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Your search found 99 Results

  1. 1
    392467
    Peer Reviewed

    Cervical dilatation over time is a poor predictor of severe adverse birth outcomes: a diagnostic accuracy study.

    Souza JP; Oladapo OT; Fawole B; Mugerwa K; Reis R; Barbosa-Junior F; Oliveira-Ciabati L; Alves D; Gulmezoglu AM

    BJOG. 2018 Jul; 125(8):991-1000.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of the World Health Organization (WHO) partograph alert line and other candidate predictors in the identification of women at risk of developing severe adverse birth outcomes. DESIGN: A facility-based, multicentre, prospective cohort study. SETTING: Thirteen maternity hospitals located in Nigeria and Uganda. POPULATION: A total of 9995 women with spontaneous onset of labour presenting at cervical dilatation of
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  2. 2
    390779
    Peer Reviewed

    Women's recall of requirements for oral contraception prescription in Italy.

    Mulas F; Parazzini F; Bulfoni A; Motta T

    Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care. 2018 Apr; 44(2):147-148.

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  3. 3
    368915

    Sonographically guided insertion of intrauterine device: Indications and results.

    Balica AC; Kim CS; Egan S; Ayers CA; Bachmann GA

    Journal of Clinical Ultrasound. 2018 Feb; 46(2):132-135.

    From 2011 to 2015, a total of 67 patients were referred for IUD insertion guided with transabdominal sonography (TAS). Fifty-six of the 67 patients had successful IUD insertion under TAS guidance. The clinical indications for referral included fibroids, uterine position, previous history of IUD expulsion, and limited tolerance of pelvic examination. Reasons for failed TAS-guided IUD insertion included patient discomfort, cervical stenosis, and inability to remove and replace an existing device. Ultrasound guidance could help broaden the patient population that may benefit from the therapeutic value of an IUD. (c) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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  4. 4
    389992
    Peer Reviewed

    Characterization of vaginal lactobacilli from HIV-negative and HIV-positive Indian women and their association with genital HIV-1 shedding.

    Mane A; Angadi M; Vidhate P; Bembalkar S; Khan I; Bichare S; Ghate M; Thakar M

    Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2017 Oct; 66(10):1471-1475.

    One of the crucial determinants for successful administration of lactobacilli to the vaginal niche is the use of appropriate Lactobacillus species. In this cross-sectional study 54 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative and 76 HIV-positive antiretroviral treatment-naive women were evaluated for culturable vaginal lactobacilli and their association with genital HIV-1 shedding. Lactobacillus species were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing while cervical and plasma HIV-1 viral load was determined by Abbott real-time PCR. Lactobacilli were isolated in 77.8 % HIV-negative and 73.7 % HIV-positive women. The mean log10 plasma and cervical HIV-1 viral loads (RNA copies ml-1) were 3.73+/-1.02 and 2.85+/-0.32 respectively. We observed that presence of L. crispatus, L. gasseri or L. jensenii species was associated with undetectable cervical HIV-1 (P=0.046) and reduced genital HIV-1 shedding (P=0.048) compared to other species. Our findings endorse using Lactobacillus-based strategies to aid the prevention of HIV-1 transmission among Indian women, however confirmation by future prospective studies is indeed warranted.
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  5. 5
    389193

    [Intrauterine device: about a rare complication and literature review] Le dispositif intra-uterin: a propos d'une complication rare et revue de la litterature.

    Kallat A; Ibrahimi A; Fahsi O; El Sayegh H; Iken A; Benslimane L; Nouini Y

    Pan African Medical Journal. 2017; 27:193.

    The intrauterine device (IUD) is the most common contraceptive method used in the world. Transuterine migration is a rare complication, accounting for 1/350 - 1/10000 insertions in the literature. We report the case of a 40-year old patient, who had had an IUD insertion 12-year before, presenting with pelvic and right lower back pain associated with intermittent hematuria and burning during urination. Radiological assessment showed calcific deposits on intra bladder IUD. The patient underwent cystostomy, without any difficulty, allowing stone and IUD extraction. A urinary catheter was left in place for 5 days and then withdrawn. The postoperative course was uneventful.
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  6. 6
    388999

    When doctors deny drugs: Sexism and contraception access in the medical field.

    Delston JB

    Bioethics. 2017 Nov; 31(9):703-710.

    Politicians, employers, courts, and health insurance companies are often discussed as problematically preventing access to birth control. However, doctors have more direct control over women's health and quietly have been much more effective at preventing patients' access to contraception. Obstetrician/Gynecologists routinely deny their patients access to contraception ostensibly in the name of health by withholding birth control until patients undergo yearly pap smears. I argue that those in the medical field are motivated by similarly sexist concerns as those in other major institutions in the United States, but that they are often overlooked in discussions of biomedical ethics. After providing background, I argue that using birth control as a bargaining chip to control patients is morally impermissible, is paternalistic, and is contrary to consent. I next argue that sexism explains, though does not justify, this practice. I discuss the medical harms of routine pap smears and withholding birth control. These claims make medical malpractice likely. Withholding birth control to coerce individuals seeking medical care is medical malpractice, paternalistic, violates autonomy, and is contrary to consent. (c) 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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  7. 7
    388539

    [Pelvic actinomycosis: Diagnostic and therapeutic aspects] Actinomycose pelvienne : aspects diagnostiques et therapeutiques.

    Mbarki C; Ben Abdelaziz A; Sahnoun R; El Kadhi Y; Douik F; Hsayaoui N; Mezghenni S; Oueslati H

    Gynecologie, Obstetrique and Fertilite. 2016 Mar; 44(3):168-74.

    OBJECTIVES: Actinomycosis is a rare little known granulomatous suppurative disease, more common in women, aided by the use of contraceptive purposes intrauterine device (IUD). Pelvic location is the rarest with an extension to adjacent organs making preoperative diagnosis difficult and misleading clinical presentation. Early diagnosis of this affection determines the therapeutic strategy and avoids mutilating interventions especially in young women. METHODS: We reviewed the record of women who consulted the department of obstetrics and gynecology at Ben Arous hospital (Tunisia) between January 2003 and December 2013 for a pelvic pain syndrome and in whom diagnosis of actinomycosis was suspected by clinical and imaging and confirmed by pathology. RESULTS: Eight cases of gynecologic abdominopelvic actinomycosis were diagnosed during the study period. Seven patients were carriers of an intrauterine device, with an average duration of 5 years wearing. Functional signs were essentially pelvic pain and fever. Physical examination of patients mainly showed two clinical presentations: a pelvic tumor syndrome or abdominopelvic and an array of pelvic abscess or pelvic inflammatory disease. Radiological investigations were allowed to suspect the diagnosis of actinomycosis only in one patient, in whom percutaneous biopsy confirmed the histological diagnosis without resorting to a surgical procedure. Operative procedures performed were varied as appropriate. The diagnosis of actinomycosis was made by pathology without any cases of bacterial isolation. All patients received antibiotic treatment with penicillin. The subsequent evolution was favorable. CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of actinomycosis should be considered in any invasive abdominal mass of neoplastic appearance and in case of table of genital infection especially in patients bearing IUD for 5 years or more. Copyright (c) 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.
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  8. 8
    388365

    [Adolescents find it easy to collect their own samples to study sexually transmitted infections] Adolescentes encuentran facil tomar sus propias muestras para estudio de infecciones de transmision sexual.

    Huneeus A; Fernandez MI; Schilling A; Parra P; Zakharova A

    Revista Chilena de Infectologia. 2017 Apr; 34(2):116-119.

    BACKGROUND: As alternative for patients that fear genital examination, we assessed adolescent's comfort and ease with self-collected samples for nucleic acid amplification testing for sexually transmitted infections. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sexually active Chilean adolescents and youth under 25 years (174 males and 117 females) were enrolled. Females used self-collected vaginal swabs and males collected first-stream urine. A satisfaction survey evaluating self-sampling system was applied. RESULTS: Self-collection was considered easy in 99.3% of the interviewees (CI 95% 0.88-0.98). In women, 79.3% preferred vaginal self-collected samples than pelvic exam (CI 95% 0.73-0.85). In men, 80.3% preferred self-collected first-stream urine to urethral swabs (CI 95% 0.73-0.87). Assuming that self-collected sampling were available, 89.6% of women (CI 95% 0.85-0.94) and 93.2% of men (CI 95% 0.89-0.98) would be prone to be tested more often. Ease of self-collected sampling is not associated with age, gender, educational level or poverty. CONCLUSIONS: Chile currently does not have sexually transmitted infections surveillance or screening programs for youth and adolescents. Given self-collected sampling's good acceptability, it could be successfully used when these programs are implemented.
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  9. 9
    375486
    Peer Reviewed

    Spontaneous abortions (miscarriages): Analysis of cases at a tertiary center in North Central Nigeria.

    Adeniran AS; Fawole AA; Abdul IF; Adesina KT

    Journal of Medicine in the Tropics. 2015 Jan-Jun; . 17(1):22-26.

    Background: Spontaneous abortion (miscarriage) is a source of pregnancy loss globally. Its management, especially in low resource countries remains hampered by inadequate facilities for evaluation. Objectives: To assess the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of cases of spontaneous abortion at a tertiary hospital in Ilorin, Nigeria. Methodology: A descriptive study of all spontaneous abortions (miscarriages) managed at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2011. The records were retrieved from the medical records department and necessary information retrieved. Results: There were 603 miscarriages with a prevalence of 4.2%; incomplete miscarriage was the most common 254 (42.1%), 356 (59.0%) had no identifiable risk factor; 434 (72%) of the women were <35 years; 361 (59.9%) had first trimester miscarriages, 272 (45.1%) were of low parity (Para 0-1) and 223 (37%) were having a repeat miscarriage. Of the 141 managed for threatened miscarriage, pregnancy was salvaged in 90 (63.8%), 244 (40.5%) had surgical evacuation with 100% success rate while 218 (36.2%) had medical management with 90.8% success rate. The mean duration of admission was shortest with surgical management (2.03 +or- 1.1 days) and post-abortion infection rate was 11 (2.6%). Histology confirmed product of conception in 98% and molar gestation in 2% of the samples; no mortality was recorded in this study. Conclusion: More than half of women with miscarriages had no identifiable risk factors mainly due to limitation in facilities for evaluation; there is a need to improve facilities for investigating women with spontaneous abortions in developing countries to identify the causes of the losses.
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  10. 10
    369973
    Peer Reviewed

    Maternal infibulation and obstetrical outcome in Djibouti.

    Minsart AF; N'guyen TS; Ali Hadji R; Caillet M

    Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine. 2015; 28(14):1741-6.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to assess the relation between female genital mutilation and obstetric outcome in an East African urban clinic with a standardized care, taking into account medical and socioeconomic status. METHODS: This was a cohort study conducted in Djibouti between October 1, 2012 and April 30, 2014. Overall 643 mothers were interviewed and clinically assessed for the presence of female genital mutilation. The prevalence of obstetric complications by infibulation status was included in a multivariate stepwise regression model. RESULTS: Overall, 29 of 643 women did not have any form of mutilation (4.5%), as opposed to 238 of 643 women with infibulation (37.0%), 369 with type 2 (57.4%), and 7 with type 1 mutilation (1.1%).Women with a severe type of mutilation were more likely to have socio-economic and medical risk factors. After adjustment, the only outcome that was significantly related with infibulation was the presence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid with an odds ratio of 1.58 (1.10-2.27), p value=0.014. CONCLUSIONS: Infibulation was not related with excess perinatal morbidity in this setting with a very high prevalence of female genital mutilation, but future research should concentrate on the relation between infibulation and meconium.
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  11. 11
    369198
    Peer Reviewed

    Biological factors that place women at risk for HIV: Evidence from a large-scale clinical trial in Durban.

    Abbai NS; Wand H; Ramjee G

    BMC Women's Health. 2016 Mar 19; 16(19):1.

    Background: It is well documented that the mucosal linings of the female genital tract (FGT) usually provides a robust barrier that protects against sexually acquired infections. However, to the best of our knowledge there are limited South African studies that have investigated the association between damage to the mucosal linings and the acquisition of HIV infections. We hypothesize that in this cohort of women, a higher rate of HIV seroconversions will be observed for women who present with evidence of mucosal damage. Methods: We undertook a secondary analysis of the Methods for Improving Reproductive Health in Africa (MIRA) trial that assessed the effectiveness of the latex diaphragm and lubricant gel on HIV prevention among women. Participants underwent a physical examination which included a pelvic examination to detect the presence of mucosal abnormalities. During the physical examinations, the study clinicians examined the genitalia, cervix and vagina for signs of epithelial disruptions and abnormal vaginal discharge. The association between the various genital factors and HIV seroconversion was modeled using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Results: In this cohort of 1485 women that had enrolled to participate in the study, women that had presented with genital epithelial disruptions and abnormal vaginal discharge were shown to be at highest risk for HIV acquisition (Hazard Ratio (HR): 4.30, 95 % CI: 2.25, 8.22, p <0001, HR: 2.37, 95 % CI: 1.69, 3.33, p <0.001) respectively. In addition, the Kaplan Meier analysis showed that the highest number of seroconversions was observed in women that had disrupted genital epithelia (27 per 100/py, 95 % CI: 15.0, 50.7) and abnormal vaginal discharge (12 per 100/py, 95 % CI: 9.70, 16.7). Other significant factors included: genital signs and symptoms (HR: 1.67, 95 % CI: 1.07, 2.61, p = 0.02) and genital ulcers/sores (HR: 1.79, 95 % CI: 1.05, 3.06, p = 0.03). Conclusion: We have shown that damage to the mucosal epithelial lining increases a women's risk of HIV seroconversion. Future studies that provide an in depth understanding of the mechanisms associated with the FGT and mucosal immunity will be most valuable. An understanding of all of these mechanisms will be key in directing the advancement of products most suitable for combating HIV infection in women. Trial registration: This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov,number NCT00121459 on the 28th February 2007.
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  12. 12
    360183
    Peer Reviewed

    Epidemiology, Regional Characteristics, Knowledge, and Attitude Toward Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting in Southern Iran.

    Dehghankhalili M; Fallahi S; Mahmudi F; Ghaffarpasand F; Shahrzad ME; Taghavi M; Fereydooni Asl M

    Journal of Sexual Medicine. 2015 Jul; 12(7):1577-83.

    INTRODUCTION: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), also known as female circumcision, is an ancient traditional procedure that involves partial or total removal of the female external genitalia for nonmedical reasons. Although it is well described in African and some Arabic countries, data from Iran are scarce. AIM: To describe the epidemiology, regional characteristics, knowledge, and attitude toward FGM/C in Southern Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted during a 36-month period from 2010 to 2013 in Hormozgan, a southern province of Iran near the Persian Gulf. We included 780 women in six major rural areas of the province who referred to healthcare centers for vaccination, midwifery, or family planning services. All participants underwent complete pelvic examination to determine the type of FGM. The questionnaire consisted of several sections such as demographic and baseline characteristics, and two self-report sections addressing the knowledge and attitude toward FGM/C and its complications. Baseline sociodemographic characteristics including age, educational level, marital status, religion, and nationality were the independent variables. RESULTS: Among the participants, 535 (68.5%) had undergone FGM/C. FGM/C was associated with higher age (P = 0.002), Afghan nationality (P = 0.003), Sunni Islam as religion (P = 0.019), illiteracy (P < 0.001), and family history of FGM/C in mother (P < 0.001), sister (P < 0.001), and grandmother (P < 0.001). Ancient traditions in the area (57.1%) were mentioned as the most important factor leading to FMG/C. Urinary tract infection was the most common reported complication (60.4%). CONCLUSION: FGM/C is a common practice in rural areas of Southern Iran. It is associated with increased age, illiteracy, Sunni Islam religion, Afghan nationality, and positive family history. Lack of knowledge toward FGM/C is the main cause of its high prevalence and continuation in the area. (c) 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
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  13. 13
    366445
    Peer Reviewed

    A population-based study of US women's preferred versus usual sources of reproductive health care.

    Hall KS; Patton EW; Crissman HP; Zochowski MK; Dalton VK

    American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2015 Sep; 213(3):352.e1-14.

    OBJECTIVE: We characterized US women's preferred and usual sources of reproductive health care. STUDY DESIGN: Data were drawn from the Women's Health Care Experiences and Preferences Study, an Internet survey of 1078 women aged 18-55 years randomly sampled from a national probability panel. We described and compared women's preferred and usual sources of care (women's health specialists including obstetricians-gynecologists and family-planning clinics, primary care, other) for Papanicolaou/pelvic examination, contraception, and sexually transmitted infection (STI) services using chi(2), logistic regression, and kappa statistics. RESULTS: Among women reporting health service utilization (n = 984, 92% overall; 77% Papanicolaou/pelvic; 33% contraception; 8% STI), women's health specialists were the most used sources of care for Papanicolaou/pelvic (68%), contraception (74%), and STI (75%) services. Women's health specialists were also the most preferred care sources for Papanicolaou/pelvic (68%), contraception (49%), and STI (35%) services, whereas the remainder of women preferred primary care/other sources or not to get care. Differences in preferred and usual care sources were noted across sociodemographic groups, including insurance status and income level (P < .05). Preference for women's health specialists was the strongest predictor of women's health specialist utilization for Papanicolaou/pelvic (adjusted odds ratio, 48.8; 95% confidence interval, 25.9-91.8; P < .001) and contraceptive (adjusted odds ratio, 194.5; 95% confidence interval, 42.3-894.6; P < .001) services. Agreement between preferred and usual-care sources was high for Papanicolaou/pelvic (85%, kappa, 0.63) and contraception (86%; kappa, 0.64) services; disagreement (range, 15-22%) was associated with insurance, employment, income, race, and religion (P < .05). CONCLUSION: Women's preferences for and use of women's health specialists for reproductive health care has implications for efforts to define the role of obstetricians-gynecologists and family planning clinics in current health systems. Copyright (c) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  14. 14
    366439
    Peer Reviewed

    Health care access dimensions and cervical cancer screening in South Africa: analysis of the world health survey.

    Akinyemiju TF; McDonald JA; Lantz PM

    BMC Public Health. 2015; 15:382.

    BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer mortality among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Recent recommendations for cervical cancer primary prevention highlight HPV vaccination, and secondary prevention through screening. However, few studies have examined the different dimensions of health care access, and how these may influence screening behavior, especially in the context of clinical preventive services. METHODS: Using the 2003 South Africa World Health Survey, we determined the prevalence of cervical cancer screening with pelvic examinations and/or pap smears among women ages 18 years and older. We also examined the association between multiple dimensions of health care access and screening focusing on the affordability, availability, accessibility, accommodation and acceptability components. RESULTS: About 1 in 4 (25.3%, n = 65) of the women who attended a health care facility in the past year got screened for cervical cancer. Screened women had a significantly higher number of health care providers available compared with unscreened women (mean 125 vs.12, p-value <0.001), and were more likely to have seen a medical doctor compared with nurses/midwives (73.1% vs. 45.9%, p-value = 0.003). In multivariable analysis, every unit increase in the number of health care providers available increased the likelihood of screening by 1% (OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.01). In addition, seeing a nurse/midwife compared to a medical doctor reduced the likelihood of screening by 87% (OR = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.42). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that cost issues (affordability component) and other patient level factors (captured in the acceptability, accessibility and accommodation components) were less important predictors of screening compared with availability of physicians in this population. Meeting cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination goals will require significant investments in the health care workforce, improving health care worker density in poor and rural areas, and improved training of the existing workforce.
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  15. 15
    386382
    Peer Reviewed

    Immediate Postpartum Intrauterine Contraception Insertion.

    Prager SW; McCoy EE

    Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America. 2015 Dec; 42(4):569-82.

    The immediate postpartum period is a favorable time for initiating contraception because women who have recently given birth are often highly motivated to use contraception, pregnancy is excluded, and the hospital setting offers convenience for patients and providers. This article addresses immediate postpartum intrauterine contraception (IUC) insertion for copper and levonorgestrel IUC. Immediate postpartum IUC is safe and effective, with a majority of IUC devices retained at 6 and 12 months. There are increased rates of expulsion, compared with delayed postpartum insertion and interval insertion, which need to be weighed against the risk of patients not returning for postpartum follow-up.
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  16. 16
    386043
    Peer Reviewed

    Are breast and pelvic exams necessary when prescribing hormonal contraception?

    Batur P; Berenson AB

    Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. 2015 Oct; 82(10):661-3.

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  17. 17
    385745
    Peer Reviewed

    Early Evidence: No Link Between Reduced Cervical Cancer Screening and Teenagers' Contraceptive Use.

    Perspectives On Sexual and Reproductive Health. 2015 Sep; 47(3):152.

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  18. 18
    340666

    Checklist for screening clients who want to initiate use of the copper IUD.

    FHI 360

    [Durham, North Carolina], FHI 360, 2015. [3] p.

    Research findings over the past 30 years have established that intrauterine devices (IUDs) are safe and effective for use by most women, including those who have not given birth, who want to space births, and those living with or at risk of HIV infection. For some women, IUDs are not recommended because of the presence of certain medical conditions, such as genital cancer and current cervical infection. For these reasons, women who desire to use an IUD must be screened for certain medical conditions to determine if they are appropriate candidates for the IUD. FHI 360 (formerly Family Health International), with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), has developed a simple checklist to help health care providers screen clients who were counseled about contraceptive options and made an informed decision to use an IUD. This checklist is a revised version of the Checklist for Screening Clients Who Want to Initiate Use of the Copper IUD produced by FHI 360 in 2008. This version complies with the recommendations of the Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (WHO, updated 2015). This revision also includes guidance for providers whose clients may be eligible to use the IUD for emergency contraception. The checklist consists of 21 questions designed to identify medical conditions and high-risk behaviors that would prevent safe IUD use or require further evaluation. Clients who are ruled out because of their response to some of the medical eligibility questions may still be good candidates for an IUD if the suspected condition can be excluded through appropriate evaluation. A health care provider should complete the checklist before inserting an IUD. In some settings the responsibility for completing the checklist may be shared - by a counselor who completes questions 1-14, and an appropriately trained health care provider who determines the answers to the remaining questions during the pelvic exam. Providers trained to perform insertions may include nurses, nurse-midwives, nurse-practitioners, midwives, physicians, and, depending on the educational and professional standards in a country, physician’s assistants and associates. (Excerpts)
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  19. 19
    384666
    Peer Reviewed

    Should the annual pelvic examination go the way of annual cervical cytology?

    MacLaughlin KL; Faubion SS; Long ME; Pruthi S; Casey PM

    Women's Health. 2014 Jul; 10(4):373-84.

    The value of pelvic examination for healthy asymptomatic women has been called into question given the lack of benefit for ovarian and endometrial cancer screening, the ability to screen for sexually transmitted infections without a pelvic examination, and the uncoupling of the procurement of contraception with a pelvic examination. Still, there are indications for performing pelvic examinations in symptomatic women and in some high risk women. How do we as clinicians apply current evidence and expert opinion to our medical practice? Our recommendation to consider a pelvic examination at 3-5-year intervals with cervical cancer screening to elicit gynecologic and sexual health concerns offers a compromise between continuation of unnecessary annual pelvic examinations and complete elimination of these examinations.
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  20. 20
    383988
    Peer Reviewed

    Cervical Cancer Screening, Pelvic Examinations, and Contraceptive Use Among Adolescent and Young Adult Females.

    Vinekar KS; Vahratian A; Hall KS; West BT; Caldwell A; Bell JD; Dalton VK

    Journal of Adolescent Health. 2015 Aug; 57(2):169-73.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the association between pelvic examination and adolescent contraceptive method use in two time periods in the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). METHODS: Using data from the 2006-2010 NSFG, we used descriptive statistics and multivariable regression models to examine the association between pelvic examination and/or Pap smear and use of effective or highly effective contraceptive methods during two time periods (2006-2008 and 2008-2010). We used the design characteristics of the NSFG to produce population estimates. RESULTS: More than half (57.3%) of our target population reported that they had a pelvic examination and/or Pap smear in the preceding 12 months. After considering health service use, pregnancy history, and demographic characteristics, receipt of pelvic/Pap remained significantly associated with use of effective or highly effective methods of contraception. Adjusted odds ratio = 1.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.17-2.97. When we examined the relationship between pelvic/Pap and use of effective or highly effective methods within time periods, we found that the odds of effective contraception use were higher among adolescents who had received a Pap/pelvic examination in Period 1 (June 2006-May 2008) but not in Period 2 (June 2008-May 2010). Odds ratio = 3.05; 95% CI, 1.53-6.03 and odds ratio = 1.52; 95% CI, .88-2.62, Periods 1 and 2 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This finding provides some reassurance that although indications for pelvic examination and Pap smear among adolescents have decreased, the previously documented association between pelvic examination and effective or highly effective contraception appears to have decreased. Copyright (c) 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  21. 21
    383647
    Peer Reviewed

    [Screening of cervical HPV infection at the reproductive health centre of Ariana] Detection de l'infection a papillomavirus humain chez des consultants d'un centre tunisien de recherche de la sante de la reproduction.

    Ennaifer E; Tounsi H; Ben Aissa R; Kalai K; Fehri E; Laassili T; Guizani I; Boubaker MS

    La Tunisie Medicale. 2014 Apr; 92(4):253-7.

    BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality among women in developing countries. Over 99 per cent of cases are linked to genital infection with Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs), which are the most common sexually-transmitted viruses worldwide and infect an estimated 660 million people. In light of the advances of the development of HPV vaccines in the world, the challenges to introducing and sustaining such vaccines in the public sector are faced by our countries, generating the need of understanding the local epidemiology of the disease. aim : This study aims to obtain some relevant data on local disease burden in a big health care centre of Tunis. method : In this study, 133 healthy Tunisian women are screened for HPV infection with detection of 37 genotypes. Samples are collected on dry cotton swabs and genotyping use PCR and linear array assay. results : 7,8 % of women were infected and HPV 16 was the only High-risk genotype encountered. 62,5% of infected women doesn't show any cytological abnormality on pap smears. Low and High grade epithelial lesions were associated with HPV 16. Conclusion : There is currently few and sparse data in Tunisia. This work represents to our knowledge the first HPV cervical infection screening study in Tunisia in a basic health centre. The most relevant data is the High frequency of High risk HPV infections related to HPV 16. More than a half of cervical smears in infected women does not show any cytological abnormality and thus, pap smear screening is not appropriated to detect this infection.
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  22. 22
    382627
    Peer Reviewed

    Prevalence and correlates of cervico-vaginal clinical syndromes among women attending a health camp in Lalitpur district of Nepal.

    Johnson D; Chamot E; Lhaki P; Broker TR; Steben M; Steben M; Shrestha S

    Kathmandu University Medical Journal. 2013 Oct-Dec; 11(44):268-73.

    BACKGROUND: Sexual and reproductive health of women is a major public health problem in Nepal. Screening of cervico-vaginal clinical syndromes could potentially provide insights to the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), which is not known. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and factors associated with cervico-vaginal clinical syndromes in the socio-behavioral, medical, and public health context of Nepal. METHODS: Married women attending a clinical health camp held by the Nepal Fertility Care Centerin Khokana of Lalitpur district were recruited to the study. Seventy-three participants completed face-to-face questionnaires on basic socio-demographic, behavioral and reproductive health factors and underwent pelvic screening including clinical diagnosis of cervicitis and vaginitis. An univariate analysis was performed to determine if any of the self-reported variables were associated with abnormal pelvic examination (cervicitis and/or vaginitis). RESULTS: Vaginitis was diagnosed in three (4.4%) participants, while cervicitis was detected in 16 (23.5%) women. None of the participants reported any high risk sexual behavior. However, 28% of the participants reported having had STI diagnosis in the past and was associated (P<0.008) with abnormal pelvic results. Additionally, women with lower education were associated (p<0.02) with abnormal pelvic results. CONCLUSIONS: The high occurrence of cervicitis in our exploratory could indicate the high prevalence of STIs. However, while there could potentially be an unknown epidemic of STIs related to the clinical syndromes, point of care testing practice might help to understand the true prevalence of STIs in Nepali women and also reduce the health burden and consequences of over treatment based on the current symptomatic diagnosis.
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  23. 23
    371419

    Migrated Essure permanent birth control device: sonographic findings.

    Khati NJ; Gorodenker J; Brindle KA

    Journal of Clinical Ultrasound. 2014 May; 42(4):223-6.

    We report a case of a migrated Essure permanent birth control device. The correct diagnosis was made on conventional two-dimensional and three-dimensional pelvic sonography 7 years after placement of the device when the patient presented with persistent right-sided pain. The 3-month post placement hysterosalpingogram had shown an appropriately occluded right fallopian tube but had overlooked the abnormal position of the right Essure device, which was too proximal and extending slightly in the uterine cavity. Copyright (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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  24. 24
    380960
    Peer Reviewed

    Predicting painful or difficult intrauterine device insertion in nulligravid women.

    Kaislasuo J; Heikinheimo O; Lahteenmaki P; Suhonen S

    Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2014 Aug; 124(2 Pt 1):345-53.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship of preinsertion vaginal ultrasound assessment and menstrual and gynecologic history as predictors of difficult or painful intrauterine device insertion in nulligravid women. METHODS: Nulligravid women seeking contraception were invited to participate in this nonrandomized study and given the choice between the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system or a copper-releasing intrauterine device. All 165 enrolled women were interviewed and a pelvic examination, including vaginal ultrasonography, was performed before insertion. Insertion difficulties and pain intensity were recorded and assessed against uterine measurements and background characteristics. RESULTS: Most insertions were assessed as easy (n=144 [89.4%]) and only two (1.2%) failed. Most women had uterine measurements smaller than the studied devices. Odds for difficulties at insertion decreased with every increasing millimeter in total uterine length (odds ratio [OR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78-0.96, P=.006) and cervical length (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74-0.97, P=.02) and similarly with every decreasing degree of (straighter) flexion angle (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99, P=.005). No absolute threshold measurements could be determined. Still, the majority of insertions in small and flexed uteri were uneventful. Severe insertion pain was common (n=94 [58.4%]). Severe dysmenorrhea was the only predictor of insertion pain (OR 8.16 95% CI 2.56-26.02, P<.001). CONCLUSION: Ultrasonographic evaluation does not give additional information compared with clinical pelvic examination and sound measure. Although smaller uterine length measurements and steeper flexion angle more often predicted difficulties, the majority of insertions were uneventful in women with small measures. Dysmenorrhea was the only predictor of pain. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01685164. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.
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  25. 25
    380571
    Peer Reviewed

    Obstetrician-gynecologists' beliefs on the importance of pelvic examinations in assessing hormonal contraception eligibility.

    Yu JM; Henderson JT; Harper CC; Sawaya GF

    Contraception. 2014 Dec; 90(6):612-614.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe obstetrician-gynecologists' beliefs regarding the importance of pelvic examination (including external genitalia inspection, speculum examination, bimanual examination) in assessing hormonal contraception eligibility. METHODS: In a national probability survey, 1020 obstetrician-gynecologists drawn from the American Medical Association's Physician Masterfile rated importance of the examination in four categories: very, moderately, a little and not important. RESULTS: The response rate was 62% (n=521). Seventy-nine percent considered at least one exam component to be of some importance (very, moderately, or a little importance). Bimanual examination was rated more often than external examination in each level of importance (p<.001). Physicians who believed no component of the examination was important were more likely to be younger, female and in practice settings other than private practice. CONCLUSIONS: Despite guidelines stating that pelvic examinations are unnecessary in assessing hormonal contraception eligibility, most obstetrician-gynecologists believe that they are of some importance. These attitudes may pose a barrier to contraception provision. Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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