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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Preventing Newborn Deaths In Romania And Hungary.

    Kuchna D; Hovsepyan A; Leonard S

    Health Affairs. 2017 Jun 1; 36(6):1160.

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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Knowledge and practices pertaining to menstruation among the school going adolescent girls of UHTC/RHTC area of Government Medical College, Kota, Rajasthan.

    Gupta P; Gupta J; Singhal G; Meharda B

    International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2018 Feb; 5(2):652-656.

    Background: To achieve the goal of Millennium Development Goal 2 (universal education), 3 (gender equality and women empowerment) and, 5 (improving maternal health), it is important that there is effective menstrual hygiene and knowledge among adolescent girls since it has direct and indirect effects both to achieve the MDG and to promote the reproductive health. A study was carried out among the school going adolescents in UHTC (Urban Health Training centre) and RHTC (Rural Health Training centre) area of Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College, Kota, Rajasthan with the following aims and objectives, Status of knowledge of school going adolescent girls about menstruation and their practice during menstruation. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and practices regarding menstruation among school going adolescents. Methods: It was a school based descriptive cross sectional study conducted from November 2016 to March 2017. The school was selected randomly in RHTC and UHTC area of GMC, Kota. A pretested and structured questionnaire was used. Data was entered, processed and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: In this study there were 300 girl students (150 each from RHTC and UHTC area schools), of which 55.33% had menarche at the age of 13 years, 66.00% of girls were aware about menstruation before the menarche whereas 91.67% of girls heard about the sanitary napkins, most of the girls (81.00%) had got the knowledge about menses from their mother, 62.67% of girls heard about the menstrual hygiene and for practices observed, 65.67% girls were using sterilized sanitary napkins and 42.00% of girls burn the waste material. Conclusions: Traditional beliefs regarding menstruation still persist and menstrual hygiene among the adolescents was found to be unsatisfactory. It highlights the need of targeted interventions to raise awareness and provision of family health education package to all girls. Menstrual hygiene is an issue that needs to be addressed at all levels.
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  3. 3

    Shifting global health governance towards the sustainable development goals [editorial]

    Marten R; Kadandale S; Nordstrom A; Smith RD

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2018 Dec; 96(12):798-799.

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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Monitoring of health and nutrition sustainable development goals and indicators: a case of estimation of denominators in thirteen 100 million+ countries for the mid-year of 2017.

    Raut MK; Sebastian D; Sahu AB

    International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2018 May; 5(5):1844-1858.

    Background: The success of any program is measured by continuous monitoring through service statistics for a periodic oversight and through evaluation surveys to measure the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency and impact of activities in the light of specified objectives. Service statistics need a lot of indicators to be tracked on a regular basis. The service statistics provide us with numerators. To understand the numerators more meaningfully, we need to standardize them by using specific denominators. So, denominators have to be estimated, which can enable computation of indicators for monitoring purposes. Census and large scale sample surveys provide proportions to calculate denominators for program monitoring purposes. Methods: This paper uses demographic techniques to estimate denominators for the thirteen 100 million plus countries as of UN projections, 2017 of Philippines, Ethiopia, Japan, Mexico, Russian Federation, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Pakistan, Brazil, Indonesia, United States of America, India and China. Results: The denominators have been estimated for number of live births, number of annual pregnancies, the first 1,000 days, children and women of reproductive age (15 to 49 years), pregnant, lactating, non-pregnant and non-lactating women, elderly in the age group of 60+ years. Conclusions: The estimations of denominators at the sub-national levels becomes quite challenging due to the scarce availability of data to be used as proportions for different population groups. But, once, the methodology is improved with appropriate data, it could serve as a boon for annual program monitoring process at multiple data time points between two national surveys and between two consecutive censuses.
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  5. 5

    Gaining traction: Executing Costed Implementation Plans. Experiences and lessons from Zambia.

    Lasway C; Aradhya K

    Durham, North Carolina, FHI 360, 2018 Apr. 6 p.

    Since the London Summit on Family Planning (FP) in 2012, more than 40 countries have committed to making high-quality, voluntary FP services, information, and supplies more available, acceptable, and affordable for an additional 120 million women and girls in the world’s 69 poorest countries by 2020. Meeting the commitments of this initiative, known as FP2020, will ensure that every woman and every girl has the right, and the means, to shape her own life-to grow, to thrive, and to plan the family she wants. Costed implementation plans (CIPs) are multi-year action plans that contain detailed resource projections for achieving the goals of a FP program, thus enabling countries to operationalize and monitor progress toward their FP2020 commitments. Thus far, close to 30 countries in Africa and Asia have developed CIPs at either a national or subnational level, with new CIPs being developed on an ongoing basis. Translating CIPs into action, and ultimately into results, requires a sustained deliberate approach to the execution process throughout the plan. This notion may sound simple and straightforward, but it can be complex. Strategic planners agree that planning seldom fails; it is the execution that fails. Extensive literature describes the factors that can stall a plan, including lack of buy-in and ownership, unclear lines of responsibility and accountability, lack of dedicated efforts to mobilize resources, inability to recognize and facilitate change processes, poor communication and coordination among stakeholders, and inadequate leadership and management skills to effect execution. This case study describes the process of translating the plan into sustained action and measurable results-execution, challenges, and lessons learned. It is based on consultations with stakeholders, conducted in August 2016 to understand the execution process, and is enriched by reports from performance-monitoring efforts and follow-up with in-country stakeholders. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    Peer Reviewed

    Child mortality: the challenge for India and the world.

    El Arifeen S; Masanja H; Rahman AE

    Lancet. 2017 Oct 28; 390(10106):1932-1933.

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  7. 7

    From policy to practice: the challenges facing Uganda in reducing maternal mortality.

    Edwards G

    International Journal of Health Governance. 2018; 23(3):226-232.

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the challenges faced by health professionals in meeting Millennium Goal 5 and reducing maternal mortality in Uganda. Design/methodology/approach: Uganda is a low income land locked country with some major challenges around maternal health. There are many comprehensive and visionary plans produced by the Ugandan Government, however, there is a disconnect between policy and practice and there are many barriers to be addressed in order to reduce maternal mortality in Uganda. Findings: Despite making considerable progress in reducing maternal mortality, Millenium Development Goal (MDG) 5 was not achieved and every day 300 children and 20 mothers die in Uganda. Major barriers include lack of resources, both human and equipment, disparities in access to care, lack of clinical skills and knowledge and financial constraints. The Millennium goals are now behind us and focus has shifted to the sustainable development goals (SDGs). The Ugandan Government must focus on using these goals as part of developing the maternal and child health strategy by prioritising the human resource and health financial issues and continuing to work towards reducing maternal and perinatal mortality. Originality/value: This paper gives a succinct review of the progress of Uganda towards meeting the Millennium Goal 5 and makes key recommendations for addressing SDG 3. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.
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  8. 8
    Peer Reviewed

    Health and sustainable development; strengthening peri-operative care in low income countries to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes.

    Epiu I; Byamugisha J; Kwikiriza A; Autry MA

    Reproductive Health. 2018 Oct 5; 15(1):168.

    BACKGROUND: Uganda is far from meeting the sustainable development goals on maternal and neonatal mortality with a maternal mortality ratio of 383/100,000 live births, and 33% of the women gave birth by 18 years. The neonatal mortality ratio was 29/1000 live births and 96 stillbirths occur every day due to placental abruption, and/or eclampsia - preeclampsia and other unkown causes. These deaths could be reduced with access to timely safe surgery and safe anaesthesia if the Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care services (CEmONC), and appropriate intensive care post operatively were implemented. A 2013 multi-national survey by Epiu et al. showed that, the Safe Surgical Checklist was not available for use at main referral hospitals in East Africa. We, therefore, set out to further assess 64 government and private hospitals in Uganda for the availability and usage of the WHO Checklists, and investigate the post-operative care of paturients; to advocate for CEmONC implementation in similarly burdened low income countries. METHODS: The cross-sectional survey was conducted at 64 government and private hospitals in Uganda using preset questionnaires. RESULTS: We surveyed 41% of all hospitals in Uganda: 100% of the government regional referral hospitals, 16% of government district hospitals and 33% of all private hospitals. Only 22/64 (34.38%: 95% CI = 23.56-47.09) used the WHO Safe Surgical Checklist. Additionally, only 6% of the government hospitals and 14% not-for profit hospitals had access to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) services for postoperative care compared to 57% of the private hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: There is urgent need to make WHO checklists available and operationalized. Strengthening peri-operative care in obstetrics would decrease maternal and neonatal morbidity and move closer to the goal of safe motherhood working towards Universal Health Care.
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  9. 9
    Peer Reviewed

    Maternal mortality in Afghanistan: setting achievable targets.

    Britten S

    Lancet. 2017 May 20; 389(10083):1960-1962.

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  10. 10
    Peer Reviewed

    Precision public health: mapping child mortality in Africa.

    Davey G; Deribe K

    Lancet. 2017 Nov 11; 390(10108):2126-2128.

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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    Initiatives to fill the gaps in Africa's AIDS response.

    The Lancet Hiv

    Lancet. HIV. 2017 Aug; 4(8):e321.

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  12. 12
    Peer Reviewed

    Commitment needed from South Africa's new president.

    The Lancet Hiv

    Lancet. HIV. 2018 Apr; 5(4):e155.

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  13. 13

    Making the leap into the next generation: A commentary on how Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance is supporting countries' supply chain transformations in 2016-2020.

    Brooks A; Habimana D; Huckerby G

    Vaccine. 2017 Apr 19; 35(17):2110-2114.

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  14. 14
    Peer Reviewed

    Why is the Under-5 Mortality Rate in Ethiopia Slipped Back?

    Haileamlak A

    Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences. 2017 Jul; 27(4):314.

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  15. 15

    Engaging young people for health and sustainable development. Strategic opportunities for the World Health Organization and partners.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2018. 72 p. (WHO/CDS/TB/2018.22)

    This report builds on WHO’s long-standing work on young people’s health and rights, including the Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health (2016-2030), the Global Accelerated Action for the Health of Adolescents (AA-HA!) guidance, and contribution to the new UN Youth Strategy. It was developed as part of the roadmap towards the development of a WHO strategy for engaging young people and young professionals. The world today has the largest generation of young people in history with 1.8 billion between the ages of 10 and 24 years. Many of them already are driving transformative change, and many more are poised to do so, but lack the opportunity and means. This cohort represents a powerhouse of human potential that could transform health and sustainable development. A priority is to ensure that no young person is left behind and all can realize their right to health equitably and without discrimination or hindrance. This force for change represents an unparalleled opportunity for the WHO and partners to transform the way they engage with young people, including to achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This report describes strategic opportunities to meaningfully engage young people in transforming health and sustainable development. This will mean providing opportunities for young people’s leadership and for their engagement with national, regional and global programmes.
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  16. 16

    Private sector: Who is accountable? for women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health. 2018 report. Summary of recommendations.

    Independent Accountability Panel for Every Woman, Every Child, Every Adolescent

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2018. 12 p.

    This report presents five recommendations, which are addressed to governments, parliaments, the judiciary, the United Nations (UN) system, the UN Global Compact, the Every Woman Every Child (EWEC) partners, donors, civil society and the private sector itself. Recommendations include: 1) Access to services and the right to health. To achieve universal access to services and protect the health and related rights of women, children and adolescents, governments should regulate private as well as public sector providers. Parliaments should strengthen legislation and ensure oversight for its enforcement. The UHC2030 partnership should drive political leadership at the highest level to address private sector transparency and accountability. 2) The pharmaceutical industry and equitable access to medicines. To ensure equitable, affordable access to quality essential medicines and related health products for all women, children and adolescents, governments and parliaments should strengthen policies and regulation governing the pharmaceutical industry. 3) The food industry, obesity and NCDs. To tackle rising obesity and NCDs among women, children and adolescents, governments and parliaments should regulate the food and beverage industry, and adopt a binding global convention. Ministries of education and health should educate students and the public at large about diet and exercise, and set standards in school-based programmes. Related commitments should be included in the next G20 Summit agenda. 4) The UN Global Compact and the EWEC partners. The UN Global Compact and the EWEC partners should strengthen their monitoring and accountability standards for engagement of the business sector, with an emphasis on women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health. They should advocate for accountability of the for-profit sector to be put on the global agenda for achieving UHC and the SDGs, including at the 2019 High-Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development and the Health Summit. The UN H6 Partnership entities and the GFF should raise accountability standards in the country programmes they support. 5) Donors and business engagement in the SDGs. Development cooperation partners should ensure that transparency and accountability standards aligned with public health are applied throughout their engagement with the for-profit sector. They should invest in national regulatory and oversight capacities, and also regulate private sector actors headquartered in their countries.
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  17. 17

    Private sector: who is accountable? for women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health. 2018 report.

    Independent Accountability Panel for Every Woman, Every Child, Every Adolescent

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2018. 80 p.

    In line with the mandate from the UN Secretary-General, every year the IAP issues a report that provides an independent snapshot of progress on delivering promises to the world’s women, children and adolescents for their health and well-being. Recommendations are included on ways to help fast-track action to achieve the Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health 2016-2030 and the Sustainable Development Goals - from the specific lens of accountability, of who is responsible for delivering on promises, to whom, and how. The theme of the IAP’s 2018 report is accountability of the private sector. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development will not be achieved without the active and meaningful involvement of the private sector. Can the private sector be held accountable for protecting women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health? And if so, who is responsible for holding them to account, and what are the mechanisms for doing so? This report looks at three key areas of private sector engagement: health service delivery the pharmaceutical industry and access to medicines the food industry and its significant influence on health and nutrition, with a focus NCDs and rising obesity.
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  18. 18

    Commitments to the Every Woman Every Child Global Strategy for Women's Children's and Adolescents' Health (2016-2030): Commitments in support of adolescent and young adult health and well-being, 2015-2017.

    Geneva, Switzerland, The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health, 2018. 11 p.

    Health and well-being of adolescents and young adults is one of the priorities of the EWEC Global Strategy which calls for accelerated action to more effectively meet their health needs. Adolescent health is central to the EWEC Global Strategy and to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This deep dive compliments the 2018 report by the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health on commitments to the EWEC Global Strategy by analyzing commitments made in support of adolescents and young adults aged 10-24 years.
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  19. 19
    Peer Reviewed

    Social change and HIV in Iran: reaching hidden populations.

    Mozafari M; Mayer KH

    Lancet. HIV. 2017 Jul; 4(7):e282-e283.

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  20. 20
    Peer Reviewed

    Shared goals for tuberculosis and HIV.

    The Lancet Hiv

    Lancet. HIV. 2018 Mar; 5(3):e107.

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  21. 21
    Peer Reviewed

    Maternal health Indicators Signal Optimism.

    Haileamlak A

    Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences. 2017 Mar; 27(2):106.

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  22. 22
    Peer Reviewed

    The impact of the worldwide Millennium Development Goals campaign on maternal and under-five child mortality reduction: 'Where did the worldwide campaign work most effectively?'

    Cha S

    Global Health Action. 2017; 10(1):1267961.

    BACKGROUND: As the Millennium Development Goals campaign (MDGs) came to a close, clear evidence was needed on the contribution of the worldwide MDG campaign. OBJECTIVE: We seek to determine the degree of difference in the reduction rate between the pre-MDG and MDG campaign periods and its statistical significance by region. DESIGN: Unlike the prevailing studies that measured progress in 1990-2010, this study explores by percentage how much MDG progress has been achieved during the MDG campaign period and quantifies the impact of the MDG campaign on the maternal and under-five child mortality reduction during the MDG era by comparing observed values with counterfactual values estimated on the basis of the historical trend. RESULTS: The low accomplishment of sub-Saharan Africa toward the MDG target mainly resulted from the debilitated progress of mortality reduction during 1990-2000, which was not related to the worldwide MDG campaign. In contrast, the other regions had already achieved substantial progress before the Millennium Declaration was proclaimed. Sub-Saharan African countries have seen the most remarkable impact of the worldwide MDG campaign on maternal and child mortality reduction across all different measurements. In sub-Saharan Africa, the MDG campaign has advanced the progress of the declining maternal mortality ratio and under-five mortality rate, respectively, by 4.29 and 4.37 years. CONCLUSIONS: Sub-Saharan African countries were frequently labeled as 'off-track', 'insufficient progress', or 'no progress' even though the greatest progress was achieved here during the worldwide MDG campaign period and the impact of the worldwide MDG campaign was most pronounced in this region in all respects. It is time to learn from the success stories of the sub-Saharan African countries. Erroneous and biased measurement should be avoided for the sustainable development goals to progress.
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  23. 23
    Peer Reviewed

    Whither MDG 5 in Bangladesh and its regions?

    Akhter S; Dasverma G

    Journal of Population Research. 2017 Sep; 34(3):279-301.

    This paper analyses the trends and regional variations in the target achievement of MDG 5 of improving maternal health in Bangladesh. Based on the analysis of secondary data a comparison is made between the rate of progress required for each indicator of the goal to achieve its target by 2015 from 2000, the current rate of progress (between 2000 and 2011) and the rate of progress required between 2011 and 2015 to achieve the targets. The findings suggest a substantial difference among the regions with respect to the adopted indicators of improving maternal health. For example, consistent with the highest and lowest levels of maternal mortality ratio (MMR), the divisions (administrative regions) of Khulna and Sylhet respectively also have the highest and lowest percentages of births delivered in health facilities and assisted by skilled health personnel. However, the second highest percentage of births delivered in a health facility in Chittagong does not accord with its high MMR. This kind of variation reveals that overall improvement in MMR may not necessarily result in complete achievement of the goal of improved maternal health. Rather, there are some gaps and challenges in each region, which need to be addressed and acted upon accordingly. The findings of this paper contribute to knowledge about the persistence of regional inequalities in MDG 5 in Bangladesh, even if the goals are met at the national level. The findings will also be useful in preparing a road map for ensuring the health and wellbeing of all mothers in Bangladesh under the new Sustainable Development Goals.
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  24. 24

    Proposed information outreach programme in primary and secondary health care of Punjab, Pakistan.

    Naeem SB; Bhatti R

    Health Information and Libraries Journal. 2018 Jun; 35(2):160-164.

    The study reported is part of Dr. Naeem’s doctoral research, supervised by Professor Bhatti, with the objective to propose an information outreach programme for health care professionals working in rural areas of the Punjab province, Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted involving 517 practitioners from across different health care facilities in the area. The goals of the outreach programme are identified on the basis of the findings regarding practitioners’ current usage and awareness of, as well as attitude and self-efficacy towards using health information resources. The identification of these goals and their related activities, including logistical, promotional and educational, results in a model of the required inputs and investments to achieve both the short term, intermediate and long term results of the programme.
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  25. 25
    Peer Reviewed

    Successful implementation of immediate postpartum intrauterine contraception services in Edinburgh and framework for wider dissemination.

    Cooper M; Cameron S

    International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2018 Sep; 143(Suppl 1):56-61.

    Provision of immediate postpartum intrauterine device (PPIUD) insertion within maternity settings can overcome many of the barriers faced by women in accessing this method after childbirth. Uptake of PPIUD can help reduce the risk of a subsequent unintended pregnancy and improve spacing between births. PPIUD insertion is not yet routinely available in the UK and evidence to support the practical implementation of the service in this setting is lacking. Shared learning and experience of providers may assist in the wider availability of PPIUD. A routine PPIUD service has been successfully established within a public maternity setting in Edinburgh (UK) and this article utilizes an implementation framework to discuss the approach.
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