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Your search found 5 Results

  1. 1
    323628
    Peer Reviewed

    Emergency contraception: Overestimated effectiveness and questionable expectations.

    Stanford JB

    Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2008 Jan; 83(1):19-21.

    Reproductive-health advocates have advocated tirelessly for increased awareness of, access to, and utilization of emergency contraception, particularly levonorgestrel (Plan B), with considerable success in the face of much opposition. Unfortunately, the associated political and ideological struggles have diverted attention from two key issues around the use of this drug: how effective it really is and the impact of its use at the population level. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    117818

    Newsroom guide to abortion and family planning. 2nd ed.

    Anderson DE

    Washington, D.C., Communications Consortium Media Center, 1996. [9], 128, [3] p.

    This guidebook for news reporters and editors provides quick access to basic information on the historical events, political acts, and policy decisions shaping current family planning (FP) and abortion issues as well as references to further resources for in-depth research and reporting. The first part of the guide contains an overview of who has abortions and why, how FP services are implemented in the US (including information on where abortions are performed, teenage contraception and abortion, sex education, and school-based clinics), political factors, public opinion as expressed in the polls, the actions of all three branches of the federal government which had a reproductive health impact, and a rundown of abortion laws and activity in the states as of early 1996. The second part of the guide deals with policy issues such as 1) abortion restrictions and their impacts, 2) the impact of research and development (RU-486, Norplant, Depo-Provera, other abortifacients, and fetal tissue research), 3) reproductive health and the Christian Right, and 4) international issues pertaining to developing countries (world abortion laws; abortion in developing countries; population stabilization, FP, and US foreign policy; and the impact of US domestic politics on foreign population assistance). The book ends with a quick reference which includes a listing of abortion rights advocates and opponents, a glossary of terms, references, an index, and a foldout which illustrates FP history at a glance.
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  3. 3
    094447

    A tale of four IUDs: newest devices billed as '90s sensations.

    FAMILY PLANNING WORLD. 1993 Jul-Aug; 3(4):19.

    Although the Chinese find the IUD quite suitable as a contraceptive (83% of IUD use worldwide), women and doctors in the US are not convinced of its safety. The US fiasco of the Dalkon shield during the 1980s has not been forgotten. An Ortho Pharmaceutical study in 1991 found that 55% of US women would never use an IUD. Many types of IUDs are now available, and the single coil stainless steel ring is the most widely used in China. A Family Health International (FHI) IUD researcher, Dr. I-Cheng Chi, reports that research over the past ten years on IUDs has been "unequivocally positive" and predicts the IUD's comeback. The four IUDs which are popular are the Copper T, the MLCu375 or Multiload made of polyethylene, the Nova T (copper with a silver core), and the LNG-20, which has a T-shape and a sustained source of levonorgestrel. Only the Multiload is not available in the US. The Nova T and the LNG-20 are relatively new devices. All devices are found in Dr. Chi's study to be safe and efficient, but each has some flaws. The LNG-20 has the longest efficacy, with 40% of the hormone intact at five-year removal. The LNG-20 may be effective for 10 years. The disadvantage is amenorrhea. The life span ranges from six to eight years for the Copper T, which may be effective for 10-15 years. Only the Nova T is rated appropriately at only five years use and may have reduced effectiveness after three years. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) rates are low for all models. The PID rate for the Copper T is 0.59%, 0% for the Multiload, 1.06% for the Nova T, and 0% for the LNG-20. IUDs are generally prescribed for women in monogamous relationships and with children, but the Nova T may be used by young, nulliparous women because of the elasticity of the device. Population Action International reports that companies will research devices with sales over $50 million. IUD sales only total about $12 million. Norplant is considered in the US to have greater sales potential and fewer public relations problems.
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  4. 4
    075315

    The state of the environment, 1985.

    Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development [OECD]

    Paris, France, OECD, 1985. 271 p.

    The 1985 state of the environment is presented in terms of the progress and concerns, the pressures on, and the responses to the state of the environment. Concern is expressed for the condition of the air, inland water resources, the marine environment, forest resources, wild life resources, solid waste, and noise. The policy agenda is defined and includes past problems identified in 1979 as well as new concerns. The economic and international context in which these problems should be considered is established. The pressures on the environment are reflected in the following sectors: agriculture, energy, industry, and transportation. Responses pertain to the government, enterprises, and the public. The objective is to help member states define, implement, and evaluate environmental policies, and to include environmental concerns decision making. Member countries of the Group on the State of the Environment have 17% of the world's population and account for 69% of the gross domestic product and world trade and 75% of forest product imports. Achievements are identified as reduced urban air pollution by sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide; improved water quality; decreased oil tanker accidents and oil spills; improved management of municipal waste, reduced use of DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury compounds; and improved protection and management of some species of game, flora, and fauna. Progress has been unevenly distributed throughout the member region, by level, problem, and country. Air quality problems pertain to sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide and fluorocarbon emissions. Urban areas are still problematic. Remaining problems for inland waters the marine environment, and for hazardous substances are also identified. Progress has been slow, as has economic growth, but nonetheless environmental policies must be strengthened. New pollution concerns are identified as "new" pollutants, diffuse emission of pollutants, multiple exposure, and cross-media pollution. Natural resource concerns are interdependent with economic development and involve water, land, wildlife, and forest resources. The 3 major longterm risks are related to health, to the environment from industrial accidents, and to the environment from natural disasters. Profound structural changes are ahead. More accurate environmental data is needed based on existing systems and relevant to policy makers. The public is supportive of environmental policy and has a right to know.l
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  5. 5
    043722

    Are you for RU-486? A new pill and the abortion debate.

    Kaye T

    NEW REPUBLIC. 1986 Jan 27; 13-5.

    RU-486, a new drug which enables women to perform abortions privately at home, could transform, if not end, the abortion debate. This steroid compound, developed by the French drug company Roussel-Uclaf, blocks the cells in the lining of the uterus from receiving progesterone. Deprived of progesterone, the wall of the uterus breaks down. The ovum breaks off from the uterine wall and is discharged in a period. Unlike the "morning after" pill, RU-486 does not contain massive dosages of estrogen, which causes unhealthy side effects and thus limits its use to rape cases and other emergencies. At least 5 years away from the commercial market, RU-486 is being tested in Paris, Stockholm and the University of Southern California as a chemical alternative to surgical abortions and as a post-coital contraceptive to replace current methods like the IUD and oral contraceptives (OCs). Used instead of OC and the IUD, a woman could take the drug on the last 3 days of each cycle. If fertilization had occurred, RU-486 would prevent the ovum from implanting; if not, the drug would merely bring on her monthly period within 48 hours. Dr. Daniel Mishell of the University of California reports that his trials have revealed that 100 milligram doses of RU-486 have induced complete abortions in the first 6 weeks of pregnancy for 80% of the women who have taken it. Swedish tests have been 90% successful when RU-486 is supplemented with prostaglandins, which induce mild contractions of the uterus. Several women bled seriously in early tests, but Mishell states that fewer women have hemorrhaged in more recent trials with lower doses. He predicts the drug will prove to be safer and more effective when an optimal dose is found and tested in earlier pregnancies. If RU-486 became the abortion method of choice in the US, the abortion debate would be over for many who now consider it an open question. Polls show that the pro-life movement has failed to increase the number of Americans who support a legal ban on abortions. They have succeeded in making Americans uncomfortable about abortion generally. This soft support is vulnerable to RU-486 because polls also show that Americans oppose early abortions less fervently and in fewer numbers than late abortions. It is also likely that if RU-486 becomes the preferred method of abortion, abortion clinics in the US would close, replaced by 24-hour clinics to treat potential complications. And, if RU-486 is used monthly, pro-lifers would have a difficult time convincing the public that the drug isn't just another contraceptive. Although RU-486 erases much ambiguity in the abortion debate, it will create some. Women could take RU-486 without ever knowing whether they are pregnant.
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