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Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality. 1999 Fall; 8(3):167-173.This part of the 1998 Canadian Contraception Study describes findings related to Canadian women's familiarity with, opinions about, and use of various contraceptive methods. Familiarity was almost universal for oral contraceptives and condoms, but less than 60% of women aged 15 to 44 were familiar with the other methods. Respondents had the most positive opinions about oral contraceptives (64% of women had a "very favourable opinion"), were less positive about male sterilization (40%), condoms (37%), and female sterilization (31%) and even less so for each of the other methods cited (less than 15% in all cases). Condoms and oral contraceptives were the most widely used methods among sexually active women using contraception (44% and 43% respectively). These findings confirm the central place of oral contraceptives and condoms in the contraceptive awareness and practices of Canadian women. (author's)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality. 1999 Fall; 8(3):195-198.Two-thirds of the women in the 1998 Canadian Contraception Study are familiar with sterilization as a method of birth control, and they generally think highly of this method. Among women who have been sterilized or whose partners have undergone vasectomy, rates of satisfaction are very high. The rate of sterilization, 23% overall, includes 10% of women who have had the operation, and 14% of their partners. The increasing use of male sterilization is appropriate, given the low morbidity attached to this procedure. This operation should continue to increase in prevalence, as 75% of women who have decided on future sterilization wish their partner to have the operation. (author's)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality. 1999 Fall; 8(3):189-193.Condoms are not only an effective method of contraception, they are also an effective way to reduce STD/HIV risk. Most Canadian women (91%) are aware of condoms as a method of birth control and most women (75%) have a favourable opinion of condoms. Overall, 21% of Canadian women report that condoms are their current method of contraception. Unmarried women (64%) were more likely than married women (31%) to have used condoms in the previous six months. Condom use is often inconsistent and about 25% of Canadian women carry the misperceptions that monogamy and getting to know and trust your partner eliminates the need to use condoms for STD/HIV prevention. These findings indicate a need to continue efforts to provide Canadians with effective STD/HIV prevention education. (author's)
Washington, D.C., Center for Population Options, 1984. 2 p. (Center for Population Options: The Facts.)Most public opinion polls indicate public support for sexuality education programs, yet the issue is still controversial since opposition groups contend that information and education cause promiscuty. 36% of 1st premarital pregnancies occur in the 1st 3 months of sexual activity, before most young women have ever visited a family planning center or sought effective contraception. A 1978 Gallup poll of 13-18 year olds showed that only 31% had received any contraception instruction, although 43% had received some sex education in school. A 1984 review of studies indicates that although 60-75% of students receive some sexuality education by the time they graduate from high school, fewer than 10% of students participate in a comprehensive program of 40 hours or more. 75% of adults approved of sex education in 1981, 67% said they believed that sex education provides a healthy view of sexuality, and 12% believed that sex education encourages sexual activity among teenagers. A 1976 national survey found that among 15-19 year old women, those who had taken a sex education course were 40% more likely than those who had not taken such a course to know when pregnancy is most likely to occur. A 1979 survey indicated that young people who had taken sex education were no more likely to have sexual intercourse than those who had never taken a course. However, sexually active young women were less likely to have been pregnant if they had taken a sex education class. A 1977 evaluation concluded that the sex education programs studies increased students' knowledge of sexual topics, but generally did not have a significant impact on sexual behavior or pregnancy rates.
Beverly Hills, California, Sage Publications, 1980. 246 p. (Sage Library of Social Research Vol. 100)This book's objective is to describe the circumstances surrounding adolescent pregnancy, demonstrate the need for social support, and describe how these supports might be offered. It contains 2 basic thrusts. The early chapters describe the adolescent pregnancy problem and the parallels between the development of the adolescent pregnancy and the potential child maltreater. What follows from this description is the author's sense of methods which will help to reduce the risks generated by participation in either, or both, of these environments. The information presented in this volume suggests that the time for joint study of child maltreatment and adolescent pregnancy has arrived. The demand for correlational study of these 2 social situations is viable for 4 interrelated reasons: both child maltreatment and adolescent pregnancy are social phenomena which demonstrate a dramatic increase in reported incidence in the past 25 years; both child maltreaters and adolescents who have experienced pregnancy appear to share multiple demographic or situational variables, i.e., minority overrepresentation, low income, low education, and high unemployment; the development of the maltreating event and the adolescent pregnancy reveal an unusual similarity, and the intergenerational aspects of both problems could well be strongly related to the snowball effect that these problems have on each other; and if the problems of child maltreatment and adolescent pregnancy are found to be symbiotic in their support of each other, rather than independent responses to a uniform social context, the direction of prevention efforts in these 2 areas could produce beneficial reductions in the rates of both problems. The best hope for the provision of prevention services in adolescent pregnancy rests within an alteration in public fears and misconceptions related to welfare dependency, contraceptive use, sexual education and information, and possibly even a general view of the adolescent in society. There is no question that contraceptive programming for the adolescent can serve as a vital preventive measure. The cornerstone of this service returns the perspective to education. Preventive services must include education for contraception, education for appropriate decision making, and education for survival of a parent and child. The community-based multidisciplinary system for the adolescent pregnancy or parent has been demonstrated to be the most effective model for programming today. It is also the most difficult program to find or or develop. Services to adolescents must begin as soon as community standards will permit them to be initiated to prevent the occurrence of the problem. Only when a collage of services in the prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation realms is available for the individual adolescent can it be said that a meaningful program exists.
Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre, 1973. 30 p. (IDRC-009e)This paper evaluates the progress of a Latin American population through stages in family planning adoption. The focus is on changes in knowledge of contraception, attitudes, and practices which occurred over 5 years (1964-69) of widespread public discussion concerning family planning and of program activity in Bogota, Colombia. Data from 2 surveys, 1 in 1964 and the other in 1969, permit the 1st temporal analysis of family planning adoption for a major metropolitan city in Latin America. Additional data on rural and small urban areas of Colombia from the 2nd survey permit a limited assessment of diffusion of family planning from the city to the nation as a whole. The 1st survey in Bogota revealed moderate to high levels of knowledge of contraceptive methods and generally favorable attitudes to birth limitation. However, at this time many women had never spoken to their husbands about the number of children they wanted, nor tried a contraceptive method at any time. The 2nd survey showed substantial changes in this picture. The proportion of currently mated women who had spoken to their husbands about family size preference changed from 43 to 62% for an increase of 71%. Fertility fell appreciably over this period, especially among younger women. Family planning program services had a significant direct contribution to the adoption process, since 36% of mated women had been to a clinic by 1969. The most modern methods of birth control -- the anovulatory pill and the intrauterine device -- which were scarcely known in 1964 were widely known in 1969, and contributed most to the observed increase in current contraceptive practice. However, among the previously known methods, the simplest method of all, withdrawal (coitus interruptus), showed the greatest increase in current practice and remained the most commonly used method. These findings suggest that favorable attitudes and knowledge tend to become rather widespread before levels of husband-wife discussion of family size preferences and levels of contraceptive trial increase appreciably. The results also indicate that contraceptive knowledge and favorable family planning attitudes are spreading rapidly outward from the cities into the rural areas, but that contraceptive practice is still predominantly restricted to urban populations. (author's)