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BMJ Sexual and Reproductive Health. 2018 Oct; 44(4):314-315.Add to my documents.
European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care. 2018 Aug; 23(4):309-310.BACKGROUND: The subdermal etonogestrel contraceptive implant has a current approved duration of 3 years. There is, however, recent and strong evidence of its effectiveness for 2 additional years during which no pregnancies were documented. CASE: We report a case of a 28-year-old woman who had an etonogestrel implant inserted 4 years earlier and wished to get pregnant. The implant was, however, deep in the triceps muscle and could not easily be removed. Her serum levels of etonogestrel remained positive even 6 years after insertion. As infertility investigation revealed endometriosis and bilateral tubal obstruction she was referred for assisted reproduction. Despite obtaining oocytes during an ovarian stimulation cycle, the endometrium was never above 4 mm, precluding embryo transfer. It was decided to remove the implant in order to improve endometrial conditions, after which the patient achieved pregnancy. CONCLUSION: This case report suggests that the etonogestrel implant is effective for even longer than the most recent studies have shown.
Lancet. 2018 Jul 7; 392(10141):2.Add to my documents.
Global Health, Science and Practice. 2018 Jun 27; 6(2):242-246.Add to my documents.
Comparison of the efficacy of diegnogest and levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system after laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis.
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research. 2018 Sep; 44(9):1779-1786.AIM: To compare the efficacy between dienogest and levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) after laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis. METHODS: A total of 285 women were diagnosed as endometriosis by laparoscopy between 2011 and 2015. Patients were grouped into no treatment (n = 83), treatment with dienogest (n =130) and treatment with LNG-IUS (n =72) after laparoscopic surgery. The changes of the pain scores were checked at 6, 12 and 24 months after the surgery, and the rates of disease recurrence and treatment discontinuation rate were determined. RESULTS: The participants' mean age was 38.9 years (range 21-54 years). The mean age of LNG-IUS group (43.7 years) was significantly higher than the no treatment and dienogest groups (39.3 vs 33.9 years, respectively). At 6 and 12 months, the median pain scores in treatment (dienogest and LNG-IUS) groups were significantly lower than control group. Both treatment groups had significantly lower recurrence rate than control group (3.8% and 9.7%, respectively, vs 32.5%, P =0.001). No significant difference was found in the recurrence rate between the two treatment groups (P =0.461). Patients in the LNG-IUS group showed lower rate of discontinuation due to complication (27.8%) than those in dienogest group (35.6%, P =0.010). CONCLUSION: LNG-IUS treatment in the patients with endometriosis is effective for postoperative pain control and preventing recurrence, however, the LNG-IUS group is older, it is difficult to compare the efficacy between dienogest and LNG-IUS in present study. (c) 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
British Journal of Radiology. 2018 Oct; 91(1090):20170686.Tubal sterilization with Essure inserts has become a prevalent alternative to laparoscopic sterilization because of its minimal invasiveness. It is a well-tolerated ambulatory procedure that provides reliable permanent contraception without the risks associated with laparoscopic surgery and general anesthesia. Correct positioning of the Essure device is necessary to achieve the fibrotic reaction induced by the polyethylene terephthalate fibers, subsequently resulting in tubal occlusion usually within 3 months. After uneventful procedures with satisfactory bilateral placement, only the correct position of the devices needs to be confirmed at follow-up. The imaging techniques used to asses Essure devices may vary depending on the country and its recommendations. The gold-standard test to ascertain tubal occlusion remains the hysterosalpingography but after uneventful procedures, vaginal-ultrasound proved to be a reliable alternative to confirm the proper position of the inserts. Radiologists have been increasingly confronted to post-procedural evaluations and despite the efficiency rate of the Essure device, its use still exposes to a low risk of complications and malfunctions such as unwanted pregnancies, device misplacement, tubal or uterine perforation, and chronic pelvic pain. Unintended pregnancies are mostly due to patient or physician non-compliance and misinterpretation of post-procedural examinations by radiologists which emphasizes the importance of their training in Essure device assessment. This pictorial review discusses the imaging methods used to asses Essure implants and illustrates the possible complications related to them.
Agreement between self-reported and physically verified male circumcision status in Nyanza region, Kenya: Evidence from the TASCO study.
PloS One. 2018; 13(2):e0192823.BACKGROUND: Self-reported male circumcision (MC) status is widely used to estimate community prevalence of circumcision, although its accuracy varies in different settings depending on the extent of misreporting. Despite this challenge, self-reported MC status remains essential because it is the most feasible method of collecting MC status data in community surveys. Therefore, its accuracy is an important determinant of the reliability of MC prevalence estimates based on such surveys. We measured the concurrence between self-reported and physically verified MC status among men aged 25-39 years during a baseline household survey for a study to test strategies for enhancing MC uptake by older men in Nyanza region of Kenya. The objective was to determine the accuracy of self-reported MC status in communities where MC for HIV prevention is being rolled out. METHODS: Agreement between self-reported and physically verified MC status was measured among 4,232 men. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on MC status followed by physical examination to verify the actual MC status whose outcome was recorded as fully circumcised (no foreskin), partially circumcised (foreskin is past corona sulcus but covers less than half of the glans) or uncircumcised (foreskin covers half or more of the glans). The sensitivity and specificity of self-reported MC status were calculated using physically verified MC status as the gold standard. RESULTS: Out of 4,232 men, 2,197 (51.9%) reported being circumcised, of whom 99.0% were confirmed to be fully circumcised on physical examination. Among 2,035 men who reported being uncircumcised, 93.7% (1,907/2,035) were confirmed uncircumcised on physical examination. Agreement between self-reported and physically verified MC status was almost perfect, kappa (k) = 98.6% (95% CI, 98.1%-99.1%. The sensitivity of self-reporting being circumcised was 99.6% (95% CI, 99.2-99.8) while specificity of self-reporting uncircumcised was 99.0% (95% CI, 98.4-99.4) and did not differ significantly by age group based on chi-square test. Rate of consenting to physical verification of MC status differed by client characteristics; unemployed men were more likely to consent to physical verification (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48, (95% CI, 1.30-1.69) compared to employed men and those with post-secondary education were less likely to consent to physical verification than those with primary education or less (odds ratio [OR] = 0.61, (95% CI, 0.51-0.74). CONCLUSIONS: In this Kenyan context, both sensitivity and specificity of self-reported MC status was high; therefore, MC prevalence estimates based on self-reported MC status should be deemed accurate and applicable for planning. However MC programs should assess accuracy of self-reported MC status periodically for any secular changes that may undermine its usefulness for estimating community MC prevalence in their unique settings.
Agreement of self- and physician-collected samples for detection of high-risk human papillomavirus infections in women attending a colposcopy clinic in Thailand.
BMC Research Notes. 2018 Feb 20; 11(1):136.OBJECTIVE: To study the concordance between vaginal self- and endocervical physician-collected high-risk (hr) HPV testing in Thai women who attended a colposcopy clinic. Vaginal samples were obtained by self-sampling with a dry brush before endocervical samples were obtained by physicians. Both specimens were analyzed for hrHPV by Cobas4800 HPV test. RESULTS: Of the 247 pairs of samples, overall hrHPV prevalence from self- and physician-collected samples was 41.3 and 36.0%, respectively. The overall agreement between the methods was 74.5% with kappa 0.46 (P < 0.001). Our study revealed moderate agreement between self- and physician-collected methods for hrHPV testing.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2018. 458 p.Girls and women who have been subjected to female genital mutilation (FGM) need high quality, empathetic and appropriate health care to meet their specific needs. This handbook is for health care providers involved in the care of girls and women who have been subjected to any form of FGM. This includes obstetricians and gynaecologists, surgeons, general medical practitioners, midwives, nurses and other country-specific health professionals. Health-care professionals providing mental health care, and educational and psychosocial support – such as psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers and health educators – will also find this handbook helpful. It includes advice on how to: 1) communicate effectively and sensitively with girls and women who have developed health complications due to FGM; 2) communicate effectively and sensitively with the husbands or partners and family members of those affected; 3) provide quality health care to girls and women who have health problems due to FGM, including immediate and short-term urogynaecological or obstetric complications; 4) provide support to women who have mental health and sexual health complications caused by FGM; 5) make informed decisions on how and when to perform deinfibulation; 6) identify when and where to refer patients who need additional support and care; and 7) work with patients and families to prevent the practice of FGM.
Combined Laparoscopic and Cystoscopic Retrieval of Forgotten Translocated Intrauterine Contraceptive Device.
Nigerian Journal of Surgery. 2018 Jan-Jun; 24(1):48-51.The most commonly used long-term reversible female contraception is intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD). Its use is however associated with documented complications. Uterine perforation, though rare, is arguably the most surgically important of all these complications. We report a case of a 48-year-old para 4(+0) (4 alive) woman who had IUCD insertion 17 years earlier and had forgotten she had the device having had two children thereafter. The IUCD was subsequently translocated through the dome of the bladder into the peritoneal cavity with calculus formation around the tail and thread of the IUCD in the urinary bladder causing recurrent urinary tract infection. This "Collar Stud" effect made either cystoscopic or laparoscopic retrieval alone unsuccessful necessitating a combined approach. This case report highlights the need for a combined laparoscopic and cystoscopic approach in the retrieval of the unusual presentation of translocated IUCD.
International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 1995 Dec; 51 Suppl 1:S3-S13.Methods for the sterilization of women by occlusion of the Fallopian tubes have evolved by changes in the approaches to the tubes and trials of various methods for occluding the tubal lumen. Approaches to the tube have included: the anterior abdominal wall routes by laparotomy, minilaparotomy and laparoscopy; a vaginal approach through the posterior vaginal fornix; and transcervical approaches, either blind, or via the hysteroscope. Methods for obtaining tubal occlusion have included: excision and suture techniques; electrocautery; clips and rings; intratubal occlusive devices and chemicals introduced into the tubal lumen. The development of each of the approaches to the tube and of the methods for obtaining tubal occlusion are discussed. (c) 1995 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Cervical dilatation over time is a poor predictor of severe adverse birth outcomes: a diagnostic accuracy study.
BJOG. 2018 Jul; 125(8):991-1000.OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of the World Health Organization (WHO) partograph alert line and other candidate predictors in the identification of women at risk of developing severe adverse birth outcomes. DESIGN: A facility-based, multicentre, prospective cohort study. SETTING: Thirteen maternity hospitals located in Nigeria and Uganda. POPULATION: A total of 9995 women with spontaneous onset of labour presenting at cervical dilatation of =6 cm or undergoing induction of labour. METHODS: Research assistants collected data on sociodemographic, anthropometric, obstetric, and medical characteristics of study participants at hospital admission, multiple assessments during labour, and interventions during labour and childbirth. The alert line and action line, intrapartum monitoring parameters, and customised labour curves were assessed using sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, diagnostic odds ratio, and the J statistic. OUTCOMES: Severe adverse birth outcomes. RESULTS: The rate of severe adverse birth outcomes was 2.2% (223 women with severe adverse birth outcomes), the rate of augmentation of labour was 35.1% (3506 women), and the caesarean section rate was 13.2% (1323 women). Forty-nine percent of women in labour crossed the alert line (4163/8489). All reference labour curves had a diagnostic odds ratio ranging from 1.29 to 1.60. The J statistic was less than 10% for all reference curves. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that labour is an extremely variable phenomenon, and the assessment of cervical dilatation over time is a poor predictor of severe adverse birth outcomes. The validity of a partograph alert line based on the 'one-centimetre per hour' rule should be re-evaluated. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, United States Agency for International Development (USAID), UNDP/UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP), and WHO (A65879). TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: The alert line in check: results from a WHO study. (c) 2018 World Health Organization; licensed by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Cervical cancer screening and management of cervical pre-cancers. Training of health staff in colposcopy, LEEP and CKC. Trainees' handbook.
New Delhi, India, WHO, Regional Office for South-East Asia, 2017. 199 p.The Trainees’ handbook is designed to train gynaecologists and non-specialist clinicians in performing colposcopy and treatment of cervical precancerous conditions so they can provide the necessary diagnostic and therapeutic services in a cervical cancer screening programme. The Trainees’ handbook contains guidelines and information intended to be used both by trainees and facilitators while participating in the structured training programme on cervical cancer screening and treatment. The Trainees’ handbook contains different modules intended to assist trainees to develop their knowledge and learn the correct steps to perform colposcopy and treatment procedures. The modules contain checklists that serve as ready reckoners to develop skills in various procedures during clinical sessions. These checklists are also intended to be used by trainees during their post-training practice. The structure and methodology of the training have been designed to impart knowledge in the most effective manner and have taken into consideration the overall training objectives, profiles of trainees and the expected learning outcomes. (Excerpt)
Cervical cancer screening and management of cervical pre-cancers. Training of health staff in colposcopy, LEEP and CKC. Facilitators' guide.
New Delhi, India, WHO, Regional Office for South-East Asia, 2017. 118 p.This manual is an instruction guide for facilitators to provide competence based training to providers of colposcopy and treatment services in a cervical cancer screening programme. The training is intended to assist gynaecologists and non-specialist clinicians to learn and improve upon their skills to perform colposcopy and to treat cervical pre-cancers by excision methods. Facilitators are required to consult both the Facilitators’ guide and the Trainees’ handbook while training participants through interactive presentations, group discussions, role plays, clinical practice sessions, etc. The Facilitators’ guide contains detailed training methodologies, structure of the individual training sessions and guidelines for assessment of trainees. The Trainees’ handbook contains different modules to assist trainees with step-by-step learning of colposcopy and treatment procedures. (Excerpt)
Long-term Outcomes after Elective Sterilization Procedures-a Comparative Retrospective Cohort Study of Medicaid Patients.
Contraception. 2018 May; 97(5):428-433.OBJECTIVES: Compare the long-term outcomes, including hysterectomy, chronic pelvic pain (CPP), and abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in women post-hysteroscopic sterilization (HS) and laparoscopic tubal ligation (TL) in the Medicaid population. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort analysis using data from the US Medicaid Analytic Extracts (MAX) Encounters database. Women aged 18 to 49years with at least one claim for HS (n=3929) or TL (n=10,875) between July 1, 2009, through December 31, 2010 were included. Main outcome measures were hysterectomy, CPP, or AUB in the 24months post-sterilization. Propensity score matching was used to control for patient demographics and baseline characteristics. Logistic regression analysis investigated the variables associated with a 24-month rate of each outcome in the HS versus laparoscopic TL cohorts. RESULTS: Post-matching analyses were performed at 6, 12, and 24months post-index procedure. At 24months, hysterectomy was more common in the laparoscopic TL than the HS group (3.5% vs. 2.1%; p=.0023), as was diagnosis of CPP (26.8% vs. 23.5%; p=.0050). No significant differences in AUB diagnoses were observed. Logistic regression identified HS as being associated with lower risk of hysterectomy (OR 0.77 [95% CI 0.60, 0.97]; p=.0274 and lower risk of CPP diagnosis (OR 0.91 [95% CI 0.83, 0.99]; p=.0336) at 24months post-sterilization. CONCLUSION: In Medicaid patients, HS is associated with a significantly lower risk of hysterectomy or CPP diagnosis 24months post-sterilization versus laparoscopic TL. Incidence of AUB post-sterilization is not significantly different. While some differences in outcomes were statistically significant, the effect sizes were small and the conclusion is one of equivalence and not clinical superiority. IMPLICATIONS STATEMENT: This PSM analysis confirms pelvic pain and AUB are common in women before and after sterilization, regardless of whether the procedure is performed hysteroscopically or laparoscopically. Moreover, HS is associated with a significantly lower risk of hysterectomy or a CPP diagnosis in the 24months post-sterilization when compared to TL. Copyright (c) 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hysteroscopic Sterilization Device Follow-Up Rate: Hysterosalpingogram Versus Transvaginal Ultrasound.
Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology. 2018 Jul - Aug; 25(5):836-841.STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess if follow-up confirmation testing 3 months after hysteroscopic sterilization with the Essure device improved with recommendation for transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) versus hysterosalpingogram (HSG). DESIGN: Retrospective, observational case-controlled cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2) SETTING: Two physician private practice in Evansville, Indiana PATIENTS: Compliance rates for a TVUS confirmation test on 100 women who underwent hysteroscopic sterilization compared to a previously published cohort of 1004 women who were scheduled to undergo HSG confirmation test. INTERVENTION: Acquisition of 3 month confirmation testing after Essure hysteroscopic sterilization MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: All women who underwent Essure hysteroscopic sterilization with recommendation for TVUS confirmation testing between July 2015 and January 2017 were compared to a previously published cohort of 1004 patients with recommendation for HSG confirmation testing (HSG cohort). In addition, an HSG subgroup cohort (HSG subgroup) similar in size and closest chronology to the TVUS cohort was drawn from the original 1004 patients and analyzed for HSG follow-up. Records for all patients were reviewed for demographic, procedural, confirmation testing, and outcome data. One hundred patients were identified with successful Essure device placement and a recommendation for TVUS confirmation testing. Eighty-eight (88.0%) patients returned for TVUS at 3 months. In the HSG cohort, 1004 successful Essure devices were placed and 778 patients returned for the recommended HSG follow-up (77.5%). There was a significantly higher follow-up rate for TVUS compared to the HSG cohort (88.0% vs 77.5%, p = 0.008). In the HSG subgroup, 184 patients were identified and 133 patients presented for HSG follow-up (72.3%) indicating a significantly higher follow-up rate in the TVUS cohort (88.0% vs 72.3%, p = 0.001). No pregnancies after any confirmation testing were noted. CONCLUSION: Confirmation testing with transvaginal ultrasound rather than hysterosalpingogram 3 months after Essure device placement results in increased patient compliance that may lead to improved patient outcomes with reduction of unintended pregnancy. Copyright (c) 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care. 2018 Apr; 44(2):147-148.Add to my documents.
BMJ Sexual and Reproductive Health. 2018 Jan; 44(1):72.Add to my documents.
Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care. 2017 Jul; 43(3):240-241.Add to my documents.
Laparoscopic Sterilization Under Local Anesthesia with Conscious Sedation Versus General Anesthesia: a Systematic Review of the Literature.
Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology. 2018 Mar - Apr; 25(3):393-401.Female sterilization is the most popular and common contraceptive method worldwide. Since hysteroscopic sterilization techniques are used less often due to its side effects, the number of laparoscopic sterilization is increasing. A systematic overview concerning the most optimal anesthetic technique for laparoscopic sterilization is lacking. We performed a systematic review to compare conscious sedation with general anesthesia for laparoscopic sterilization procedures with respect to clinical relevant outcome measures, i.e. operating times, perioperative parameters and complications, patients' comfort, recovery and patients' satisfaction. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing general anesthesia with conscious sedation for laparoscopic sterilization. Two authors (DH, HvV) abstracted and entered data into RevMan. Methodological quality of the included trials was critically appraised. For our main outcome measures, mean differences (continuous variables) and risk ratios (dichotomous variables) with 95% CI using random-effect models were calculated. Four RCTs were included comparing general anesthesia versus local anesthesia with conscious sedation for laparoscopic sterilization. The methodological quality of the studies was moderate to good. Both techniques were comparable with regard to operating times, complications, and postoperative pain. However, local anesthesia with conscious sedation showed better results compared to general anesthesia in respect of recovery times, patients' complaints of a soar throat, patients' recovery and satisfaction. In conclusion, this first systematic review about anesthetic techniques for laparoscopic sterilization showed that both general anesthesia and conscious sedation have no major anesthetic complications and might therefore be safe. Patients might benefit from conscious sedation in terms of recovery times, soar throat, patients' recovery and satisfaction, but only few studies are included in the review and studies are relatively old. New research regarding this subject is needed to advise our patients most optimally in the future about the best anesthetic technique to be used when choosing for a laparoscopic sterilization procedure. Copyright (c) 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
FP Essentials. 2017 Nov; 462:30-34.Female sterilization procedures include postpartum partial salpingectomy via cesarean or minilaparotomy incision, interval laparoscopic procedures, or hysteroscopic placement of microinserts. Rates of failure and serious complications are low and comparable among the various methods. A hysteroscopic procedure requires a 3-month confirmatory hysterosalpingogram before it is considered effective for contraception. Hysteroscopic sterilization has been shown to be associated with a higher reoperation rate than laparoscopic procedures. For male sterilization, vasectomy is a noninvasive and highly effective method. Vasectomy is an outpatient procedure performed under local anesthesia. The procedure requires confirmation of azoospermia with a semen analysis 8 to 16 weeks after the procedure. Patients who are considering sterilization should be counseled about all the available options and the permanent nature of such procedures. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.
Journal of Clinical Ultrasound. 2018 Feb; 46(2):132-135.From 2011 to 2015, a total of 67 patients were referred for IUD insertion guided with transabdominal sonography (TAS). Fifty-six of the 67 patients had successful IUD insertion under TAS guidance. The clinical indications for referral included fibroids, uterine position, previous history of IUD expulsion, and limited tolerance of pelvic examination. Reasons for failed TAS-guided IUD insertion included patient discomfort, cervical stenosis, and inability to remove and replace an existing device. Ultrasound guidance could help broaden the patient population that may benefit from the therapeutic value of an IUD. (c) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Journal of Endourology Case Reports. 2017; 3(1):105-107.Background: An intrauterine device is commonly used for contraception globally. Although intrauterine device placement is an effective and safe method of contraception, migration into the bladder with stone formation is a rare and serious complication. The management approaches for an intrauterine device embedded in the bladder include endoscopic procedures and open surgical removal. In this study, we report the case of a patient with recurrent urinary tract infection associated with intrauterine device migration and urolithiasis, who successfully underwent endoscopic treatment combined with laser fragmentation. Case Presentation: A 22-year-old woman presented to our hospital with a 1-month history of lower abdominal pain, hematuria, and pain on urination. Transvaginal ultrasound showed a hyperechoic lesion in the bladder. A plain abdominal radiograph showed the presence of a T-shaped intrauterine device with calculus formation in the pelvis. CT revealed a vesical stone fixed to the top of the bladder wall, and there was no vesicovaginal fistula formation. She had undergone intrauterine device insertion several years previously. Cystoscopy confirmed the diagnosis. She underwent endoscopic lithotripsy, and the intrauterine device was extracted from the bladder wall. Repair of the bladder wall and disappearance of symptoms were confirmed. Conclusion: Endoscopic treatment combined with laser fragmentation of stones surrounding a migrated intrauterine device should be considered as a minimally invasive approach, which can be performed safely.
Journal of Global Oncology. 2017 Oct; 3(5):635-657.Purpose: To provide resource-stratified, evidence-based recommendations on the secondary prevention of cervical cancer globally. Methods: ASCO convened a multidisciplinary, multinational panel of oncology, primary care, epidemiology, health economic, cancer control, public health, and patient advocacy experts to produce recommendations reflecting four resource-tiered settings. A review of existing guidelines, a formal consensus-based process, and a modified ADAPTE process to adapt existing guidelines were conducted. Other experts participated in formal consensus. Results: Seven existing guidelines were identified and reviewed, and adapted recommendations form the evidence base. Four systematic reviews plus cost-effectiveness analyses provided indirect evidence to inform consensus, which resulted in >/= 75% agreement. Recommendations: Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing is recommended in all resource settings; visual inspection with acetic acid may be used in basic settings. Recommended age ranges and frequencies by setting are as follows: maximal: ages 25 to 65, every 5 years; enhanced: ages 30 to 65, if two consecutive negative tests at 5-year intervals, then every 10 years; limited: ages 30 to 49, every 10 years; and basic: ages 30 to 49, one to three times per lifetime. For basic settings, visual assessment is recommended as triage; in other settings, genotyping and/or cytology are recommended. For basic settings, treatment is recommended if abnormal triage results are present; in other settings, colposcopy is recommended for abnormal triage results. For basic settings, treatment options are cryotherapy or loop electrosurgical excision procedure; for other settings, loop electrosurgical excision procedure (or ablation) is recommended. Twelve-month post-treatment follow-up is recommended in all settings. Women who are HIV positive should be screened with HPV testing after diagnosis and screened twice as many times per lifetime as the general population. Screening is recommended at 6 weeks postpartum in basic settings; in other settings, screening is recommended at 6 months. In basic settings without mass screening, infrastructure for HPV testing, diagnosis, and treatment should be developed.Additional information can be found at www.asco.org/rs-cervical-cancer-secondary-prev-guideline and www.asco.org/guidelineswiki.It is the view of of ASCO that health care providers and health care system decision makers should be guided by the recommendations for the highest stratum of resources available. The guideline is intended to complement, but not replace, local guidelines.
Cost-effectiveness analysis study of HPV testing as a primary cervical cancer screening in Thailand.
Gynecologic Oncology Reports. 2017 Nov; 22:58-63.OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to compare the cost and benefit of four different cervical cancer screening strategies involving primary HPV 16/18 genotyping, hrHPV testing alone and cytology for detecting CIN2 +. METHODS: Economical analysis using Markov modeling approach to combine the epidemiological data from current population-based study of The National Cancer Institute of Thailand. A cohort of 100,000 hypothetical female population age 30-65 years was simulated in each strategy. The compared strategies are HPV 16/18 genotyping with reflexed cytology, hrHPV testing alone followed by colposcopy, Papanicolaou standard cytology and liquid based cytology followed by colposcopy. The interval of screening was 5 years' interval. The main outcomes were defined as a number of CIN2 + cases and cost per 100,000 women screening over 35 years. RESULTS: Model predictions indicated that, the most cost-effectiveness strategy is hrHPV testing alone by reducing cost and also increase CIN2 + detection rate. It identify an additional 130 cases and decrease cost by 46,950,840 THB (1,394,441 USD) per 100,000 women screened when compared to HPV 16/18 genotyping. Compared with cytology, hrHPV testing decrease cost by 51,279,781 THB (1,523,011 USD) and detected more 506 cases of CIN2 +. From sensitivity analysis, the cost of HPV testing, cost of colposcopy, incidence of HPV infection and sensitivity of cytology may affect the results. (1 USD = 33.67 Baht). CONCLUSION: The results of this cost-effectiveness analysis support the full scale implementation of HPV testing as a primary cervical cancer screening in Thailand.