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Free choice restricted: USAID's reactionary policies and the case of emergency contraception in Peru.
Lima, Peru, Centro de Promocion y Defensa de los Derechos Sexuales y Reproductivos [PROMSEX], 2007 Sep. 27 p.For 30 years the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) has been the primary foreign donor to health programs in Peru. In 1998 alone it provided $21 million to Peru's public health sector, making up approximately one-fourth of the bi- and multilateral financial aid in this area. A significant portion of USAID's funding has been directed to reproductive health, with a focus on family planning. For example, between 1994 and 1998, USAID provided $85 million to family planning activities, or three quarters of all of its reproductive health aid to Peru. USAID's support has contributed significantly to improving the reproductive health and rights of people living in poverty in Peru, particularly women. Nevertheless, politically driven U.S. policies governing USAID's programs have at times inhibited reproductive rights and adversely affected the health and well-being of individuals. Depending on the goals of successive U.S. administrations, USAID's support for family planning programsin Peru has shifted since it began working there in the 1960s. Initially, it focused on meeting demographic goals, with a mindset toward simply slowing rapid population growth. After the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994, USAID sought to implement that agreement, shifting to a rights-based approach to population policy, which emphasized women's needs and context, rather than fertility targets. Today, under the conservative Bush administration, USAID's position on emergency contraception in Peru negates fundamental human rights, including the right to informed and voluntary decisions over one's body, reproduction, and contraceptive use. (excerpt)
Plano, Texas, Instructional Aides, 1984. 78 p. (A Guide on Current Topics)This document provides readers with a review of the history of the controversy regarding abortion, a summary of the major positions on both sides of this debate, and an assessment of public opinion regarding abortion. It draws heavily on research materials from the Centers for Disease Control, the Alan Guttmacher Institute, and the Population Council. Chapter 1 sets the abortion issue in historical perspective. Chapter 2 focuses on US Supreme Court decisions, while Chapter 3 discusses Congressional activities. Chapter 4 presents statistical data on the abortion rate in the US, demographic characteristics of abortion seekers, abortion techniques, and abortion-related mortality. Chapter 5 surveys the status of abortion around the world. Chapter 6 presents survey results on public attitudes toward abortion. Chapters 7 and 8 include statements from national leaders who believe abortion should not and should, respectively, be outlawed, while Chapters 9 and 10 present statements on both side of the debate as to whether the moment human life begins can be determined. Appendix I presents excerpts from Vatican position papers on abortion. Appendix II summarizes US laws, state by state, that limit access to abortion. Appendix III cites federal laws restricting abortion funding. Appendix IV presents proposed abortion legislation. And finally, Appendix V lists addresses of organizations that support abortion, organizations that oppose abortion, and institutions that maintain statistics on abortions in the US. Instructional Aides provides similar documents on a number of social issues, including aging, health, immigration, minorities, and women.