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Your search found 22 Results

  1. 1
    333879

    2012 Survey of Americans on the U.S Role in Global Health.

    Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2012 May. [42] p. (U.S. Global Health Policy)

    This survey is the fourth in a series by the Foundation that explores the American public's views and knowledge of U.S. efforts to improve health for people in developing countries.The survey examines perceptions about foreign aid in general and U.S. spending on global health specifically, including views on the potential impact of spending, perceptions of progress in improving health in developing countries, and the visibility of global health issues in the media.The survey was designed and analyzed by public opinion researchers at the Kaiser Family Foundation. It was conducted February 2 through February 12, among a nationally representative random sample of 1,205 adults ages 18 and older. The margin of sampling error for the full sample is plus or minus 3 percentage points.
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  2. 2
    352254
    Peer Reviewed

    Public opinion on abortion in Mexico City after the landmark reform.

    Wilson KS; Garcia SG; Diaz Olavarrieta C; Villalobos-Hernandez A; Rodriguez JV; Smith PS; Burks C

    Studies In Family Planning. 2011 Sep; 42(3):175-82.

    This article presents findings from three opinion surveys conducted among representative samples of Mexico City residents: the first one immediately prior to the groundbreaking legalization of first-trimester abortion in April 2007, and one and two years after the reform. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess changes in opinion concerning abortion and correlates of favorable opinion following reform. In 2009 a clear majority (74 percent) of respondents were in support of the Mexico City law allowing for elective first-trimester abortion, compared with 63 percent in 2008 and 38 percent in 2007. A significant increase in support for extending the law to the rest of Mexico was found: from 51 percent in 2007 to 70 percent in 2008 and 83 percent in 2009. In 2008 the significant independent correlates of support for the Mexico City law were education, infrequent religious service attendance, sex (being male), and political party affiliation; in 2009 they were education beyond high school, infrequent religious service attendance, and ever having been married.
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  3. 3
    350177
    Peer Reviewed

    Public opinion on abortion in eight Mexican states amid opposition to legalization.

    Valencia Rodriguez J; Wilson KS; Diaz Olavarrieta C; Garcia SG; Sanchez Fuentes ML

    Studies In Family Planning. 2011 Sep; 42(3):191-8.

    In opposition to Mexico City's legalization of first-trimester abortion, 17 Mexican states (53 percent) have introduced initiatives or reforms to ban abortion entirely, and other states have similar legislation pending. We conducted an opinion survey in eight states--four where constitutional amendments have already been approved and four with pending amendments. Using logistic regression analyses, we found that higher education, political party affiliation, and awareness of reforms/initiatives were significantly associated with support for the Mexico City law. Legal abortion was supported by a large proportion of respondents in cases of rape (45-70 percent), risk to a woman's life (55-71 percent), and risk to a woman's health (48-68 percent). A larger percentage of respondents favored the Mexico City law, which limits elective legal abortion to the first 12 weeks of gestation (32-54 percent), than elective abortion without regard to gestational limit (14-31 percent).
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  4. 4
    303997

    Part 6: Sterilization among Canadian women and their partners: practices and opinions.

    Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality. 1999 Fall; 8(3):195-198.

    Two-thirds of the women in the 1998 Canadian Contraception Study are familiar with sterilization as a method of birth control, and they generally think highly of this method. Among women who have been sterilized or whose partners have undergone vasectomy, rates of satisfaction are very high. The rate of sterilization, 23% overall, includes 10% of women who have had the operation, and 14% of their partners. The increasing use of male sterilization is appropriate, given the low morbidity attached to this procedure. This operation should continue to increase in prevalence, as 75% of women who have decided on future sterilization wish their partner to have the operation. (author's)
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  5. 5
    303992

    Part 5: Condom use among Canadian women: practices and opinions.

    Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality. 1999 Fall; 8(3):189-193.

    Condoms are not only an effective method of contraception, they are also an effective way to reduce STD/HIV risk. Most Canadian women (91%) are aware of condoms as a method of birth control and most women (75%) have a favourable opinion of condoms. Overall, 21% of Canadian women report that condoms are their current method of contraception. Unmarried women (64%) were more likely than married women (31%) to have used condoms in the previous six months. Condom use is often inconsistent and about 25% of Canadian women carry the misperceptions that monogamy and getting to know and trust your partner eliminates the need to use condoms for STD/HIV prevention. These findings indicate a need to continue efforts to provide Canadians with effective STD/HIV prevention education. (author's)
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  6. 6
    297627

    Environmental knowledge and attitudes in the New York City watershed.

    Stycos JM; Pfeffer MJ

    Ithaca, New York, Cornell University, Population and Development Program, 1996. [23] p. (Population and Development Program Working Paper No. 96.13)

    Our survey was initiated in 1994 in order to trace change in public opinion as the controversy developed, and to identify some of the determinants of this change. We selected 15 towns in which a majority of the population live within the NYC watershed, and within each town 70 households were selected at random from published telephone listings. In addition, two towns outside the NYC watershed but adjacent to it were used as control areas, since they had similar socio-economic characteristics but relatively little stake in the controversy. This sample of roughly 1000 households constituted a panel, to be interviewed four times between 1994 and 1997. The present report is based on the second of these interviews, conducted by telephone in January, 1995. Because of attrition between the two waves, the sample was reduced to 758 interviews in the watershed and 133 cases in two control communities. Our analysis is pointed toward several general questions: 1. Are upstate watershed residents concerned about environmental general? 2. How informed are they about the NYC watershed controversy, and where do they stand on watershed issues? 3. What are some of the determinants of knowledge and attitude? 4. Is knowledge related to attitude? (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    287530

    The AIDS epidemic at 20 years: the view from America. A national survey of Americans on HIV / AIDS.

    Aragón R; Kates J; Greene L; Hoff T

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2001. 60 p.

    On June 5, 1981, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued its first warning about a relatively rare form of pneumonia among a small group of young gay men in Los Angeles, which was later determined to be AIDS-related. Since that time, more than 750,000 cases of AIDS have been reported in the U.S. and almost half a million Americans have died of the disease. Of the more than 36 million individuals worldwide estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS, approximately 95% live in the developing world – a full 70% in sub-Saharan Africa alone. During this twenty-year period, there has been a great deal of progress in the fight against AIDS. New infections in the U.S. have declined dramatically, and there are signs that new infections in sub-Saharan Africa may be stabilizing. The more widespread use of antiretroviral drugs has also contributed to fewer new AIDS cases and AIDS-related deaths. Despite this progress, critical challenges remain. The AIDS epidemic is becoming increasingly complex. Proven prevention programs are not reaching everyone in need. More people are living with HIV/AIDS than ever before, and significant disparities exist across age and race. For example, while African Americans and Latinos represent 12% and 13% of the U.S. population, they represent 47% and 19% of reported cases, respectively. An estimated half of all new infections in the U.S. are among those under the age of 25. In addition, the high cost of HIV care presents significant barriers to access for people with HIV/AIDS in the United States, many of whom are not in regular care, and treatment is not available to the vast majority of those living with HIV/AIDS in the developing world. And though progress is steady, we are still years away from developing an effective vaccine. (excerpt)
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  8. 8
    287623

    African Americans' views of the HIV / AIDS epidemic at 20 years. Findings from a national survey.

    Aragón R; Kates J; Greene L

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2001. 18 p.

    African Americans have been disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS since the epidemic’s beginning. In the year 2000, more African Americans were reported with AIDS, and estimated to be living with AIDS, than any other racial or ethnic group in the United States. Although African Americans represent approximately 12% of the U.S. population, they now account for an estimated 54% of new HIV infections and 47% of new AIDS cases. The AIDS case rate (per 100,000) among African Americans is more than eight times the rate among whites and more than twice the rate for Latinos. Moreover, AIDS is now the leading cause of death for African Americans between the ages of 25 and 44. The epidemic has also affected particular subgroups within the African American community. Although African American women represent only 13% of the U.S. female population, they account for almost two-thirds (63%) of AIDS cases reported among women in 2000. African American teens represent 15% of the teen population, yet comprise 64% of new AIDS cases reported among 13–19 year olds in 2000. In addition, in a recent multi-city study of young men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV prevalence (the proportion of people living with HIV in a population) for young African Americans was 14.1%, compared to 3.3% for whites. Finally, there is growing evidence that the HIV/AIDS epidemic is increasingly concentrated in low-income communities in which people of color are often disproportionately represented. Such communities generally are faced with multiple other health and social issues and limited resources with which to respond to the epidemic. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    287510

    Sexually transmitted diseases in the U.S. Fact sheet.

    Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2003 Jun. 4 p. (Facts. Fact Sheet)

    Each year, there are approximately fifteen million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the U.S., and this country has the highest rate of STD infection in the industrialized world. By age 24, at least one out of every four Americans is believed to have contracted an STD, and an estimated 65 million Americans are now living with an incurable STD. Research suggests that women are biologically more susceptible to STD exposure than men. While STDs, including HIV, affect every age group, people under 25 account for roughly two-thirds of all new STD infections: 42 percent occur among those aged 20-24 and 25 percent occur among 15-to-19-year-olds. CDC data also show higher reported rates of STDs among some racial and ethnic minority groups, compared with rates among whites – possibly reflecting overall health disparities as well as greater use of public health clinics by minority populations. (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    287150

    Emergency contraception in California. Findings from a 2003 Kaiser Family Foundation survey.

    Salganicoff A; Wentworth B; Ranji U

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2004 Feb. 22 p.

    While women are the direct users of emergency contraception, men play an important role in reducing unintended pregnancies, making it important to understand their familiarity with and attitudes toward emergency contraception. This survey is one of the first that examines men’s knowledge and attitudes. This survey also provides insight into teenagers’ experiences with emergency contraception, which differ somewhat from those of their adult counterparts. This report has two major sections. Section I presents survey findings on knowledge of and attitudes towards emergency contraception among Californians of reproductive age. Section II discusses the experiences of Californians in obtaining and using emergency contraceptives. The conclusion summarizes the key survey findings and identifies remaining challenges to increasing public awareness of emergency contraceptives in order to reduce unintended pregnancy. (excerpt)
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  11. 11
    122365
    Peer Reviewed

    Public knowledge and perceptions about unplanned pregnancy and contraception in three countries.

    Delbanco S; Lundy J; Hoff T; Parker M; Smith MD

    Family Planning Perspectives. 1997 Mar-Apr; 29(2):70-5.

    A 1994-95 survey of men and women aged 18-44 years in the US, Canada, and the Netherlands revealed considerable differences in public knowledge and perceptions about unplanned pregnancy and contraception. The proportion who believe that unplanned pregnancy is a "very big problem" is 60% in the US, 36% in Canada, and 6% in the Netherlands. Americans are more likely than their Canadian or Dutch counterparts to cite societal problems as significant factors in the rate of unplanned pregnancy; higher proportions of Americans also cite the cost of contraceptives (52% vs. 46% of Canadians and 34% of the Dutch) and an inability to obtain methods (66%, 51%, and 33%, respectively). In all three countries, adults are generally well informed about the relative effectiveness of commonly used contraceptives, but Americans are more skeptical about method safety and effectiveness. For example, 17% think the pill is "very safe," compared with 21% of Canadians and 40% of the Dutch; and whereas 64% of Americans consider the pill "very effective," 73% of Canadians and 90% of the Dutch give it this rating. Health care professionals are the most frequently cited source of contraceptive information, but only 51-63% of adults have ever discussed contraception with such a practitioner. (author's)
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  12. 12
    116384

    What women don't know about contraception.

    Shields WC

    HEALTH AND SEXUALITY. 1996 Fall; 5(1):6-7.

    Women need accurate information about the various forms of contraception from which they may choose. Findings from four recent national telephone surveys conducted among reproductive-age women in the US since 1993, however, indicate that women in the US are not well informed or are misinformed about oral and other forms of contraception. Brief summaries are presented of the following surveys: the 1993 Gallup Organization follow-up survey conducted for the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of 995 women's views on contraception, the 1995 Lou Harris and Associates telephone poll conducted for the American Medical Association of US women's attitudes and perceptions about reproductive health matters, the January 1996 Kaiser Family Foundation survey of 279 women's perceptions about contraception, and the Health Benefits of Contraception, ARHP survey of 280 women. The second part of this latter survey will be completed later in 1996. The common theme in the four surveys is that women do not have enough accurate information about contraception. Reproductive health professionals need to take advantage of every opportunity to provide such information, correct misperceptions, improve their counseling skills, and spread the word about the health benefits of contraception.
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  13. 13
    069511

    The impact of AIDS on the use of condoms for family planning in Mexico: a SOMARC special study.

    Stover J

    [Unpublished] 1988 Nov. ii, 23 p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-3028-C-00-4079-00)

    Associated with sexually transmitted diseases and illicit sex, condoms suffer poor images as family planning methods in some countries. Research was therefore conducted to examine the effect of AIDS communications programs upon condom use in family planning in Mexico. Reaching samples of 1300 males and 1300 females aged 15-60 years in 36 Mexican cities, 5 questions regarding attitudes toward and knowledge of condoms were included in 6 waves of omnibus surveys over the course of 1988. The surveys were conducted concurrently with a governmental AIDS information campaign, and aimed to measure attitudinal changes over the period. Unprompted knowledge of condoms' use in protecting against HIV infection increased from baseline levels of 14% to a high of 37% in the 5th survey wave, while unprompted knowledge of condoms for both family planning and AIDS prevention grew to 32% from an initial 11%. Knowledge targeted for increase by the campaign, therefore, significantly increased over the campaign and survey period. The image of condoms has not been tarnished, and may have, in fact, been bolstered by the campaign and related media attention. These results suggest that AIDS information campaigns are likely to lead to increased demand for condoms.
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  14. 14
    069824

    AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases in Jamaica: highlights of a nationwide survey and focus group series assessing current knowledge, attitudes, and practices.

    Smith SJ; Stover JG

    [Unpublished] 1989 Jan. ii, 19 p.

    A nationwide baseline survey of 1,200 men and women aged 15-60 years was conducted to find information on Jamaicans' knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) regarding AIDS, STDs, and family planning. 25 focus group session were also held to gain more indepth knowledge and understanding of KAP. Results on KAP regarding AIDS and STDs are summarized and presented in comparison with similar data from a 35-country Gallup International study. Virtually all respondents were highly aware of AIDS and other STDs, and realize both its deadly nature and sexual transmissibility. There is, however, only low unprompted awareness of how one may protect against infection and the spread of HIV. General objection to adopting safer sex and using condoms was voiced. Over 1/2 of survey respondents perceived themselves at risk of infection. Both studies, however, show approximately 5% of the population to feel at risk. Those felling at greatest risk are aged 20-49, and especially urban males aged 20-39. Behavioral change was reported among 48% of survey respondents, especially in men, person of lower socioeconomic status, and those who perceived themselves at greater risk of infection. More concern was voiced over AIDS than for all other diseases including cancer, herpes, diabetes, gonorrhea, malnutrition, high blood pressure, and diarrhea. Further, almost 90% believe at least one important myth about a mode of transmission, and 20% think that people with AIDS (PWA) are readily recognized at sight. 5% of the population knew a PWA. Fear followed by compassion dominates public opinion toward them. Specific recommendations for AIDS media communications are presented.
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  15. 15
    069408

    A baseline survey on AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases in Jamaica. A SOMARC special study.

    Stover J; Smith S

    [Unpublished] 1989 Jan. ii, 60, [16] p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-3028-C-00-4079-00)

    Results and recommendations are presented from an island-wide survey of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and AIDS in Jamaica. In addition to providing broad baseline data for future studies of changes in KAP related to STDs and AIDS, the survey was conducted to examine the effect of earlier communication programs upon KAP, and family planning attitudes and practice. Researchers were specifically interested in the extent to which the image of the condom was affected as a family planning method and prophylactic. 1,200 interviews were completed for the survey. Findings are presented on the demographic and social characteristics of the sample; knowledge and awareness of STDs, AIDS, AIDS symptoms, and AIDS tests; impressions about AIDS cures; attitudes toward a person with AIDS; AIDS information sources; knowledge of measures to prevent or reduce the rick of contracting AIDS; perceptions of personal risk; changes in AIDS-related behavior; and the knowledge, image, use, and availability of condoms. Recommendations address the development of new revised media messages, education for the prevention of HIV infection, and the need to ensure the public of the safety of blood supplies in Jamaica. Interventions should be targeted to a broad audience, and efforts made to discourage fatalistic views on contracting HIV.
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  16. 16
    069374

    Impact of the 1988-89 national AIDS communications campaign on AIDS-related attitudes and behaviors in Jamaica.

    Smith SJ; Stover JG

    [Unpublished] 1990 Jun. iii, 61, [35] p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-3051-Z-00-8043-00)

    1,124 questionnaires were completed in order to assess the impact of a national AIDS communications campaign upon knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to the prevention of HIV transmission and AIDS in Jamaica. Awareness of AIDS was high at baseline, and remains so after the campaign. Significantly more persons understand that AIDS is preventable, yet many still think that changes in personal behavioral will do little to protect them from infection. A high degree of negative public sentiment exists against those with AIDS, with none of the popular AIDS myths having been completed eradicated. As for condoms, they enjoy a positive image, and are widely known of in the country. Their use is comparatively high in Jamaica, slightly up from baseline levels, and chosen especially among youth and singles. Occasional condom use is high largely with primary partners, while regular use is high with secondary partners. Overall, more effective behavioral change has taken place since the baseline survey. An increased number of persons have sexual relations with only 1 faithful partner. The campaign was widely seen and memorable, albeit with retention of key preventive measures low to moderate among the campaign audience. Quantitatively, these measures seem to have gotten through to a larger audience than that reached in an earlier round of the campaign. Efforts should be made to further dispel popular myths, stress the importance and effect of behavioral changes, promote the consistent practice of correct behaviors, develop revised motivational messages, and consider the role of interpersonal communication in campaigns all with a fresh, new approach.
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  17. 17
    068543

    Policymakers - stand up and be counted]

    Mann JT

    TEC NETWORKS. 1991 Sep; (30):1, 8-9.

    The author expresses concern over the lack of legislative interest in and support for reducing and rate and incidence of pregnancy and childbearing in the adolescent and teenage population. While experts and professionals have some of the answers needed to reduce these rates, often misinformed, ill-advised, and ignorant policymakers provide neither cooperation nor support for effective changes. Policymakers who have pledged to address the needs and social conditions of this age group, yet have failed to deliver once elected, should be removed from office. Those few who do support the interests of youths need help in the form of citizen advocacy and leadership. The reader is called upon to remain informed and abreast of local, state, and federal legislation regarding the needs of at-risk, pregnant, and parenting adolescents. Policymakers must, in turn, be educated about social factors directly contributing to the continued prevalence and incidence of teen pregnancy and childbearing. Systemic change, institutions, laws, and policies are required to better meet the needs of youths. Reasons for the decreased incidence of teen childbearing over the period 1970-88 include a decrease in the size of the adolescent population since 1988, increased use of contraception, and more abortions. In closing the Title X family planning program recently approved by the House Energy and Commerce Committee is discussed. In view of Title X's crucial and unique role in providing services to low-income women and adolescents, the reader is urged to rally in support of its reauthorization.
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  18. 18
    033419

    Family planning in Colombia: changes in attitude and acceptance, 1964-69.

    Simmons AB; Cardona R

    Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre, 1973. 30 p. (IDRC-009e)

    This paper evaluates the progress of a Latin American population through stages in family planning adoption. The focus is on changes in knowledge of contraception, attitudes, and practices which occurred over 5 years (1964-69) of widespread public discussion concerning family planning and of program activity in Bogota, Colombia. Data from 2 surveys, 1 in 1964 and the other in 1969, permit the 1st temporal analysis of family planning adoption for a major metropolitan city in Latin America. Additional data on rural and small urban areas of Colombia from the 2nd survey permit a limited assessment of diffusion of family planning from the city to the nation as a whole. The 1st survey in Bogota revealed moderate to high levels of knowledge of contraceptive methods and generally favorable attitudes to birth limitation. However, at this time many women had never spoken to their husbands about the number of children they wanted, nor tried a contraceptive method at any time. The 2nd survey showed substantial changes in this picture. The proportion of currently mated women who had spoken to their husbands about family size preference changed from 43 to 62% for an increase of 71%. Fertility fell appreciably over this period, especially among younger women. Family planning program services had a significant direct contribution to the adoption process, since 36% of mated women had been to a clinic by 1969. The most modern methods of birth control -- the anovulatory pill and the intrauterine device -- which were scarcely known in 1964 were widely known in 1969, and contributed most to the observed increase in current contraceptive practice. However, among the previously known methods, the simplest method of all, withdrawal (coitus interruptus), showed the greatest increase in current practice and remained the most commonly used method. These findings suggest that favorable attitudes and knowledge tend to become rather widespread before levels of husband-wife discussion of family size preferences and levels of contraceptive trial increase appreciably. The results also indicate that contraceptive knowledge and favorable family planning attitudes are spreading rapidly outward from the cities into the rural areas, but that contraceptive practice is still predominantly restricted to urban populations. (author's)
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  19. 19
    028538
    Peer Reviewed

    Public opinion on and potential demand for vasectomy in semi-rural Guatemala.

    Santiso R; Bertrand JT; Pineda MA; Guerra S

    American Journal of Public Health. 1985 Jan; 75(1):73-5.

    In this study of 1600 men ages 25-50 from semirural Guatemala, 3/4 had heard of vasectomy. Among these, 54% approved of it. However, the survey reveals a widespread lack of knowledge regarding the procedure, as well as negative perceptions or doublts about its effect on sexual performance, ability to do hard work, health, and manhood. 1/4 of the respondents who knew of vasectomy and who desired no more children expressed interest in having the operation, a finding which raises questions as to the potential (unrecognized) demand for vasectomy in other developing countries. (author's modified)
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  20. 20
    266107

    Parental choice and family planning: the acceptability, use, and sequelae of four methods.

    Hollerbach PE

    In: Hsia YE, Hirschhorn K, et. al., ed. Counseling in genetics. New York, Alan R. Liss, 1979. 189-222.

    American contraceptive patterns have shown consistent acceptance and progressive improvement in its usage. Efficacious methods which offer maximum contraceptive protection are highly favored by all strata of the American population. The 4 methods which the writer examines from a clinical and psychological viewpoint are sterilization, artificial insemination, abortion and selective sex predetermination processes. The increased popularity of sterilization by males and females is accounted for by its development into a simpler surgical procedure, few unpleasant side effects, shifts in smaller family size planning, and easing of medical and legal age restrictions. Vasectomy and tubal ligation are reviewed in terms of positive and negative reactions to the procedures with particular emphasis about psychological adjustment common to both procedures. Artificial insemination with a donor's semen is used primarily when the husband is infertile or when the husband or both parents are carriers of genetic defects. This method is preferred when parents are dissatisfied with adoption procedures, selection process in terms of infant conception is desired, knowledge of pregnancy 1st hand is wanted and when faith in the donor is strong. Abortion and prenatal diagnosis are seen as means of selective reproduction and biological control in family planning decisions. Legal change about abortion has accompanied a decline of public opposition as seen in tables which chart America's public opinion from 1962 to 1975. Psychological aspects of selecting abortion and prenatal diagnosis include the concern parents have over health of the child, security of the family , fairness to the unborn child, to the living children and to themselves. The writer establishes the need for counseling and emotional support when stress, depression and self doubts associated with each procedure is apparent. Technology involved in sex determination is seen by the author as having a future radical impact on sex ratios of developing nations where a greater cultural emphasis is on having sons. From a psychological point of view, sex determination will alleviate the disappointment some parents feel about the sex of the child as well as encourage fertility.
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  21. 21
    723020

    National youth survey.

    Silver M; Pomeroy R; Burbank J

    Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Toronto, Canada, April 13-15, 1972. 19 p

    The Gilbert Youth Poll conducted a nationwide survey of 2541 young people between the ages of 14 and 24 in the spring of 1971 for the Research Department of Planned Parenthood World Federation. Of this group 834 were high school students, 948 were college students, and 759 were young people who were not in school. Most of the latter group were older than the high school students and 46% of them have been to college. The findings indicate that 3/4 of this sample approve of making birth control available to any teen-ager wanting this service. Neither sex, race, nor religion affected this attitude. 76% of the white and 58% of the black respondents recommended that couples get professional birth control counseling upon marrying. Most of the respondents plan to marry in their 20s and do not want children during the 1st year of marriage. Variations in these findings did occur among certain subgroups. For example, high school students are less likely to recommend early professional birth control counseling and more likely to approve a child within the 1st year of marriage. About 1/2 the respondents wanted only 2 children while another 1/4 preferred 2 or 3 children. 9 out of 10 indicated the oral contraceptive as an effective birth control method and about 1/2 mentioned the IUD. 11% specified tubal ligation or vasectomy and another 5% stated general sterilization without mention of procedure. Approximately 1/4 noted Planned Parenthood clinics as a place teen-agers could go for birth control services and another 1/5 indicated "family planning clinics." Although population growth in the U.S. was given recognition as a potential problem, it was not regarded as one which required immediate attention. 3 out of 5 expressed some concern over the effect of population growth on their lives, but only a small proportion thought the effect would be serious. Concerning their reasons for family planning, this sample attributed greater importance to child care and economic situation than to social issues such as population.
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  22. 22
    020567

    Informational barriers to contraception.

    Allgeier AR

    In: Byrne D, Fisher WA, ed. Adolescents, sex and contraception. Hillsdale, New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1983. 143-69.

    Focusing on informational barriers to contraception, this discussion reviews legal barriers, research on sexual and contraceptive knowledge, and sex education in the future. The effects of accurate information about sexuality and contraception on the recipient's behavior have been the subject of an ongoing debate in the US over the last 2 centuries. Proponents of sex education base their argument on the assumption that people will make rational decisions about their sexual behavior if they are adequately informed about sexuality. At the other end of the spectrum are those who believe that sexual information will lead to experimentation. The courts and legislatures have been the chief arbitrators of this debate. The battle has waxed and waned between the opponents and proponents of sex education, but it appears that the advocates of sex education have been gradually overcoming their opposition. Discussion includes a brief overview of this struggle. Of direct concern to the problems addressed in this volume was the enactment of Public Act No. 226 which was passed by the Michigan legislature on November 30, 1977. This law culminated a long battle to have contraception included among the topics taught in sex education courses in the state of Michigan. The legal barriers to sex education have, in large part, been removed, yet there is still no widespread movement toward sex education in the schools. The majority of states have adopted a variety of formal positions in relation to sex education. The most popular approach appears to be the issuing of formal guidelines on the subject. For many sexologists, the material that has been excluded by these guidelines would undermine the effectiveness of sex education. Teaching of birth control methods is frequently forbidden. A national survey conducted for the Commission on Obscenity and Pornography revealed that a clear majority of citizens favor sex education in the schools. Sex education programs in public schools was approved by 58% of the men and 54% of the women, with an additional 13% of men and 16% of women giving a qualified approval. Although the preferred source of information was parents, the most common actual source was peers. There are a number of plausible explantions for the lack of parent child communication about sex, including "benign neglect," incest taboo, and socialization. Formal sex education can change attitudes about sexuality. The evidence at this point allows for 2 general conclusions: a lack of sexual/contraceptive knowledge does not inhibit sexual activity; and a lack of sexual/contraceptive knowledge can inhibit contraceptive behavior.
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