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Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2001. 18 p.African Americans have been disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS since the epidemic’s beginning. In the year 2000, more African Americans were reported with AIDS, and estimated to be living with AIDS, than any other racial or ethnic group in the United States. Although African Americans represent approximately 12% of the U.S. population, they now account for an estimated 54% of new HIV infections and 47% of new AIDS cases. The AIDS case rate (per 100,000) among African Americans is more than eight times the rate among whites and more than twice the rate for Latinos. Moreover, AIDS is now the leading cause of death for African Americans between the ages of 25 and 44. The epidemic has also affected particular subgroups within the African American community. Although African American women represent only 13% of the U.S. female population, they account for almost two-thirds (63%) of AIDS cases reported among women in 2000. African American teens represent 15% of the teen population, yet comprise 64% of new AIDS cases reported among 13–19 year olds in 2000. In addition, in a recent multi-city study of young men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV prevalence (the proportion of people living with HIV in a population) for young African Americans was 14.1%, compared to 3.3% for whites. Finally, there is growing evidence that the HIV/AIDS epidemic is increasingly concentrated in low-income communities in which people of color are often disproportionately represented. Such communities generally are faced with multiple other health and social issues and limited resources with which to respond to the epidemic. (excerpt)
Kaiser Family Foundation Survey of Americans on HIV / AIDS. Part Three – Experiences and opinions by race / ethnicity and age. Summary and chartpack.
Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2004 Aug.  p.The Kaiser Family Foundation Survey of Americans on HIV/AIDS was designed and analyzed by researchers at the Kaiser Family Foundation. Fieldwork was conducted by telephone by Princeton Survey Research Associates between March 15 and May 11, 2004, among a nationally representative random sample of 2,902 respondents 18 years of age and older. The survey included an oversample of African American and Latino respondents (a total of 800 African American and 439 Latino respondents were interviewed). Results for all groups have been weighted to reflect their actual distribution in the nation. The margin of sampling error for the survey is plus or minus 2 percentage points. For results based on White respondents the margin of sampling error is plus or minus 3 percentage points; for African Americans it is plus or minus 4 percentage points; and for Latinos it is plus or minus 6 percentage points. For results based on subsets of respondents the margin of error is higher. Note that sampling error is only one of many potential sources of error in this or any other public opinion poll. This is the third of three phases in which the full survey and in-depth analysis has been released. The first release (Part One, June 2004) focused on findings related to Americans’ views of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. The second release (Part Two, June 2004) focused on Americans’ views and experiences with HIV testing. This release (Part Three) represents a more in-depth report on Americans’ views and experiences with HIV, with a focus on differences between and among key subgroups of the population. (excerpt)
INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW. 1998 Summer; 32(2):451-70.In the growing US debate over immigration policy since the 1980s, it is often argued that immigration must be restricted in order to protect Black Americans from competition with newly arrived immigrants. Findings are reported upon Black Americans' attitudes toward immigration policy. An extensive review of more than 50 Black newspapers and magazines, from January 1994 to June 1996, uncovered attitudes both in favor of and against restricting immigration. The majority of articles in the Black press on immigration, however, were nonrestrictionist. The Black political leadership is also against restricting immigration. Furthermore, a review of the 14 most recent national opinion polls on immigration available to the Roper Center for Public Opinion Research as of July 1996 found that while many Blacks favor restricting immigration, all US Blacks should not be characterized as restrictionist, especially when compared with Whites. Historical attitudes among US Blacks dating back to before the abolition of slavery are discussed.
PUBLIC OPINION QUARTERLY. 1993 Fall; 57(3):332-47.We use a small but nationally representative sample to investigate the sources of innumeracy regarding the proportion of blacks, Hispanics, and Jews in the U.S. population. In addition to a number of standard demographic differences, we find that overestimates are closely related to region as well as to the density of the local black/Hispanic population. The extent to which minority populations are perceived as a kind of threat is also related to perceived proportions, though the direction of causality cannot be determined. (EXCERPT)
Trends in HIV / AIDS behavioural research among homosexual and bisexual men in the United States: 1981-1991.
AIDS CARE. 1991; 3(3):281-7.Reviewing the existing research, this article traces the behavioral change among homosexual and bisexual men in the US between 1981-91, and discusses behavioral research goals for the future. First detected in 1981, AIDS quickly became associated with the homosexual and bisexual male community. Between 1981 and 1984, the research community made remarkable advances in coming to understand the epidemic. Case-control studies pointed out the high AIDS risk associated with some of the sexual practices of homosexual and bisexual men: multiple sex partners, anonymous partners, and unprotected anal intercourse. With the aid of behavioral experts, the gay community began conducting an array of information and education programs. In 1983, the Center for Disease Control developed "safer sex" guidelines, which revolved around the use of condoms. From 1984-88, education efforts led to dramatic behavioral changes, which led some to believe that AIDS had been conquered among the homosexual and bisexual population. But the AIDS epidemic brought along with it discrimination against gays. Calls for HIV counseling and testing intensified. As the epidemic moves into its second decade, researchers have noticed a relapse into unsafe sexual practices. Researchers have also found that the incidence of HIV has not decreased among special subgroups of the homosexual and bisexual community: younger men who recently became sexually active, blacks and Hispanics, men of lower socioeconomic status, those who life outside large urban centers, and those who do not identify with the gay lifestyle. For this decade, behavioral research goals include maintaining the existing educational programs and revising them as new developments necessitate, and working towards long-term maintenance of behavioral change.
Madison, Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Center for Demography and Ecology, 1987. 13,  p. (CDE Working Paper 87-14.)The rise in the number of immigrants since 1960, and especially in the higher shares from less developed countries, has raised concerns that immigrants use welfare benefits more than natives. Both descriptive tabulations and TOBIT regression methods, are used to analyze immigrant-native differentials in public assistance receipt based on 1980 US Census data. Office of Legal Services results show that immigrants received neither more nor less welfare income in 1979 than did otherwise comparable natives. TOBIT models revealed that black and Hispanic immigrant families received lower welfare payments than their native counterparts. (author's)
Journal of Environmental Management. 1978 Jan; 14(1):35-44.The relationships between leaders' and citizens' income levels, citizens' sex, race, marital status, and employment status and their attitudes toward population growth within a context of regional water quality planning was examined. The relationship between leaders' and citizens' predispositions toward economic growth and environmental protection, and their attitudes toward population growth were also analyzed. The data were drawn from a 1976 survey of western New York State officials and citizens conducted by the Environmental Studies Center at the State University of New York at Buffalo. The survey results were used by officials of a regional, federally funded water quality planning operation as additional public input. The study indicates that a large majority of the public in the Niagara Frontier Region wanted to see the size of the population remain the same. In comparison, the areas leaders were more inclined to prefer increased growth. Sex was not associated with citizens' opinions on population growth, but citizens who were black, or married, or employed, and leaders and citizens with high incomes tended to prefer more economic and population growth. Leaders' and citizens' income levels were related to their predispositions toward growth. The data revealed that respondents who favored more economic growth, even if it means possibly harming the environment, also tended to prefer more population growth. The survey revealed that a large majority of western New York State's residents opposed the power of eminent domain (the right of the government to take away private land for a public purpose). Government must be able to exercise this power, in highway construction for example, so that the entire region can benefit. On this question the wise course would be for officials to ignore public opinion. Due to the local nature of this inquiry, care must be taken not to overgeneralize its findings. Yet, compared to the nationwide survey, there are advantages to a regional approach. If a regional survey project is closely linked to a specific planning operation, it can provide officials with valuable information during a programs' development stage. The data reported here can aid "208" water quality planners in western New York State to develop a population policy strategy that is acceptable to area residents as part of the final plan. From a representation standpoint, approaches like this in conjunction with traditional means of active citizen participation can bring the views of the uninterested but affected public into the planning process.
A study of the relationship between attitudes towards world population growth and USA population growth.
Journal of Biosocial Science. 1973; 5:61-69.A total of 4841 adults, 21 years of age or older were interviewed in the fall of 1967, in a national poll sponsored by the Population Council concerning the rate of U.S. and world population growth. About 1/2 of all respondents saw both the U.S. and world population growth as a serious problem, about 1 in 5 felt the world population growth rate was serious and the U.S. rate not serious, roughly 1 in 7 thought that both rates were not serious, and 1 in 25 thought the U.S. rate serious and the world rate not serious. As educational level increased the proportion viewing both rates as not serious tended to drop. The proportion thinking the world rate serious and the U.S. rate not serious was increased steadily from those with Grade 8 or less schooling (14%) to those who were college graduates (31%) and from those in families earning under $3000 annually (13%) to those in families earning at least $10,000 (28%). As educational level increased, the proportion viewing both the world and U.S. growth rates as not serious, tended to drop. The proportion viewing both the rates as serious increased from East to Midwest to South to West (45%, 49%, 50%, 53% respectively), while the proportion considering the 2 rates as not serious tended to decline (20%, 18%, 15%, 11%). Caucasians were more likely to view both the world and U.S. population growth as serious or world but not U.S. growth as serious, than Negores. Negroes were more likely to consider the U.S. rate as serious and the world rate as not serious. Catholics were more likely than Protestants to define the 2 rates as not serious. Of the respondents viewing the world rate as serious, roughly 2/3 consider the U.S. rate to be a serious problem. Among those viewing the world rate as not a serious problem about 4 out of 5 felt the U.S. rate also was not serious. Females defining the world rate as a serious problem were more likely than males with this view to see the U.S. rate as serious. 9 out of 10 who felt the U.S. rate was a serious problem defined the world rate as serious. The view that the world rate is not serious is a strong predictor of the view that the U.S. rate is not serious.
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Toronto, Canada, April 13-15, 1972. 19 pThe Gilbert Youth Poll conducted a nationwide survey of 2541 young people between the ages of 14 and 24 in the spring of 1971 for the Research Department of Planned Parenthood World Federation. Of this group 834 were high school students, 948 were college students, and 759 were young people who were not in school. Most of the latter group were older than the high school students and 46% of them have been to college. The findings indicate that 3/4 of this sample approve of making birth control available to any teen-ager wanting this service. Neither sex, race, nor religion affected this attitude. 76% of the white and 58% of the black respondents recommended that couples get professional birth control counseling upon marrying. Most of the respondents plan to marry in their 20s and do not want children during the 1st year of marriage. Variations in these findings did occur among certain subgroups. For example, high school students are less likely to recommend early professional birth control counseling and more likely to approve a child within the 1st year of marriage. About 1/2 the respondents wanted only 2 children while another 1/4 preferred 2 or 3 children. 9 out of 10 indicated the oral contraceptive as an effective birth control method and about 1/2 mentioned the IUD. 11% specified tubal ligation or vasectomy and another 5% stated general sterilization without mention of procedure. Approximately 1/4 noted Planned Parenthood clinics as a place teen-agers could go for birth control services and another 1/5 indicated "family planning clinics." Although population growth in the U.S. was given recognition as a potential problem, it was not regarded as one which required immediate attention. 3 out of 5 expressed some concern over the effect of population growth on their lives, but only a small proportion thought the effect would be serious. Concerning their reasons for family planning, this sample attributed greater importance to child care and economic situation than to social issues such as population.