Your search found 7 Results
Seattle, Washington, PATH, 1998.  p.Emergency Contraceptive Pills (ECPs) must be taken within 3 days after sex. Any of the birth control pills listed below can be used as ECPs. Use only the type of pill your health care provider prescribed for you. Use only one type of pill. One hour before the first ECP dose, take an anti- nausea medicine (like Dramamine II or Benadryl) to reduce the chance of nausea. Repeat according to labeled instructions. This may make you feel tired, so don't drive or drink any alcohol. Take the first ECP dose as soon as convenient within 3 days (72 hours) after unprotected sex (try to time the first dose so that the timing of the second dose will be convenient). Take the second ECP dose 12 hours after the first dose. Important: Do not take any extra ECPs. More pills will not make the treatment work better. More pills will increase your risk of feeling sick to your stomach. (excerpt)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 1998 Sep; 19(3):240-250.The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of humidity and packaging materials on the stability of iodine in typical salt samples from countries with tropical and subtropical climates, under controlled climatic conditions. Initially we examined eight samples. In the second phase we expanded the study to salts from 18 sources and attempted to correlate the observed stability with salt impurities naturally present in these samples. High humidity resulted in rapid loss of iodine from salt iodized with potassium iodate, ranging from 30% to 98% of the original iodine content. Solid low-density polyethylene packaging protected the iodine to a great extent. High losses were observed from woven high-density polyethylene bags, which are often the packaging material of choice in tropical countries. Impurities that provided moisture at the salt surface had the most deleterious effect. Although clear correlations were not obtained, the presence of reducing agents, hygroscopic compounds of magnesium, and so forth seemed to have the most adverse effects on the stability of iodine. Surprisingly, carbonates had little effect on stability over the range present in the samples. Packaging salt in low-density polyethylene bags, which provided a good moisture barrier, significantly reduced iodine losses, and in most cases the iodine content remained relatively stable for six months to a year. The findings from this study indicate that iodine can be highly unstable, and in order to ensure the effectiveness of local salt-iodization programmes, countries should determine iodine losses from local iodized salt under local conditions of production, climate, packaging, and storage. (author's)
[Unpublished] 1998 Dec. v, 43, xxiv p.This paper assesses the usability of two rapid malaria diagnostic kits in Malawi: 1) the Falciparum Malaria IC Strip Test from the Program for Appropriate Technology (PATH), and 2) OptiMal Assay from FLOW Incorporated. The research conducted consisted of kit integration, kit use, instructions use, and quality product design. The goals were to: 1) collect information on the user suitability, acceptability, functionality, and ease of use; 2) identify the level of expertise and type of training needed by the end user; 3) evaluate the comprehensibility and usefulness of the kit's instructions insert; 4) assess consistency of user performance over time; 5) identify technical problems with the use of these two rapid tests; 6) assess end user ability to accurately perform and interpret test results; 7) determine how best to introduce the kits into African clinical settings; 8) consider attitudes of service providers and patients toward the use of these two rapid tests; and 9) identify the needs of providers presently providing malaria diagnostics and assess if these tests address those needs. Findings reveal that the FLOW kit was easier to use than the PATH kit because the FLOW kit involved fewer steps. The majority of users greatly liked the kit because it gave accurate, safe and decisive malaria testing. It is hoped that manufacturers of malaria diagnostic kits will use these results to improve products before final introduction into the field. Recommendations are given for product and packaging redesign, product integration, and product instructional inserts.
BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. 1998; 76 Suppl 1:9-19.Except for the artemisinin derivatives recently deployed in southeast Asia, resistance has emerged to all antimalarial drugs. The Task Force for Improved Use of Antimalarials was created within the UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) in 1993, with the purpose of establishing, through research, measures to take to protect the few existing antimalarials in the southeast Asian region. Research was conducted in China, Myanmar, Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, and Viet Nam. The task force characterized the problems in drug compliance in southeast Asia, and developed interventions to improve drug use in the various countries. Interventions involved drug packaging, public information campaigns, and assessments of drug quality. It was found that blister packaging worked best in improving drug compliance and that the increased cost of packaged medication did not limit its use. Poor drug quality is a major problem in unregulated countries which should be improved.
The effect of drug packaging on patients' compliance with treatment for Plasmodium vivax malaria in China.
BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. 1998; 76 Suppl 1:21-7.China's Hunan Province has experienced 3 Plasmodium vivax malaria outbreaks since the start of the province's malaria control program in the 1950s. However, despite ongoing malaria control efforts, the incidence of the disease has risen since 1986. Findings are presented from a comparison of patients' compliance in completing a full course of antimalarial treatment. One group was given medication in paper envelopes, while another group was given medication in improved packaging with simple, written use instructions. The difference in compliance between 3-day chloroquine and 8-day primaquine courses of treatment for vivax malaria was compared, with the level of real compliance determined by marking the drugs with phenobarbital, then measuring its level in the blood following treatment. 138 patients were assigned to the intervention group receiving blister packaging and 134 to the control group receiving paper envelopes. Blister packaging significantly improved patients' compliance over traditional means of dispensing antimalarial drugs. That is, there was no difference in treatment compliance between 3-day and 8-day courses when the drugs were delivered in blister packs. However, with ordinary packaging, the treatment compliance rate for the 8-day course was significantly lower than for the 3-day course.
Emergency contraceptive pills: what does the law say about prescribing, dispensing, repackaging, and advertising?
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL WOMENS ASSOCIATION. 1998; 53(5 Suppl 2):233-7.Despite US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of certain combined oral contraceptives (OCs) for purposes of emergency contraception, many health care providers are unclear about the legal aspects of off-label use of existing products. This paper provides an overview of the legal issues related to prescribing, dispensing, repackaging, and advertising emergency contraception. There are no FDA restrictions on a physician's authority to prescribe an approved drug for an off-label use. States vary widely in the extent to which they grant prescribing authority to non-physician health care providers (e.g., pharmacists) and the limits they place on that authority. Physicians who directly dispense emergency contraceptive pills should adhere to state dispensing requirements, which generally include mandates for labeling and packaging. In some states, providers with dispensing authority may repackage OCs to dispense to their patients for postcoital use. Health care providers (but not manufacturers) can use advertisements announcing the availability of emergency contraceptive services at their facility. Overall, most legal issues related to use of OCs for emergency contraception constitute the "practice of medicine," which the FDA does not regulate. There is no known case in the US in which liability has been imposed against a health care provider in association with the provision of emergency contraception. In fact, malpractice liability may be far greater for providers who do not provide this regimen to medically suitable women who have had unprotected intercourse and do not wish to become pregnant.
Women's preferences for vaginal antimicrobial contraceptives III. Choice of a formulation, applicator, and packaging.
CONTRACEPTION. 1998 Oct; 58(4):245-9.New vaginal antimicrobial contraceptives are under development to provide women with a means of protection against sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, under their control. A descriptive study conducted in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in 1996-97 assessed the preferences of 635 adolescent and adult women from low, middle, and high socioeconomic groups in terms of dosage forms, width, length, applicator color, and packaging. 38-40% of women in the two age and two social class groups indicated a preference for a gel formulation and about 18% favored a cream. A film was the least acceptable formulation. The main reasons given for selecting a particular vaginal formulation were ease of use (39%), no or pleasant odor (27%), no color (23%), ability to use an applicator for insertion (21%), no requirement to wait for the product to dissolve (15%), non-messiness (13%), and ease of storage and transport (12%). The main reasons for rejecting a formulation were discomfort (32%), plastic appearance (25%), mistrust of the method's effectiveness (22%), insertion difficulties (19%), and messiness (13%). A prefilled single-dose applicator was preferred by about 60% of respondents. These findings can be used to guide the development of novel products that are easy and fast to use as well as effective and acceptable.