commerce Committee is discussed. In view of Title X's crucial and unique role in providing services to low-income women and adolescents, the reader is urged to rally in support of its reauthorization.
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