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  1. 1

    Standard specifications for rubber contraceptives (condoms). American National Standard ANSI/ASTM D 3492-77.

    American Society for Testing and Materials [ASTM]

    In: American Society for Testing and Materials [ASTM]. Annual book of ASTM standards. Part 38. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ASTM, 1980. 13-6.

    This document describes the requirements for condoms made of rubber latex intended for single use as specified by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) in 1977. Condoms must be manufactured from good quality rubber latex; they may be transparent, translucent, opaque, or colored. Condoms must not liberate toxic or otherwise harmful substances. The open end of condoms must end with an integral rim. 10 condoms out of a batch of 144,000 at most must be tested for design, including length, width, thickness, and mass or weight. Length must be from 160 mm to 180 mm +or- 10 depending on smooth or textured surface and on width; width must be from 49 mm to 52 mm +or- 2-3, again depending on type of surface; thickness must be 0.04 mm +or- 0.07-0.09, and maximum weight must be from 1.50 g to 1.95 g depending on smooth or textured surface. 25 condoms out of a batch of 144,000 at most must be tested for tensile properties, including tensile strength and elongation at breaking. Inspection for leakage must follow ISO 2859, General Inspection Level 1 for an acceptable quality level of 0.4%. Each condom must be filled with 300 cu cm of water and inspected for holes. Each condom must be marked with the manufacturer's name and date of manufacture. Every package must have name and address of manufacturer or distributor, and the name of the country of manufacture. Proper packaging should protect condoms for 10 years or more. Condoms should not be kept in storage longer than necessary, and should be stored in a cool place. One retest is possible before final rejection of lots not conforming to design and physical requirements. No retest is permissible for lots not conforming to test for quality assurance (leakage).
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  2. 2

    [Recommendations for marketing of infant foods] Recommandations pour la commercialisation des aliments de l'enfance.

    Societe Francaise de Pediatrie. Comite de Nutrition

    Archives Francaises de Pediatrie. 1980 Jun; 6(37):415-6.

    Frequency of breast feeding has decreased in most European countries; this decrease is due partly to the lack of knowledge of the importance of breast feeding on the part of young mothers and also of nursing personnel, but it is especially due to the excessive promotion of infant formula on the part of the industry. This promotion is carried out even in maternity hospitals through distribution of pamphlets and brochures to mothers, and through radio and television commercials, and through the liberal distribution of free samples. Several international organizations have already acted to limit the publicity in favor of maternal milk substitutes. A document, elaborated by the French Pediatric Association, and approved in 1979 by the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, makes several recommendations to encourage breast feeding and limit bottle feeding. The major recommendations are: 1) publicity in favor of maternal milk substitutes must never be addressed directly to the public, but it must be filtered through information given by the medical and paramedical profession; 2) all labeling of maternal milk substitutes must clearly state that maternal milk is the ideal infant food until at least 3 months of life; 3) breast feeding must occupy the 1st place in all brochures on infant feeding directed to the public; 4) distribution of free samples to families and hospitals must stop; and 4) no reduced prices are admissable even for the sale of products to clinics, hospitals, and maternity hospitals.
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  3. 3

    The social marketing of contraceptives in Mexico.

    de la Macorra L


    The success in social marketing of the PROFAM brand of subsidized contraceptives, by a nonprofit private institution that supports the Mexican government program, is related here. PROFAM began in 1978, when half of contraceptives were purchased commercially from drugstores: they were neither economical, consistently distributed, nor advertised. Comprehensive market research revealed that a great demand existed. It generated information for choice of items to market, package design, and instructions. In 1979, pills, condoms, foam, cream and vaginal suppositories, all locally produced were distributed. A serious problem initially was the impropriety of using the word "contraceptive" in the media. The first phase of advertising targeted newspapers. After 3 months, 40% of Mexico's drugstores carried PROFAM. The second phase of advertising, in radio, magazines and newspapers, approached consumers with information tailored to the specific socioeconomic group involved. The third phase, geared to rural areas and general stores, concentrates on advantages of each method. Other aggressive aspects of the campaign include house to house sampling and a mail-in question and answer service. Evidence of success in broadcasting the PROFAM message is the frequent reference to PROFAM in jokes in the media and even in graffiti. The government's goal is to reduce the growth rate form 2.9 percent annually to 1 percent by 2000.
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  4. 4

    Trip report: Tegucigalpa, Honduras, November 17-21, 1980.

    Samuel SJ

    Washington, D.C., Futures Group, International Contraceptive Social Marketing Project, 1980. [28] p. (Project No. AID/DSPE-CA-0087)

    As an initial step in implementing a contraceptive commercial retail sales project, the Family Planning Association of Honduras, ASHONPLAFA, requested US Agency for International Development (USAID) assistance in assessing the feasibility of a commercial retail sales (CRS) project. This report consists of the findings of a consultant visit made for this purpose from November 17-21, 1980. The consultation focused on the following: development of an organizational design for the project; development of a preliminary marketing plan, including identification of subcontractors and outline of tasks; preparation of a brief statement of the underlying socioeconomic conditions which justify a CRS project; and preparation of a preliminary report for immediate use, which was written during the site visit and appears as Appendix B in this report. On the basis of the consultation visit, it was determined that a commercial sales project is desirable and feasible in Honduras. A significant portion of the population which does not currently have access to contraceptives (because of high commercial prices and insufficient public health services) could afford them at lower prices. In addition, more than adequate advertising, distribution, and packaging resources exist in Honduras. Market research services, though inadequate locally, are readily available through firms based in Guatemala. A retail sales program in Honduras might have the following characteristics: products and packaging -- an oral contraceptive, condom (in packages of 3), and a vaginal tablet (in tubes of 12 or 20 tablets) with packaging locally designed and produced; prices and margins -- a month's supply of each product would cost the consumer about 1 Lempira, and margins would be comparable to those of other products in the same distribution system; distribution -- 1 or 2 commercial distributors could be used to distribute the 3 products in return for their standard margin; advertising and promotion -- a low key campaign emphasizing radio and point-of-purchase promotion is indicated here, with a modest press campaign directed to opinion leaders; personnel -- at a mimimum, the project will require an experienced manager and secretary to coordinate advertising, distribution, inventory, packaging, and other project elements; timing -- after the project is approved and funding obtained, market research, construction of an advertising campaign, and contracting with a distributor and packaging may occur within 3-4 months; project organization -- the project may be undertaken directly by ASHONPLAFA, by a separately incorporated subsidiary of ASHONPLAFA, by subcontracts, or by some combination or variation of these forms of organization; and a nationwide program can be expected to reach between 50-70,000 users at maintenance levels.
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  5. 5

    Standard specification for rubber condoms (single use).

    South Africa. Bureau of Standards

    Pretoria, South Africa, SA Bureau of Standards, 1980. 12 p.

    This standard specification for rubber condoms was approved by the Council of the South African Bureau of Standards on February 27, 1980. It covers the following: scope; definitions; requirements; packing and marking; sampling and compliance with the specification; and inspection and methods of test (conditioning, inspection, dimensions, mass, tensile strength and elongation at break, aging, freedom from holes, bleeding, and determination of pH value of aqueous extract). The specification deals with rubber condoms intended for single use. A defective condom is a condom that fails, in 1 or more respects, to comply with the relevant requirements of the specification. Condoms shall be manufactured from good quality natural rubber latex and shall be free from embedded grit and discoloration. The condoms and any dressing material applied to them shall not liberate substances which are known to be toxic or otherwise harmful to the skin or mucous membrane under normal conditions of use. The length of a condom shall be at least 175 mm. The width of a condom, when laid flat and measured at any point not more than 85 mm below the rim of the bead, shall be not less than 49 mm and nor more than 56 mm. The thickness of the double wall of a condom shall be not less than 0.06 mm and not more than 0.16 mm. The mass of a condom shall not exceed 1.7 g in the case of a smooth surfaced condom and 1.9 g in the case of a condom with a textured surface. A condom shall be free from visible defects and from holes that are detected when it is tested. Unless the color is specified by the purchaser, the choice of color shall rest with the manufacturer. Each condom shall be packed individually in a sealed, lightproof envelope of the bubble pack type that will protect the condom from damage during normal storage and handling and that can be torn open easily without causing any damage to the condom. Each bulk container in which condoms or smaller multiple packages are supplied shall bear the following information in legible and indelible marking: the manufacturer's name and address and trade name or trade mark; a description of the contents; the expiration date (month and year); the quantity of condoms; and the words "store in a cool place." Appendices provide applicable standards, notes to purchasers, and notes on storage.
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  6. 6

    Report on visit to Bangkok, Manila and Bombay to study production methods of oral rehydration salt.

    [Unpublished] [1980]. 8 p.

    A study tour was undertaken by the Social Marketing Project in Bangladesh to observe production facilities of oral rehydration salt (ORS) in Bangkok, Manila, and Bombay. This report describes raw materials, plants and equipment, methods and procedures, and quality control for each country. In Thailand the Government Pharmaceutical Organization, under the Ministry of Health, supervises ORS production. ORS has been produced for the last 3 years and presently about 200,000 packets/month (equivalent of 1 litre solution) are being produced, following the World Health Organization (WHO) UNICEF formulations. The Ministry of Health in Manila has been providing ORS based on the WHO formulations for the past 6 years. Currently production is about 2 million packets with proper equipment. Distribution is through district health officials and village health workers. As an adjunct to ORS distribution there is a plan to introduce water purification tablets. The Fairdeal Corporation in India is a commercial pharmaceutical organization which produces 2 ORS solutions: 1) Electral which does not include bicarbonate and accounts for about 80% of total production, and 2) Electral Forte which has sodium bicarbonate and is recommended in severe dehydration cases in adults. Their research has shown that the WHO formulation is inadequate for many countries. Presently sales are about 500,000-600,000 packets/month mainly distributed through medical practitioners. This study also found that: 1) organic lipidity of the product is critical for acceptance; the addition of a flavoring agent is considered important especially for acceptance by small children, and 2) closely controlled humidity conditions (30-35%) and temperature (23 degrees Centigrade) are essential to the formulation and increases the life of the salts to 10-15 days even after opening the packs.
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  7. 7

    Rubber condoms. Australian Standard. AS 1919-1980.

    Standards Association of Australia

    North Sydney, New South Wales, SAA, 1980. 10 p.

    This standard for the rubber condom was prepared by the Committee on Contraceptive Devices of the Standards Association of Australia and was initially published in 1976. In the preparation of the standard the committee considered the work of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) TC 157, Devices for Birth Control. It also referred to the British standard for rubber condoms (BS 3704), but the inflation test included in this standard is based on that specified in the Swedish standard. The standard covers the following: scope; definitions; materials; samples; design and dimensions; freedom from holes; bursting volume; colorfastness; packing; information on storage and on the use of lubricants; and marking. This standard specifies requirements for rubber condoms intended for single use. In regard to materials, condoms shall be manufactured from natural or synthetic rubber. The condoms and any dressing material applied to them shall not liberate substances which are toxic or otherwise harmful under normal conditions of use. Inspection lots shall be submitted packaged for supply or use. When tested in accordance with Appendix B to this standard, the condom shall present no visual evidence of leakage. When tested in accordance with Appendix C of this standard, the condom shall not leak or burst at a capacity of less than 15 L. When the condom is tested in accordance with Appendix D, there shall be no change in the color of the buffer solution nor evidence of staining of the absorbent paper by the pigment used to color the condom. Lubricated condoms shall be tested in the lubricated condition. Each condom shall be packed in a sealed unit pack in a hygienically satisfactory manner. The unit pack shall be packed in a primary pack sufficient robust to protect the condoms against damage during normal transport and storage. Either the unit pack or the primary pack shall be opaque. Information on how to store the condoms and on the use of lubricants shall be given on a leaflet enclosed in the primary pack. The unit pack shall be permanently and legibly marked with the registered trade name or trademark of the manufacturer and the batch number. The primary pack shall be marked with a description of contents, the expiration date together with the words indicating that the condom should not be used after the expiration date, instructions for storage, the batch number or numbers where the contents are drawn from different batches, and the name and registered address of the manufacturer and, for imported condoms, the name and registered address of the Australian distributor.
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  8. 8

    Rubber condoms. Part 10. Packaging and labelling. International standard ISO 4074/10. First ed. 1980-12-01.

    International Organization for Standardization [ISO]

    Stockholm, ISO, 1980. 3 p.

    Part 10 of ISO 4074 specifies requirements for the packaging and labelling of rubber condoms. Each condom shall be packed in an individual sealed container in hygienically satisfactory conditions. Several individual containers may be packed together in a consumer package. If a marking medium such as ink is used on a condom or on any part of a package directly in contact with a condom, it shall not be deleterious to the condom or harmful to the user. Individual containers or consumer packages shall be so designed, and made from such materials, that the condoms are fully protected during transport and storage and do not suffer any mechanical damage when the container and package is opened. When consumer packages are filled by other than the maufacturer, it is desirable that the packer maintains adequate records for product traceability. The packaging material shall not mildew in tropical climates and shall not attract insects. Each condom or individual container shall carry the following information: 1) the manufacturer's or distributor's recognizable identification, for example trade mark, name, abbreviated name; and 2) the manufacturer's identification reference for traceability, for example the batch number. Additionally, each consumer package shall carry the following information: 1) the manufacturer's or distributor's name; 2) the number of contained condoms; 3) the registered certification mark of the 3rd party certification body, where applicable; and 4) instructions for use; (Note--Alternatively these may be given on a separate leaflet within the package.). Furthermore, if required by the purchaser, standardizing body, regulating authority or manufacturer, each consumer package shall also carry the following information: 1) the batch number; 2) the expiration date (month and year) i.e. the date after which the contained condom shall not be used; and 3) instructions for storage, for example "Store in a cool, dry place away from direct sunlight or ozone". (full text)
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  9. 9

    Standards and quality control in contraception.

    Kestelman P

    [Unpublished] 1980. Presented at the International Family Planning Association Seminar for Pharmacists, Dublin, Ireland, January 30, 1980. 8 p.

    In this discussion of standards and quality control in contraception, attention is directed to the following: scope; effectiveness; spermicides; diaphragms; condoms; labeling; evaluation; and stage of testing. The oral contraceptive (OC) is 100% effective, and the condom is not 100% effective. Couples limiting their families tend to use OCs most carefully, while couples spacing their families tend to use condoms less carefully. To make a fair comparison between OCs and the condom, it is necessary to compare like with like. In a recent UK study of married women, the 1st year pregancy rate was 5% for OC, 11% for the condom, and 14% for the diaphragm. For women married since 1970, contracepting after their 1st or 2nd pregnancies, the pregnancy rate was 4% for OCs and only 5% for the condom. Combining a good quality condom with a compatible spermicide is theoretically as effective as OCs. In regard to spermicides, their laboratory testing may bear practically no relation to their contraceptive effectiveness. It is plausible to suppose that spermicides satisfying the former International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) Agreed Test are more effective contraceptives than other spermicides. When last submitted, all spermicides widely available in the UK satisfied the former IPPF Agreed Test. There are few national standards on diaphragms and none on other caps. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is attempting to fashion an international diaphragm standard. There are many national condom standards and an ISO technical committee is on the way to an international condom standard. It is important to distinguish between so-called electronic testing which is applied to all condoms, and sample testing, which is the concern of condom standards. Electronic testing seeks to eliminate condoms with holes or weak spots. The sample testing esentially checks the efficiency of that process, which may vary widely. Immediatly after electronic testing, the British Standard (1979) prescribes a sampling frequency of 1%. From each production quantum of 10,000 condoms, 100 random samples are taken and inspected for visible defects. The same condoms are then tested for holes. The Swedish State Standard (1972) prescribes the same test for holes, performed on condoms sampled from every batch imported into Sweden. Different standards also prescribe somewhat different tests for condom strength. Most condom standards prescribe dimensions. There are various requirements on labeling, and some standards prescribe instructions on storage and use. 99.5% freedom from holes is achieved, yet the main cause of method failure is a burst condom. It is guessed that at least 1 in 1000 good quality condoms burst, yielding a pregnancy rate of about 0.3/100 woman years.
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  10. 10

    Relationship of condom strength to failure during use.

    Program for the Introduction and Adaptation of Contraceptive Technology [PIACT]

    Piact Product News. 1980 Oct; 2(2):1-2.

    Less-than-ideal environmental conditions, especially in developing countries with tropical or desert climates, prolonged storage times because of unpredictable supply and distribution, and inexperience with warehousing and logistics causing haphazard turnover of stocks can accelerate deterioration of condoms and render them unsuitable for use. As condom strength standards have never been related directly to failure during use, a Program for the Introduction and Adaptation of Contraceptive Technology (PIACT) study, in collaboration with Planned Parenthood of Seattle-King County, Washington, was conducted to determine the actual relationship between condom strength and failure during use (see July 1980 issue of Contraception). The study found that: 1) air burst test parameters can effectively and sensitively measure changes in condom strength; 2) condoms produced by Western industrial standards exceed by a wide margin the minimum strength required for effective use; and 3) stored condoms should not necessarily be thrown out if they are uniform in strength, even though they fall below accepted standards for new condoms. The study also brought out the issue of condom packaging. The potent deteriorating effect of ultraviolet light on condoms is well-known, and it is therefore suggested that condoms be packaged in foil or opaque laminates on both sides. A separate study requested by the U.S. Agency for International Development investigating the relationship between the 2 tests for condom strength (air burst standards as used in the PIACT study and tensile strength measurements) showed that air burst data and tensile strength parameters closely reflected the same characteristics, thus providing support for the use of air burst strength measurements for predicting useful life of stored condoms.
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  11. 11

    Estrogenic drugs--patient package inserts.

    Morris LA

    In: Morris LA, Mazis MB, Barofsky I, ed. Product labeling and health risks. [Cold Spring Harbor, New York], Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1980. 23-36.

    This paper evaluates the communication value of the federally required oral contraceptive (OC) and estrogen patient package inserts (PPIs). PPIs are required to be made available to users of certain prescription drugs, in particular, OCs and estrogen drugs to enable consumers to make informed choices about the drug. In the case of the OCs, PPI was required because OCs are used by healthy women for nontherapeutic purposes and are associated with serious risks (e.g., fatal blood clots). Originally, it was required that 2 types of printed materials be made available to patients: a relatively brief insert (9 sentences of information) and a longer brochure (22 paragraphs) to be dispensed by the physician upon patient request. A national survey of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1975 to evaluate the effects of the PPI and brochure on consumer behavior revealed high levels of reported receipt and readership. Another finding showed that people tended to remember what they considered the most important information about OCs, but were unable to identify the contents of specific sections of the insert. The survey was unable to determine to what degree or manner the PPIs affected decision making of the consumer. The FDA survey resulted in lengthening of the brochure and the insert to include new information about cardiac and cancer risks. In addition, it is now required that both brochure and insert be dispensed to the patient. With respect to estrogen PPIs, the PPIs were required by the government in 1977 to accompany estrogen drugs after epidemiological studies indicated an increased risk of endometrial cancer with prolonged usage of the drug. The estrogen PPI was 35 paragraphs long and frankly discussed the dangers and risks associated with estrogen. Critics maintained that such warnings merely served to frighten women without improving the quality of care or patient decision-making. Data regarding the effects of estrogen PPI are presently limited. Studies are being done to evaluate its effects on patient decision making. On a gross measure of retail sales, however, a decrease of use of estrogen has been observed. Jick (1979) reported a 27% decline in endometrial cancer from 1975 to 1977. The role of PPI in this decline however is not known. Further research should be done to determine more fully the effects of PPIs on patients' level of knowledge about prescription drugs and on their decision-making process.
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  12. 12

    [Contraceptives: return of the condom] Le contraceptif: retour des redingotes.

    Benoist A

    l'Infirmiere Francaise. 1980 Nov; 219:27.

    About 70 milion condoms are sold every year in France. The history of the condom is a very long one; it was first described by Falloppe in the 16th century, and came into widespread use in the 18th century. After the 2nd world war the technique of condom manufacturing improved enormously, and today's condoms have a remarkable tactile sensitivity, and the greatest resistence and elasticity. An enormous variety of condoms are marketed in France; however, all condoms are packaged in individual wrappers which preserve the characteristics for a very long time.
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  13. 13

    Oral rehydration salts.


    New York, UNICEF, 1980 May 28. 3 p.

    The activity of UNICEF in connection with oral rehydration therapy in developing countries is outlined. UNICEF was instrumental in developing an oral rehydration formulation based on research conducted in Bangladesh and India. The formula and packaging for this commodity is discussed. Oral rehydration salts are used for all age groups stricken with diarrhea in order to replace fluids and salts. UNICEF has been active in distributing oral rehydration packets, distributing over 10 million in 1978 alone. Its large-scale production has reduced the cost from an original 30 cents/packet to approximately 7 cents/packet. UNICEF is trying to aid in and supervise local production of the salts in several countries.
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  14. 14

    Estrogens: another riddle for middle age.

    Grastel B; Hecht A

    FDA Consumer. 1980 Nov; 14(9):13-5.

    Discussion focused on the historical controversy concerning estrogen treatments for menopausal women and on the advantages and disadvantages of using this type of treatment. The conclusion was reached that women should carefully evaluate the benefits and risks of estrogen treatments and then decide, in consultation with their physician, whether to accept or reject the treatment. Prior to the mid-1960s estrogens were only given to women with severe menopausal problems. The use of estrogen by menopausal women greatly increased after the publication of R. Wilson's book, called Feminine Forever, which promoted estrogens use as a way to stay young and to avoid the physical and emotional difficulties associated with the menopause. In 1975 several studies indicated that women who took estrogens for more than 1 year were at increased risk of endometrial cancer. In 1975 the Food and Drug Administration sent a bulletin to physicians advising them of the risk and recommended that estrogens should be used in the lowest possible dosage. The Food and Drug Administration also published a patient brochure explaining the risks and benefits associated with estrogen treatment. In 1979 the Consensus Development Conference on Estrogen Use and Postmenopausal Women, sponsored by the National Institute on Aging concluded that 1) estrogens effectively reduce hot flashes, sweating, and vaginal discomfort and may reduce osteoporosis; 2) there is little evidence that estrogen reduces the emotional problems associated with the menopause; 3) there is little substantial evidence that estrogen treatments increase the risk of heart attacks, blood clots, strokes, or breast cancer; and 4) estrogen treatments do increase the risk of developing endometrial cancer and the risk increases with duration of use.
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  15. 15

    High estrogen content oral contraceptives continued availability.

    FDC Reports. Drugs and Cosmetics. 1980 Oct 27; 42(43):T and G-8.

    The Fertility and Maternal Health Drugs Advisory Committee recently recommended the continued marketing of all current OC (oral contraceptives) doses on the market. It also recommends the revision of the labeling caution on "dose-related risk of thromboembolism from OC" to "studies have shown a possible (substituted for 'positive') association between the dose of estrogen in OCs and risk of thromboembolism". A cautionary statement on patient package labeling should indicate to the patient that doubling dose or side effects of breakthrough bleeding will result in higher amounts of estrogen. The recommendations were based on a review of high dose OC studies presented by Boston University. The review failed to conclusively establish the claim that higher dose estrogens are less safe than those containing smaller amounts of estrogen. Cited were the major findings of the Walnut Creek Contraceptive Drug Study, the most comprehensive prospective investigation of American OC users. The findings suggest that: 1) there is no evidence of an increase in risk of cancer of breast, endometrium or ovary associated with OC use; 2) OC use in itself does not increase risk of cervical cancer; 3) OC users who do not smoke do not have any increase in risk from circulatory disease; and 4) increase in risk of malignant melanoma of skin was associated with OC users of all ages.
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  16. 16

    Village-based distribution of oral rehydration packets in Bangladesh.

    Chen LC; Black RE; Sarder AM; Merson MH; Bhatia S; Yunus MD; Chakraborty J


    Sucrose-electrolyte oral therapy packets (1 liter) were distributed to a rural Bangladesh population of 157,000 by community-based workers and this effort was evaluated. A similar population of 134,000 served as a comparison group. The locally-produced packets showed satisfactory chemical composition with a shelf-life of up to 3 months and a cost of U.S. $.05. After 4 months, the workers were distributing an average of 70 packets/1000 population/month. Most patients used 1 packet/diarrheal episode; 13% of children used 2 packets, and 15% and 8% of adults used, respectively, 2 and 3 packets. The electrolyte composition of the oral fluids prepared by fieldworkers and mothers showed substantial variation, but no hyperconcentrated solutions were noted. When comparing the hospitalization rate from the 2 study areas, it appears that there was a 29% reduction in hospital stays for diarrhea during the 4-month distribution period. (Authors' modified)
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  17. 17

    Integrating oral rehydration therapy into community action programs: what role for private voluntary organizations?

    Centre for Population Activities [CEFPA]

    Washington, D. C., CEFPA, 1980. 42 p.

    A workshop, sponsored by the Centre for Population Activities, the National Council for International Health, and the Pan American Health Organization, meet in 1980 to discuss the use of ORT (oral rehydration therapy) in health and development programs and to determine how private and voluntary organizations could be encouraged to become involved in efforts to extend ORT availability. ORT is a technique for reducing dehydration in patients suffering from prolonged diarrhea. Diarrhea related dehydration is a serious problem among children in developing countries, especially among malnourished children. In 1975, 5 million children under 5 years of age died from diarrhea in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. The therapy consists of administering a solution of sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, potassium chloride, glucose, and water to the patient in order to balance the composition of body fluid. Initially the solution had to be administered intravenously at a treatment center; however, the solution can now be administered orally to mildly or moderately dehydrated patients by the patient's family in the home setting. The solution is given to the patient frequently and amount is determined by the patient's thirst for the solution. Packets containing enough dry ingredients to mix with 1 liter of water are now available. These packets can be centrally or locally manufactured. The solution can be mixed at health centers upon request, or the packets can be distributed directly to family members who are then taught how to mix and administer the solution. Various community action programs can incorporate an ORT component. Personnel in these community action programs, working at all organizational levels, should receive training in ORT. Community workers should receive intensive training so that they in turn can teach families in the community to use the therapy. The programs should use all available communication channels to send out accurate messages about ORT. The program should also organize the distribution of the packets and develop evaluation procedures for the ORT program component. WHO, UNICEF, USAID, and the National Council for International Health provide various forms of assistance to governments or to private and voluntary organizations interested in developing ORT programs.
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  18. 18

    Vaginal contraceptives: available but-.

    Hecht A

    FDA CONSUMER. 1980 Feb; 14(1):29-30.

    A panel set up by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of vaginal contraceptives available over-the-counter, has considered only 3 of all ingredients studied to be effective: menfegol, not available in the U. S., nonoxynol, and octoxynol. The FDA panel has recommended that any product should be put on the market clearly labeled, without difficult words or exaggerated claims. Packages with vaginal contraceptives should not include promotion for other vaginal drug products. The panel also recommended that all mercury compounds be banned from over-the-counter vaginal contraceptives, since mercury can be absorbed through the vagina and carried through the woman's system, with possible danger for the fetus.
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