Important: The POPLINE website will retire on September 1, 2019. Click here to read about the transition.

Your search found 88 Results

  1. 1
    324243

    Council works to reduce unsafe abortion in Mexico.

    Population Council

    Population Briefs. 2007 Dec; 13(3):5.

    In April 2007, Mexico City's legislative assembly voted to liberalize abortion law to permit the interruption of pregnancy in the first trimester. The city is a federal district-similar to Washington, DC-and has a state-like autonomy. The law is in place only in Mexico City; Mexico's states still have restrictive abortion laws. The Council's research and collaboration with local nongovernmental organizations, universities, professional associations, and the Mexican government helped bring about this groundbreaking legislation. "The Population Council's research findings on abortion in Latin America have been used by government officials and women's rights advocacy groups to shape evidence-based policies, including the recent change in abortion law in Mexico City," says Sandra G. Garcia, the Council's director of reproductive health for Latin America and the Caribbean. In 2007, Garcia was honored as a recipient of the Guttmacher Institute's Darroch Award for Excellence in Sexual and Reproductive Health Research. She was cited for "research documenting abortion-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices in Mexico" that "played an important role in the...recent decision to legalize first-trimester abortion." (excerpt)
    Add to my documents.
  2. 2
    306869

    Sexual attitudes and behavior of young adolescents.

    National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy

    Washington, D.C., National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, [2005]. [3] p.

    There is reason to be concerned about adolescents having sex at an early age. Early sexual activity has been linked to a greater number of sexual partners over time and an increased risk of both teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In addition, the younger a girl is the first time she has sex, the more likely it is that the experience was unwanted. The information in this fact sheet, collected from nationally representative data sets and public opinion surveys, provides some insights into the sexual attitudes and behavior of young adolescents. (excerpt)
    Add to my documents.
  3. 3
    306837

    Science says: American opinion on teen pregnancy and related issues 2003.

    Albert B

    Washington, D.C., National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Putting What Works to Work, 2004 Feb. [4] p. (Science Says No. 7)

    Who most influences teens' decisions about sex? Do parents or peers matter more? Should society strongly encourage adolescents to abstain from sexual intercourse? What do adults and teens think about topics such as contraception, virginity, and the influence of the media? Understanding Americans' attitudes about these topics helps point to strategies for addressing teen pregnancy prevention. To that end, the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy commissions annual surveys of adults and adolescents seeking answers to these and related questions. This Science Says brief summarizes some of the key findings from the National Campaign's 2003 survey. Data in this brief are drawn from the publication, With One Voice 2003: America's Adults and Teens Sound Off About Teen Pregnancy. The surveys were conducted via telephone in August and September 2003 with over 1,000 adults (aged 20 and over) and 1,000 adolescents (aged 12--19). All results are considered nationally representative. See the methodology section below for more information on how these surveys were conducted. (excerpt)
    Add to my documents.
  4. 4
    303997

    Part 6: Sterilization among Canadian women and their partners: practices and opinions.

    Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality. 1999 Fall; 8(3):195-198.

    Two-thirds of the women in the 1998 Canadian Contraception Study are familiar with sterilization as a method of birth control, and they generally think highly of this method. Among women who have been sterilized or whose partners have undergone vasectomy, rates of satisfaction are very high. The rate of sterilization, 23% overall, includes 10% of women who have had the operation, and 14% of their partners. The increasing use of male sterilization is appropriate, given the low morbidity attached to this procedure. This operation should continue to increase in prevalence, as 75% of women who have decided on future sterilization wish their partner to have the operation. (author's)
    Add to my documents.
  5. 5
    297627

    Environmental knowledge and attitudes in the New York City watershed.

    Stycos JM; Pfeffer MJ

    Ithaca, New York, Cornell University, Population and Development Program, 1996. [23] p. (Population and Development Program Working Paper No. 96.13)

    Our survey was initiated in 1994 in order to trace change in public opinion as the controversy developed, and to identify some of the determinants of this change. We selected 15 towns in which a majority of the population live within the NYC watershed, and within each town 70 households were selected at random from published telephone listings. In addition, two towns outside the NYC watershed but adjacent to it were used as control areas, since they had similar socio-economic characteristics but relatively little stake in the controversy. This sample of roughly 1000 households constituted a panel, to be interviewed four times between 1994 and 1997. The present report is based on the second of these interviews, conducted by telephone in January, 1995. Because of attrition between the two waves, the sample was reduced to 758 interviews in the watershed and 133 cases in two control communities. Our analysis is pointed toward several general questions: 1. Are upstate watershed residents concerned about environmental general? 2. How informed are they about the NYC watershed controversy, and where do they stand on watershed issues? 3. What are some of the determinants of knowledge and attitude? 4. Is knowledge related to attitude? (excerpt)
    Add to my documents.
  6. 6
    287624

    Latinos' views of the HIV / AIDS epidemic at 20 years. Findings from a national survey.

    Aragón R; Kates J; Greene L

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2001. 22 p.

    Latinos, who now comprise the largest and fastest growing ethnic minority in the United States, continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Although they represent approximately 14% of the U.S. population, Latinos accounted for 19% of new AIDS cases reported in 2000. The AIDS case rate (per 100,000) among Latino adults (30.4) was almost four times that for whites (7.9), and AIDS is now the fourth leading cause of death for Latinos between the ages of 25 and 44. The epidemic’s effect on different subgroups of Latinos is also striking. For example, the AIDS case rate among adult Latinas is 13.8 per 100,000, more than six times the rate for white women (2.2). And although Latino youth represent approximately 14% of U.S. teenagers, they accounted for 20% of new AIDS cases reported among those ages 13–19 in 2000. In addition, in a recent study of young men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV prevalence (the proportion of people living with HIV in a population) for young Latinos was 6.9, compared to 3.3 for whites. Finally, there is growing evidence that the HIV/AIDS epidemic is increasingly concentrated in low-income communities in which people of color are often disproportionately represented. Such communities generally are faced with multiple other health and social issues and limited resources with which to respond to the epidemic. (excerpt)
    Add to my documents.
  7. 7
    287623

    African Americans' views of the HIV / AIDS epidemic at 20 years. Findings from a national survey.

    Aragón R; Kates J; Greene L

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2001. 18 p.

    African Americans have been disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS since the epidemic’s beginning. In the year 2000, more African Americans were reported with AIDS, and estimated to be living with AIDS, than any other racial or ethnic group in the United States. Although African Americans represent approximately 12% of the U.S. population, they now account for an estimated 54% of new HIV infections and 47% of new AIDS cases. The AIDS case rate (per 100,000) among African Americans is more than eight times the rate among whites and more than twice the rate for Latinos. Moreover, AIDS is now the leading cause of death for African Americans between the ages of 25 and 44. The epidemic has also affected particular subgroups within the African American community. Although African American women represent only 13% of the U.S. female population, they account for almost two-thirds (63%) of AIDS cases reported among women in 2000. African American teens represent 15% of the teen population, yet comprise 64% of new AIDS cases reported among 13–19 year olds in 2000. In addition, in a recent multi-city study of young men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV prevalence (the proportion of people living with HIV in a population) for young African Americans was 14.1%, compared to 3.3% for whites. Finally, there is growing evidence that the HIV/AIDS epidemic is increasingly concentrated in low-income communities in which people of color are often disproportionately represented. Such communities generally are faced with multiple other health and social issues and limited resources with which to respond to the epidemic. (excerpt)
    Add to my documents.
  8. 8
    287150

    Emergency contraception in California. Findings from a 2003 Kaiser Family Foundation survey.

    Salganicoff A; Wentworth B; Ranji U

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2004 Feb. 22 p.

    While women are the direct users of emergency contraception, men play an important role in reducing unintended pregnancies, making it important to understand their familiarity with and attitudes toward emergency contraception. This survey is one of the first that examines men’s knowledge and attitudes. This survey also provides insight into teenagers’ experiences with emergency contraception, which differ somewhat from those of their adult counterparts. This report has two major sections. Section I presents survey findings on knowledge of and attitudes towards emergency contraception among Californians of reproductive age. Section II discusses the experiences of Californians in obtaining and using emergency contraceptives. The conclusion summarizes the key survey findings and identifies remaining challenges to increasing public awareness of emergency contraceptives in order to reduce unintended pregnancy. (excerpt)
    Add to my documents.
  9. 9
    284377
    Peer Reviewed

    Life and death decisions.

    Bane A; Brown L; Carter J; Cote C; Crider K

    International Social Work. 2003 Apr; 46(2):209-219.

    Genetics is a relatively new science with a wide range of applications that lead to an even broader range of issues. Since Darwin (1859) proposed his theory of evolution in Origin of the Species, scientists have been trying to locate the biological structures for the transmission of traits from generation to generation. The 20th century yielded considerable fruit in this endeavor. In fact, a complete map for this transmission process is close at hand. On 26 June 2000 Craig Venter, President Bill Clinton and Francis Collins announced the completion of an initial sequencing of the human genome (Hamilton and Regalado, 2001; Collins and McKusick, 2001; Collins, 1999; National Research Council, 2000). Called the Human Genome Project, this has already identified the genes determining Huntington's chorea, polycystic kidney disease, cystic fibrosis, hemophilia and various other genetic diseases (Hodgkinson et al., 1990; Varekamp et al., 1990; Wertz et al., 1992). The purpose of the Human Genome Project is to identify, prevent or cure genetic abnormalities. As this research progresses, many preventions and cures for hereditary diseases seem to be within reach, although identification of these diseases is often the only recourse at this time (Hamilton and Noble, 1983; Paul, 1997; Von Wartburg and Liew, 1999). Currently, genetic screening is becoming increasingly available to the public (Fertel and Reiss, 1997; Rauch, 1988; Schroeder, 1991; Young and Robinson, 1984). History suggests that as testing procedures are made available, they are rapidly introduced to the American public. For example, shortly after the test for polio was discovered it was administered to millions of American children. (excerpt)
    Add to my documents.
  10. 10
    285543

    Birth control in popular twentieth-century periodicals.

    Barnes RL

    Family Coordinator. 1970 Apr; 19(2):159-164.

    Spurned as a subject unfit for even private conversation, let alone the pages of a magazine, in the early twentieth century, birth control is now discussed openly in every kind of communications medium. In the early years of the birth control movement, however, only journals which enjoyed some kind of financial security would dare include such an inflammatory subject. As Americans encountered economic difficulties in the 1930s and adopted a more enlightened view of sexual relations, birth control became an acceptable topic, even to those who opposed the practice. Public acceptance of and interest in the issue has been reflected in periodical coverage of the subject. (author's)
    Add to my documents.
  11. 11
    284489

    Toward understanding the problems of early marriage.

    Avery CE

    Family Life Coordinator. 1961 Apr; 10(2):27-34.

    Adult group discussion of early marriage presents certain difficulties to the leader-difficulties which may be shared by the teacher when students as they often do, outwardly reflect parental attitudes. To cope with these difficulties, leaders and teachers must examine rather carefully the psychology of their audiences with respect to this topic and plan strategy accordingly. In other words, leaders and teachers need to have some notion of what is probably going on in the minds of discussants, consciously or unconsciously, and how these mental or emotional processes can be channeled toward worth-while ends. The present essay is an attempt to aid in this task. In the first place, it must be assumed that the response of citizens to the marriage explosion among youngsters who, a generation or so ago, would have been considered children, is highly emotional and largely disapproving. Witness almost any issue of any newspaper or magazine, countless sermons, radio and T-V programs; and PTA sessions throughout the land. This disapproval shows itself in three general ways. (excerpt)
    Add to my documents.
  12. 12
    034448

    Abortion: an eternal social and moral issue.

    Instructional Aides

    Plano, Texas, Instructional Aides, 1984. 78 p. (A Guide on Current Topics)

    This document provides readers with a review of the history of the controversy regarding abortion, a summary of the major positions on both sides of this debate, and an assessment of public opinion regarding abortion. It draws heavily on research materials from the Centers for Disease Control, the Alan Guttmacher Institute, and the Population Council. Chapter 1 sets the abortion issue in historical perspective. Chapter 2 focuses on US Supreme Court decisions, while Chapter 3 discusses Congressional activities. Chapter 4 presents statistical data on the abortion rate in the US, demographic characteristics of abortion seekers, abortion techniques, and abortion-related mortality. Chapter 5 surveys the status of abortion around the world. Chapter 6 presents survey results on public attitudes toward abortion. Chapters 7 and 8 include statements from national leaders who believe abortion should not and should, respectively, be outlawed, while Chapters 9 and 10 present statements on both side of the debate as to whether the moment human life begins can be determined. Appendix I presents excerpts from Vatican position papers on abortion. Appendix II summarizes US laws, state by state, that limit access to abortion. Appendix III cites federal laws restricting abortion funding. Appendix IV presents proposed abortion legislation. And finally, Appendix V lists addresses of organizations that support abortion, organizations that oppose abortion, and institutions that maintain statistics on abortions in the US. Instructional Aides provides similar documents on a number of social issues, including aging, health, immigration, minorities, and women.
    Add to my documents.
  13. 13
    158118

    [The formation of adolescent unions in northeast Brazil] La formation des unions chez les adolescentes du Nordeste (Bresil).

    Gupta N

    CAHIERS QUEBECOIS DE DEMOGRAPHIE. 2000 Autumn; 29(2):287-306.

    Data are used from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in Brazil in 1986, 1991, and 1996 to study recent trends in union formation among adolescents of the country's Nordeste region. Approximately 45.5 million people inhabit the mainly rural area. Nordeste has a 61% literacy rate, while 54% of households have running water, percentages marked lower than the national average of 85% for both rates. Fertility and mortality levels in Nordeste are among Brazil's highest, 74 infants die per 1000 live births, and the total fertility rate (TFR) is approximately 20% higher than the national average. Between 1986 and 1996, the proportion of female adolescents having children increased from 12% to 17% despite advances in education, urbanization, and access to media. It remains rather rare for never-married female adolescents to bear children, but approximately one-third of first births are the result of prenuptial conception. Early marriage and prenuptial conception by adolescents are thought to be socially unacceptable by one's peers. Results from a survey of men and women aged 15-24 in Salvador, a city in Nordeste, show the ideal marriage age for women to be 20-24 years. Beyond age, educational status was one of the most important determinant factors for first marriage during adolescence among women in Nordeste during 1986-96. Relatively better educated women had a greater tendency to assess and understand the advantages of delaying marriage to realize the future they desire.
    Add to my documents.
  14. 14
    136289

    A summary of the findings from national omnibus survey questions about teen pregnancy conducted for the Association of Reproductive Health Professionals and the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.

    Princeton Survey Research Associates

    Washington, D.C., National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 1997 May 2. 13 p.

    This report summarizes the findings of an omnibus survey of adults aged 18 or older and teenagers aged 12-17 on topics related to teen pregnancy in the US. This nationwide representative survey was conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates on behalf of the Association of Reproductive Health Professionals and the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. The survey aimed to ascertain the public's basic perceptions and attitudes about sexual activity and pregnancy among teenagers by asking four questions. These questions, annotated with results based on total respondents, and the demographic characteristics of each sample are contained in the appendix. In the results, many Americans (62%) stated that teens should not be sexually active, even if they take precautions against sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy. Moreover, a vast majority of the public believed that it is important for society to encourage teenagers to practice abstinence. Even though the majority of adults do not think teenagers should be sexually active, many also said that teens who are engaged in sexual activity should have access to contraception. It was further found out that most Americans have misperceptions about the number of teenage girls in the US who become pregnant before age 20.
    Add to my documents.
  15. 15
    257472

    A comparative assessment of public opinion toward immigrants and immigration policies.

    Simon RJ; Lynch JP

    INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW. 1999 Summer; 33(2):455-67.

    This article is part of a larger study of public attitudes toward immigration in seven countries that historically and currently have had different policies and practices vis-a-vis immigration. The countries involved are Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, Japan and the United States. The time frame for which most of the public opinion data will be reported is from 1970 through 1995. The data have been collected from national surveys that were conducted in each of the countries. (EXCERPT)
    Add to my documents.
  16. 16
    256793
    Peer Reviewed

    Homosexual demography: implications for the spread of AIDS.

    Hewitt C

    JOURNAL OF SEX RESEARCH. 1998 Nov; 35(4):390-6.

    Using both national surveys and surveys of self-identified gay men in the United States, the numbers, age distribution, life expectancy, and marital status of men who have sex with men is examined. It is concluded that five types can be distinguished.... These five categories have different patterns of sexual behavior, and the numbers in each category are influenced by changing social conditions, in particular the growth of gay neighborhoods, and public tolerance. The typology is used to explain the low rate of reported HIV transmission from bisexual men to their female partners. (EXCERPT)
    Add to my documents.
  17. 17
    140151

    Caring about boys.

    Martinez AL

    PASSAGES. 1990 Summer; 10(2):1-3.

    Both others and young men themselves perceive boys and young men as being mischievous and interested only in sex from girls. These perceptions need to change in the interest of fostering male reproductive health. Several health service and education agencies have realized that a significant factor in the lack of male involvement in reproductive health decisions is that men have been excluded from the planning of relevant programs and services. Furthermore, there is only little information on the feelings and needs of young men. Programs which focus upon the many aspects of boys' lives will tend to be more successful than those which focus only upon their reproductive capacities. Programs which collaborate with families and other community resources help boys learn appropriate male roles and manly behavior, including the need to become fathers only at the proper, chosen point in their lives. New approaches to meeting young men's needs in New York, Africa, Mexico, and Costa Rica are described.
    Add to my documents.
  18. 18
    138945

    [Mexico. The debate and its demands] Mexico. El debate y sus demandas.

    GIRE. 1998 Sep; (18):5.

    The debate on abortion unleashed in July 1998 by remarks of Mexico's Secretary of Health has prompted dozens of individuals and institutions from all sectors to make their views known. The principal arguments have been that the secrecy in which abortion is practiced is damaging to public health and mental health in a society where between 850,000 and 1 million abortions and around 1000 maternal deaths from abortion occur annually. Considering that it is a grave problem experienced by millions of Mexicans, the scarcity of medical information and over-abundance of religious ideology are regrettable. The opposition of the Catholic hierarchy and allied groups to decriminalization, or even to consultation of the people, reveal fear that what surveys reveal is true: society is inclined to leave decisions about abortion to the woman and her partner. At least three indications are recognized as justifiable motives for abortion by a large number of people: rape, preserving the life of the mother, and congenital anomalies.
    Add to my documents.
  19. 19
    134659

    African-American attitudes towards United States immigration policy.

    Diamond J

    INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW. 1998 Summer; 32(2):451-70.

    In the growing US debate over immigration policy since the 1980s, it is often argued that immigration must be restricted in order to protect Black Americans from competition with newly arrived immigrants. Findings are reported upon Black Americans' attitudes toward immigration policy. An extensive review of more than 50 Black newspapers and magazines, from January 1994 to June 1996, uncovered attitudes both in favor of and against restricting immigration. The majority of articles in the Black press on immigration, however, were nonrestrictionist. The Black political leadership is also against restricting immigration. Furthermore, a review of the 14 most recent national opinion polls on immigration available to the Roper Center for Public Opinion Research as of July 1996 found that while many Blacks favor restricting immigration, all US Blacks should not be characterized as restrictionist, especially when compared with Whites. Historical attitudes among US Blacks dating back to before the abolition of slavery are discussed.
    Add to my documents.
  20. 20
    254631

    Major predictors of immigration restrictionism: operationalizing "nativism".

    Simcox D

    POPULATION AND ENVIRONMENT. 1997 Nov; 19(2):129-43.

    This study set out to identify, operationalize and assess the principal components of `nativism' as it shapes immigration restrictionism [in the United States]. Three major attitudinal clusters were defined as constituting nativism: (a) perceptions of immigration as a threat to the culture and prerogatives of the dominant group; (b) negative perceptions of racial minorities, foreign and domestic; and (c) attitudes of alienation and distrust in the population....The clearest message of this study is that people favor immigration reduction because they feel threatened and that much of their sense of threat involves very practical interests of jobs, taxes and security from crime. (EXCERPT)
    Add to my documents.
  21. 21
    135391

    Issues in statutory rape law enforcement: the views of district attorneys in Kansas.

    Miller HL; Miller CE; Kenney L; Clark JW

    Family Planning Perspectives. 1998 Jul-Aug; 30(4):177-81.

    Because there are few qualitative data on the attitudes of district attorneys towards the local enforcement of statutory rape laws called for by the 1996 federal welfare reform law, anonymous surveys were sent to all 105 Kansas district attorneys in 1997. Data were gathered from the 92 returned surveys and from in-depth telephone interviews with seven of the respondents. It was found that 74% of the respondents favored aggressive enforcement, but only 37% believed the public would support such action, and only 24% thought enforcement would reduce the incidence of adolescent pregnancy. While 57% supported the legal age of consent in Kansas (16 years), 53% thought the law should not specify age differences between the partners, but prosecutions are the exception when the age difference is less than 3 years unless the victim was mentally disabled or the case involved force. Most of the district attorneys (77%) rejected the view that a minor who is already sexually active does not merit the protection of statutory rape laws, and 78% felt that paternity acknowledgements should be admissible evidence in prosecutions. Only 17% expressed the opinion that enforcement would discourage adolescents from seeking health care. It was concluded that the impact of statutory rape prosecution on reproductive and psychological health should be considered on a case-by-case basis and that potentially negative impacts can be minimized by educating law enforcement officials about adolescent health care issues.
    Add to my documents.
  22. 22
    253724

    The polls--trends: immigrants and immigration.

    Lapinski JS; Peltola P; Shaw G; Yang A

    PUBLIC OPINION QUARTERLY. 1997 Summer; 61(2):356-83.

    This report summarizes attitudes and opinions in the United States concerning aspects of immigration based on searches of survey archives and both published and unpublished sources. It includes information on attitudes toward legal and illegal immigrants and toward immigrants from different countries, evaluation of immigrant characteristics, why Americans are reluctant to admit more immigrants, the perceived impact of immigrants on U.S. culture and language, and evaluation of immigration policies. Particular attention is given to attitudes and opinions on immigration in California.
    Add to my documents.
  23. 23
    253694

    Immigration and the social contract.

    Bean FD; Cushing RG; Haynes CW; Van Hook JV

    SOCIAL SCIENCE QUARTERLY. 1997 Jun; 78(2):249-68.

    The specific purposes of this paper are (1) to develop a portrait of the recent major migration flows to the United States, (2) to assess their implications for the racial/ethnic composition of the U.S. population, and (3) to examine the economic context in which they have occurred. Our general goal is to try to explain not only why recent migration flows have come to be negatively perceived, but also why they appear increasingly to be seen as violating the prevailing sense of social contract in the United States. The authors conclude that "devising immigration policies that are fair as well as sensitive to their environmental, developmental, trade, and foreign-policy implications may prove difficult unless the public sense of economic security increases enough to strengthen what appears to be an increasingly fragile sense of social contract." (EXCERPT)
    Add to my documents.
  24. 24
    252615

    Don't send us your huddled masses]

    Somers P; Gordy S

    CURRENT WORLD LEADERS. 1995 Apr; 38(2):35-44.

    The notion of the United States as `the mother of exiles' is an illusion, a legend perpetuated during an era when cheap immigrant labor was necessary to fuel the development of the country. The truth is that immigrants have been shunned for much of our history, tolerated only because their semiskilled labor was needed. Immigrant bashing was common, especially during times of economic distress. This article details the history of U.S. immigration and squarely places the current nativist sentiments in perspective. (EXCERPT)
    Add to my documents.
  25. 25
    127058

    Perceptions and realities: How safe is the pill? The role of the media, healthcare providers, and the pharmaceutical industry in shaping American women's perceptions about birth control. Q and A.

    Alan Guttmacher Institute [AGI]; Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation; National Press Foundation

    New York, New York, AGI, 1996 Jan 31. 4 p. (Emerging Issues in Reproductive Health: A Briefing Series for Journalists)

    Contraceptive choice and usage is affected by various factors at different stages of reproductive life including childbearing hopes, sexual behavior, health history, exposure to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), ability to use a method consistently and correctly, the side effects and/or health benefits of various methods, and the degree of risk associated with unplanned pregnancy. Survey data indicate that most adults in the US gain family planning information from health professionals as well as from friends and family and the mass media. Perceptions about various methods can influence contraceptive usage in general and method choice in particular. While a majority of US adults find oral contraceptives (OCs) "very" or "somewhat" safe, 21% think OCs are somewhat unsafe, and 11% find them very unsafe. Most safety concerns center on the inability of the OC to protect from STDs and ignore specific health effects that vary for individual women. The fact is that failure to use a contraceptive poses greater risk than any method and that OCs are effective contraceptives that do not hinder future fertility. While the relationship of OC use and breast cancer remains uncertain, OCs are known to protect against ovarian and endometrial cancers. OC use is associated with a relatively small increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and the risk increases in older women and women who smoke. Pregnancy also increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Recent studies reporting 1) an increased risk of venous thrombosis and 2) a decreased risk of myocardial infarction with new formulations of the OC underscore the importance of taking individual circumstances into account when prescribing OCs. The new studies also indicate a need for additional research on the effects of OC use.
    Add to my documents.

Pages