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ASIAN AND PACIFIC MIGRATION JOURNAL. 1993; 2(4):439-50.Certain parallels between the recent experience of Japan and that of the United States with immigration from Third World countries are increasingly evident. In this discussion, I shall focus on these key similarities rather than the obvious differences between the two countries, in terms of culture, economy, political system, and 'immigration profile'. Aspects considered include the structural nature of the demand for foreign labor, the composition of immigrant stocks and flows, public tolerance, and contradictions in government policies. (EXCERPT)
Family Planning Perspectives. 1984 Sep-Oct; 16(5):233-4.Little change is found in recent years in America's opposition to a constitutional amendment prohibiting abortion. 9 out of 10 Americans approve of legal abortion for various reasons including supporting women's right to decide. The National Opinion Research Center (NORC) investigated the attitudes of Americans toward abortion in 1965 and since 1972 when restrictive abortion laws were repealed in several states. 1473 Americans 18 years of age and older were interviewed in 1984 and their responses indicate approval of legal abortion ranging from serious health endangerment to any reason, increased slightly over 1983. Health endangerment continued to draw the widest approbation. Other reasons given were serious fetal birth defects, pregnancy as a result of rape, financial disadvantage, being unmarried or not wanting more children. The largest decline in approval from the 1972-1982 average was for poor couples unable to afford more children. No significant pattern in changes of attitude in recent years according to the religion, religiosity, age, race, education or sex of the respondents was found. 2 other 1984 nationwide surveys were taken by the Washington Post and the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) and it was found that the majority supported a woman's right to choose abortion or to have an abortion. Results of 2 nationwide surveys taken by the Washington Post and by Louis Harris and Associates indicated majority disapproval of a constitutional amendment outlawing abortion. Westerners, the college-educated, the more affluent and city dwellers were much less likely to approve than the average respondent. Democrats, southerners, nonworking women, rural residents, older Americans and working class people were more likely to approve of an amendment than the average respondent.
American Journal of Public Health. 1985 Jan; 75(1):73-5.In this study of 1600 men ages 25-50 from semirural Guatemala, 3/4 had heard of vasectomy. Among these, 54% approved of it. However, the survey reveals a widespread lack of knowledge regarding the procedure, as well as negative perceptions or doublts about its effect on sexual performance, ability to do hard work, health, and manhood. 1/4 of the respondents who knew of vasectomy and who desired no more children expressed interest in having the operation, a finding which raises questions as to the potential (unrecognized) demand for vasectomy in other developing countries. (author's modified)
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Toronto, Canada, April 13-15, 1972. 19 pThe Gilbert Youth Poll conducted a nationwide survey of 2541 young people between the ages of 14 and 24 in the spring of 1971 for the Research Department of Planned Parenthood World Federation. Of this group 834 were high school students, 948 were college students, and 759 were young people who were not in school. Most of the latter group were older than the high school students and 46% of them have been to college. The findings indicate that 3/4 of this sample approve of making birth control available to any teen-ager wanting this service. Neither sex, race, nor religion affected this attitude. 76% of the white and 58% of the black respondents recommended that couples get professional birth control counseling upon marrying. Most of the respondents plan to marry in their 20s and do not want children during the 1st year of marriage. Variations in these findings did occur among certain subgroups. For example, high school students are less likely to recommend early professional birth control counseling and more likely to approve a child within the 1st year of marriage. About 1/2 the respondents wanted only 2 children while another 1/4 preferred 2 or 3 children. 9 out of 10 indicated the oral contraceptive as an effective birth control method and about 1/2 mentioned the IUD. 11% specified tubal ligation or vasectomy and another 5% stated general sterilization without mention of procedure. Approximately 1/4 noted Planned Parenthood clinics as a place teen-agers could go for birth control services and another 1/5 indicated "family planning clinics." Although population growth in the U.S. was given recognition as a potential problem, it was not regarded as one which required immediate attention. 3 out of 5 expressed some concern over the effect of population growth on their lives, but only a small proportion thought the effect would be serious. Concerning their reasons for family planning, this sample attributed greater importance to child care and economic situation than to social issues such as population.