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New York, New York, Rockefeller Brothers Fund, Global Interdependence Initiative, 1997. 36 p. (Paper No. 1)This paper is based on an October 7-8, 1996, conference held at the Pocantico Conference Center in the US. The meetings were hosted by the Rockefeller Brothers Fund and the World Bank. Discussion focused on social stewardship (SS) and the need for cooperation among nations, if interdependent nations are to advance their common interests in economic growth, military security, and the promotion of health, social stability, and human potential SS. This paper is also based on subsequent discussions and other sources. SS is valued for reasons of national security, as a building block of economic growth, and as a reflection of moral values. The US budget does not reflect a meaningful measure of commitment to SS. The US now ranks 4th in the world in bilateral assistance, behind Japan, France, and Germany. Multilateral aid has also declined. The budget declines reflect political and budgetary constraints. Assistance has shifted to disaster relief. Conference participants did not answer whether the decline in assistance meant there were no other alternatives for achieving SS. Chapters in this paper refer to the challenge of global interdependence, the retreat from SS, and building support for SS. Political leadership is key to raising the importance of international issues and SS. A critical mass of Americans could generate the political will. Nongovernmental organizations are key to mobilizing the community in a constituency-building effort. The effort must be directed to women, people of faith, youth, educators, business people, labor union leadership, mass media owners and employees, and foundation staff and trustees. Multilateral and bilateral agencies need to be changed to meet current needs. It is time to recognize that prosperity and security are closely connected to human well-being.
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Toronto, Canada, April 13-15, 1972. 19 pThe Gilbert Youth Poll conducted a nationwide survey of 2541 young people between the ages of 14 and 24 in the spring of 1971 for the Research Department of Planned Parenthood World Federation. Of this group 834 were high school students, 948 were college students, and 759 were young people who were not in school. Most of the latter group were older than the high school students and 46% of them have been to college. The findings indicate that 3/4 of this sample approve of making birth control available to any teen-ager wanting this service. Neither sex, race, nor religion affected this attitude. 76% of the white and 58% of the black respondents recommended that couples get professional birth control counseling upon marrying. Most of the respondents plan to marry in their 20s and do not want children during the 1st year of marriage. Variations in these findings did occur among certain subgroups. For example, high school students are less likely to recommend early professional birth control counseling and more likely to approve a child within the 1st year of marriage. About 1/2 the respondents wanted only 2 children while another 1/4 preferred 2 or 3 children. 9 out of 10 indicated the oral contraceptive as an effective birth control method and about 1/2 mentioned the IUD. 11% specified tubal ligation or vasectomy and another 5% stated general sterilization without mention of procedure. Approximately 1/4 noted Planned Parenthood clinics as a place teen-agers could go for birth control services and another 1/5 indicated "family planning clinics." Although population growth in the U.S. was given recognition as a potential problem, it was not regarded as one which required immediate attention. 3 out of 5 expressed some concern over the effect of population growth on their lives, but only a small proportion thought the effect would be serious. Concerning their reasons for family planning, this sample attributed greater importance to child care and economic situation than to social issues such as population.