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Global Public Health. 2008; 3(S2):39-57.This study is aimed at examining how subsequent Peruvian governments, since 1990, have addressed reproductive rights, HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, and sexual diversity rights, as well as the drastic policy shifts and its many contradictions. Abortion and contraception consistently generated the deepest public controversies and debates, which made progress in reproductive rights difficult. HIV/AIDS was often portrayed as having the potential to affect everyone, which allowed advocates and activists to achieve some success in advancing HIV/AIDS-related rights. Sexual diversity rights, perceived as a demand made by "others", were generally trivialised and disdained by politicians, officials, and the general population. Positive changes occurred as long as the issue was given a low political and institutional profile. The analysis of policy-making and programme implementation in these three areas reveals that: (1) Weaknesses in national institutional frameworks concerning reproductive health made it possible for governments to adopt two very different (even contradictory) approaches to the issue within the past 15 years; (2) Policies were presented as rights-based in order to garner political legitimacy when, in fact, they evidenced a clear disregard for the rights of individual citizens; and (3) By favouring low-profile "public health" discourses, and marginalising "the sexual" in official policies related to sexuality, advocacy groups sometimes created opportunities for legal changes but failed to challenge conservative powers opposing the recognition of sexual and reproductive rights and the full citizenship of women and sexual minorities. (author's)
REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH MATTERS. 2000 Nov; 8(16):185.A new reproductive health law was passed in the city of Buenos Aires in June 2000, marking an important turning point in the history of reproductive health and rights in Argentina. The law is based on the City's Constitution of 1996 which "recognizes sexual and reproductive rights free of violence and coercion as basic human rights". The law: 1) guarantees women's and men's access to contraceptive information, methods and services needed for the responsible exercise of their sexual and reproductive rights; 2) guarantees holistic care for women during pregnancy, delivery and puerperium; and 3) establishes actions to reduce maternal/child mortality and morbidity. The law generated heated debate and street demonstrations, particularly regarding whether adolescents should have access to contraceptives without parental authorization, whether the IUD should be included among the methods provided at public facilities (as many opponents claimed the IUD is an abortifacient), and the duty of public health care workers to provide family planning services even if this is against their principles or religious beliefs. When the law was passed, the provision of IUDs was included along with other reversible and temporary methods; sterilization, therefore, appears to have been excluded. Parental authorization for adolescents requesting contraception was not required, but instead the law encouraged the participation of parents in everything to do with the reproductive health of their children, where possible. Finally, the law encouraged the use of condoms for dual protection. There was no reference to conscientious objection. (full text)
PASSAGES. 1990 Summer; 10(2):1-3.Both others and young men themselves perceive boys and young men as being mischievous and interested only in sex from girls. These perceptions need to change in the interest of fostering male reproductive health. Several health service and education agencies have realized that a significant factor in the lack of male involvement in reproductive health decisions is that men have been excluded from the planning of relevant programs and services. Furthermore, there is only little information on the feelings and needs of young men. Programs which focus upon the many aspects of boys' lives will tend to be more successful than those which focus only upon their reproductive capacities. Programs which collaborate with families and other community resources help boys learn appropriate male roles and manly behavior, including the need to become fathers only at the proper, chosen point in their lives. New approaches to meeting young men's needs in New York, Africa, Mexico, and Costa Rica are described.
JOICFP NEWS. 1999 Jan; (295):3.In an effort to increase public awareness in Japan of global population and reproductive health issues, 5 Japanese journalists from Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK), Kyodo News, Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Yomiuri Shimbun, and FM Hokkaido traveled with a JOICFP team in Mexico for 12 days in October 1988. It is hoped that, following their experience in Mexico, the journalists will help to create favorable public opinion in Japan toward development assistance in population. The UNFPA Mexico office, the Japanese embassy, JICA, central and local ministries of health, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Mexico City and rural areas were visited during the tour. Specific sites and programs visited include a NGO in Catemaco, Veracruz state, a junior high school sexuality education program funded by the Packard Foundation, a community guest house for child deliveries in Puebla State, and a MEXFAM clinic funded by the owner of a towel factory. As a result of the study tour, an 8-minute program was aired on NHK, featuring an interview with the director of MEXFAM. The journalists learned from the tour.
Washington, D.C., Communications Consortium Media Center, 1996. , 128,  p.This guidebook for news reporters and editors provides quick access to basic information on the historical events, political acts, and policy decisions shaping current family planning (FP) and abortion issues as well as references to further resources for in-depth research and reporting. The first part of the guide contains an overview of who has abortions and why, how FP services are implemented in the US (including information on where abortions are performed, teenage contraception and abortion, sex education, and school-based clinics), political factors, public opinion as expressed in the polls, the actions of all three branches of the federal government which had a reproductive health impact, and a rundown of abortion laws and activity in the states as of early 1996. The second part of the guide deals with policy issues such as 1) abortion restrictions and their impacts, 2) the impact of research and development (RU-486, Norplant, Depo-Provera, other abortifacients, and fetal tissue research), 3) reproductive health and the Christian Right, and 4) international issues pertaining to developing countries (world abortion laws; abortion in developing countries; population stabilization, FP, and US foreign policy; and the impact of US domestic politics on foreign population assistance). The book ends with a quick reference which includes a listing of abortion rights advocates and opponents, a glossary of terms, references, an index, and a foldout which illustrates FP history at a glance.
MARRIAGE AND FAMILY REVIEW. 1993; 18(3-4):135-54.There are many ways in which individual, societal, political, and religious agendas affect the interpretation and application of new knowledge and technology. The sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s is attributed to the introduction of the birth control pill without regard to the societal shifts in greater gender equality and the social acceptance of both male and female sexual fulfillment. China's fertility policies have tremendous social consequences. Gender equalists protest new findings of neurological differences between men and women. Interpretations of research on sexual relationships in marriage and gender orientations may be biased. Individual responsibilities must be exercised in deciding what the future will be. Humane choices must be made with the help of natural and social scientists revealing the hidden values and biases behind all research, possible technological applications, and future planning. Citizens must educate themselves so they can make humane and informed decisions. Social changes and changes in priorities are made smoothly with a public which is informed of alternative and possible scenarios. There is no justification for the low status in the US of preventive medicine, basic prenatal and perinatal health care, and family support. The potential for abuse of power and reproductive knowledge is real and can only be offset by critical and on-going dialogue involving everyone. The challenges of bias and social consequences are in contraceptive technology, reproductive technology, gender differences, and sexual relationships. For example, sexual attitudes have changed to the point where about 66% of Americans believe that there is nothing morally working with an extramarital affair. But outdated data on American sexual behavior interferes deleteriously with efforts to deal with AIDS. Attention should be directed to the on-going research of sexologists on gender orientations, those performing social research on patterns of sexual relationships, and the work of religious activists on changed sexual values.
Public health and social injustice are the key issues for the decriminalization of abortion in Mexico.
WOMEN'S GLOBAL NETWORK FOR REPRODUCTIVE RIGHTS NEWSLETTER. 1994 Jan-Mar; (45):17.Although the Second National Abortion Survey Gallup found that 88% of Mexicans believe abortion should be a woman's choice and 77% think the decriminalization of abortion would substantially reduce maternal mortality, abortion in Mexico remains governed by a 1931 criminal code. The survey was initiated by the Information and Reproductive Choice Group to provide information for the 1994 national debate on abortion. Supporters of legal abortion note that poor women resort to unsafe pregnancy terminations without regard to the criminal status of abortion. According to Patricia Mercado, co-founder of the Reproductive Choice Group, "You can be against abortion, but still allow it to be decriminalized. In other words, criminalization does not prevent women from having abortions, it only makes then have then in bad conditions. The idea is that women should be able to decide freely without risking problems of health and social justice." Despite public support for abortion legalization, survey results indicate widespread fear about acknowledging the existence of clandestine abortion. An estimated 1-2 million illegal abortions occur each year in Mexico, yet only 26% of survey respondents would admit to knowing a woman who had undergone illegal abortion.