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Seattle, Washington, University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center, 1997 Jun.  p. (Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper No. 97-9)There have been tremendous changes in congressional debate and federal policy focusing on work, family, and gender since the end of World War II. This paper considers how Congress defined and redefined the "problem" of work, family, and gender; the policies it considered; and how policy changed in response to public opinion and the internal logic of the policy process. Congressional action generally moved together with public opinion, as both became more "liberal" and egalitarian over time. But critical aspects of congressional action depended on how Congress happened to view the problem and possible solutions at times when action of some kind seemed relatively urgent. Congressional action stimulated evaluation of current policies and proposals for policy innovation, by women's organizations, intellectuals, federal bureaucrats, and members of Congress, and these evaluations led to calls for further action. Changing views of pregnancy played a key role in moving policy debates from a focus solely on the workplace to a broader focus on how both men and women can balance the competing obligations of work and family. (author's)
Seattle, Washington, University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center, 1998 Jan. 25 p. (Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper No. 98-6)In 1972, East Lansing Michigan adopted the first public policy banning discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. Since then, hundreds of cities and counties and a few states have followed suit. These laws and policies have banned discrimination in private employment, government employment, housing, public accommodations, education, and credit. Recent federal attention focused on these policies as the Supreme Court ruled that states could not selectively ban local governments from adopting sexual orientation protections (Romer v. Evans, 1996) and the U.S. Senate turned down a federal antidiscrimination policy by one vote (Employment Nondiscrimination Act vote, 1996). This paper tells the story of the diffusion over time and space of local antidiscrimination policies for sexual orientation. Over time, the rate of new adoptions could be influenced by previous adoptions or by changes in public opinion or political conditions. Neighboring jurisdictions may influence adoptions because policy-makers or citizens learn about policies from near-by jurisdictions or because political interest group organization efforts spill over into nearby areas. Alternatively, policies may be adopted in close jurisdictions because they are similar in economic or demographic characteristics. Adoptions by encompassing jurisdictions could dampen the demand for local policies. Previous research has investigated the effects of political and demographic determinants on the passage of these policies. No studies have yet investigated the geographic and temporal diffusion of the antidiscrimination laws. (excerpt)
[Immigration from bordering countries into Argentina in the 1990s, myths and realities] L'immigration des pays limitrophes dans l'Argentine des annees 90, mythes et realites.
REVUE EUROPEENNE DES MIGRATIONS INTERNATIONALES. 1995; 11(2):167-88.The population growth that occurred in Argentina, between 1870 and the middle of this century, was due to the massive immigration current, mainly coming from Europe....Due to recent increases in unemployment indices, poverty and other social problems, some sectors put the neighbouring countries' immigration as the cause of these phenomena, and some xenophobic manifestations started to appear....This paper [aims] to show the distance between reality and the attitude of those who perceive these recent immigrants as a menace to job opportunities for the native population. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) (EXCERPT)