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  1. 1

    Public health product catalog 2010.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]; John Snow [JSI]. DELIVER

    Arlington, Virginia, JSI, DELIVER, 2009. [14] p. (USAID Contract No. GPO-I-01-06-00007-00)

    USAID's Public Health Product Catalog 2010 is a catalog of condoms and contraceptives provided by USAID.
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  2. 2

    Training manual. Training providers on packaging nevirapine oral suspension using the nevirapine infant-dose pouch.

    Program for Appropriate Technology in Health [PATH]

    Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2006 Aug. [11] p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. GPH-A-00-01-00005-00; USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No. PN-ADI-174)

    This training manual was developed to assist programs planning to introduce the nevirapine infant-dose pouch into prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS (PMTCT) programs. This brief manual is intended for adaptation by programs and can be implemented by itself or integrated into ongoing training. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Sourcing guide. The nevirapine infant-dose pouch for use in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV / AIDS programs. Version 1.

    Program for Appropriate Technology in Health [PATH]

    Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2006 Aug. 23 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. GHA-A-00-01-00005-00; USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No. PN-ADI-175)

    As part of a public-private partnership with the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and Boehringer Ingelheim (BI; manufacturer of Viramune®1 brand nevirapine), PATH developed a simple solution, the nevirapine (NVP) infant-dose pouch. This pouch can help prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS (PMTCT) programs overcome the packaging challenges to increased coverage of at-risk newborns with the infant dose of NVP. The purpose of the Sourcing Guide is to provide PMTCT programs with the information they would need to independently procure NVP infant-dose pouches for use in PMTCT services. While PATH developed the NVP infant-dose pouch and validated its use in the field, PATH is not a manufacturer or supplier of the pouch. PATH's design for the pouch uses readily available packaging materials and processes which may be locally available in many countries. This guide will help programs either: Procure pouches from a current manufacturer(s) identified by PATH; or Engage a local or regional packaging manufacturer to produce pouches of similar function and quality. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Triton quarterly analysis of FOF [Family of the Future] plans, fiscal report and funding request for September-November 1981 (Quarter 3).

    Triton Corporation

    Washington, D.C., Triton, 1981. 28 p. (Contract No. NEB-0029-C-1037-00, Egypt)

    The report details plans for the activities and expenditures related to the promotion and sale of contraceptive devices in Egypt for the 3rd quarter of 1981. Family of the Future (FOF) is a nongovernmental agency which operates on a US Agency for International Development grant of $27,200. Major activities from the previous quarter are summarized and plans for each of the 6 FOF departments are provided. The Medical Promotion and Distribution department will develop distribution strategies including locating new cities and establishing sales targets for IUDs, condoms, and spermicides; prepare information booklets for doctors and pharmacists on devices as they are added to the product line; and oversee warehousing details and sponsor conferences for pharmacists and doctors. These activities are expected to consume 25.6% of the proposed budget. The advertising and art department will determine communication strategies for all products. Copy and time slots will be suggested for mass media promotion of FOF and of available family planning methods to be aired on television stations and 6 radio stations. Inserts for 6 newspapers, 7 weekly magazines, 5 bi-monthly or monthly magazines, and 4 special audience publications will be prepared. This department will operate on 31.3% of the budget. Other promotional activities will include the design and production of multi-product countertop displays and of giveaway items. The medical and scientific department will sponsor a symposium for influential university affiliated obstetricians and gynecologists from 4 cities to stimulate interest in family planning and in FOF and its products. Training programs on IUD insertions will be provided. Volunteers and social affairs departments will use 25 volunteers to organize 110 rallies reaching 2500 people each that are gathered in crowded places or through door-to-door contact. Volunteers will also continue to collect interview data. Volunteer training is planned to target seasonal vacation areas. Samples of condoms and spermicides, booklets, and pamphlets will be distributed during upcoming festivals. A central location will be established from which volunteers can answer questions. The market research department plans to conduct 19 group sessions and continue data collection for the pharmacy intercept study. Market research training in the US is arranged for an FOF employee. No changes are planned which would affect the administration department. A detailed financial analysis of quarterly projections and expenditures is provided. Revenues from sales of contraceptive devices are also included in the report. An evaluation of the planned activities and recommendations for additional activities are detailed.
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  5. 5

    Visit to WHO / GPV to discuss introduction of vaccine vial monitors, March 20-24, 1995.

    Fields R

    Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, 1995. [3], 10, [14] p. (BASICS Trip Report; BASICS Technical Directive: 000 HT 51 012; USAID Contract No. HRN-6006-C-00-3031-00)

    In March 1995, a BASICS (Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival) Project technical officer participated in a World Health Organization (WHO) Global Programme on Vaccines and Immunization (GPV) meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, about introduction of vaccine vial monitors (VVMs). VVMs constitute color-coded labels that can be affixed to vials of vaccines which, when exposed to heat over time, change irreversibly. In 1994, WHO and UNICEF requested that, starting in January 1996, VVMs be affixed on all UNICEF-purchased vials of oral polio vaccine. Yet, UNICEF does not require vaccine manufacturers to include VVMs in their vaccine labels. USAID has supported much of the development and field testing of VVMs since 1987. Participants discussed status of interactions between UNICEF and vaccine manufacturers, issues and means related to introducing VVMs worldwide, and the prospect for conducting a study or studies on the initial effect of VVMs on vaccine-handling practices. They also heard an update on the pilot introduction of VVMs in some countries. BASICS could contribute to the development of a plan for global VVM introduction, since time constraints and heavy workloads face WHO/GPV leaders. UNICEF and GPV staff suggested that other VVM products from different manufacturers also be sold to avoid a monopoly. Participants considered issues of global introduction and resolution of issues with manufacturers of VVMs and vaccines to be high priority issues. WHO and UNICEF asked BASICS to draft general training materials for staff at the central, provincial, district, and periphery levels, focusing on actions that each level should take as a result of VVM use. They also asked BASICS to develop a quick-reference sheet for policy makers.
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  6. 6

    Developing an ORS marketing program in Malawi, July 19 -August 4, 1994.

    Porter R; Saade C

    Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, 1994. [3], 35, [25] p. (BASICS Trip Report; BASICS Technical Directive: 000 ML-00-012; USAID Contract No. HRN-6006-C-00-3031-00)

    In 1994, the USAID-supported BASICS project sent a team to Malawi to help USAID/Malawi, Pharmanova, Ltd., the Ministry of Health (MOH), and other participating groups develop a social marketing strategy for oral rehydration salts (ORS) and a new ORS package design. USAID agreed to buy raw materials and packaging material for the local manufacture and distribution of ORS. Pharmanova agreed to produce packaged ORS to supply MOH with 7 million ORS packets over 2 years. Pharmanova would manufacture 1.4 million more ORS packets to be sold commercially. The preliminary plan for the marketing of a new ORS product centers on marketing activities to promote the national launch of Pharmanova's ORS product scheduled for April 1995. The BASICS team developed marketing objectives and strategies that addressed major issues identified by the market situation analysis: development of a product identity and presenting the ORS product in a productive way to users, ORS distribution in rural areas to complement public sector distribution, improvement of health providers' and drug retailers' knowledge in oral rehydration therapy (ORT), and coordination of all ORS/ORT activities among UNICEF, MOH, USAID, Pharmanova, and other suppliers and professional associations. The team designed and managed a rapid qualitative study of consumer reaction to 5 graphic concepts, promotional copy, illustrated mixing instructions, and a list of potential product names in Chichewa. Based on this research, the silhouette package design, the product name of Madzi A Moyo, clear and direct statements of product benefits were chosen for ORS brand identity. Feedback from focus groups led to two revisions of the illustrated mixing instructions. Recommendations centered on coordination and implementation of the ORS marketing program, training of health professionals, mobilizing retailers, sustaining ORS marketing, designing a long-term sustainable strategy for ORS supply, and working with Pharmanova to strengthen other child survival activities in Malawi.
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  7. 7

    Acceptability of a stronger condom. Final report.

    Cordero M; Abdou Tounkara M; Bratt J; Steiner M; Joanis C

    Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, Family Health International [FHI], 1989 Nov. [2], 4, [8] p.

    Under contract with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), Family Health International compared 2 brands of condoms for acceptability in Mali, Sri Lanka, and the Dominican Republic. Lifestyle 3, 3.4 mils thick, was compared with Prime, 2.6 mils, to determine whether the thicker of the 2 could be potentially distributed by USAID in developing countries. 65 current condom users, sexually active, and free of STDs for the past year were provided with the Lifestyle 3 condoms, informed that they were thicker, and then interviewed after 1 month of use. 8 condoms were given to each user in the Dominican Republic, and 15 for each in Sri Lanka and Mali. No study data was available for Sri Lanka due to political unrest. Lifestyle 3 was, however, well-accepted in Mali and the Dominican Republic, with additional strength and security cited as extremely desirable factors by over 1/2 of the study participants. Greater protection against both pregnancy and AIDS was considered important. Almost all who were interested in buying the stronger condoms said that they would pay more for them. Lifestyle 3 condoms were also reported to be more comfortable with sensitivity comparable to Prime. The breakage rate for the stronger condom was 1:143, comparable to Consumer Report's March, 1989, study results of 1:140. The Lifestyle 3's labelless silver foil packaging was also found to be overwhelmingly preferred to the standard plastic packaging of other brands. Addition studies of both breakage rates and consumer preference for condom packaging are encouraged. Limited market introduction of Lifestyle 3 is also suggested.
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  8. 8

    Distribution and logistics.

    Fabricant S

    In: ICORT II proceedings. Second International Conference on Oral Rehydration Therapy, December 10-13, 1985, Washington, D.C., [edited by] Linda Ladislaus-Sanei and Patricia E. Scully. Washington, D.C., Creative Associates, 1986 Dec. 83-5.

    At a recent international conference on Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) there were discussions on policy issues. Advances in oral rehydration solution (ORS) local production, and the use of private sector and public sector distribution. It was agreed that the roles of ORS packets and home solutions must be carefully thought through and the be the basis of the program. If ORS is going to be available at the household level then the use of the private sector should be considered. The policy to use informal distribution channels and traditional healers has shown to increase public access to ORS. Also, donor support of ORS commodities may not lead to self sufficiency. Governments should plan for self sufficiency in advance and should manage donor support. Advances in local ORS production include factors that promote low cost production such as efficient personnel, economical procurement of materials, appropriate choice of equipment, minimizing duties, and using existing production facilities. The adoption of a citrate ORS formula allows the use of cheaper packaging material. The private sector can and should be used to make ORS available on a wide scale. Product pricing is a highly complex problem and the mothers ability to pay must be balanced against the profit incentives in the distribution system. Subsidies have been necessary to encourage the private sector and mass media campaigns have proven to be a useful subsidy. The key factor in gaining wide coverage is the person who contacts the mother. Competition can be useful in gaining greater effective usage but there are tradeoffs. The high costs of import licenses and hard currency have been stumbling blocks for the private sector production in some countries. It was found that it is inadvisable to set up a separate distribution system for ORS and it should not be given priority over other child survival interventions. Also a policy of cost recovery can make a program more viable in the absence of donor assistance and has increased confidence in the product and therapy.
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  9. 9

    Private sector local production of contraceptives: current options for A.I.D.

    Program for Appropriate Technology in Health [PATH]

    Seattle, Washington, PATH, 1990 Apr. v, 80, [30] p.

    A private contractor for the US Agency for International Development did a study on the provision of assistance to the private sector in developing nations for the production of contraceptives. The study has 4 objectives; to provide USAID with various strategies for meeting the demands for contraceptives in developing countries in the 1990's; to recommend activities to facilitate local private production of contraceptives; to provide an update on certain examples in the production of contraceptives in Egypt, Bangladesh, India, and Mexico; and to outline how developing countries can gain technical assistance for private sector production from US private and government agencies. Results indicate that estimated capital investments required for local production are modest. There are large scale projects in Egypt, India, and Bangladesh to initiate large scale local production of contraceptives. Most of the capital investment and operating costs can be paid in local currency. However, in countries other than Bangladesh and Egypt, there are limited opportunities for USAID to assist in the establishment of new private sector production ventures, but there are possibilities for upgrading and expanding existing facilities. Technical services provided by government and private agencies can assist developing country firms with local production of contraceptives. It was recommended that assistance be provided to initiate, upgrade, and expand local contraceptive production in selected developing countries. The transition from imported donor supplied to local production should be facilitated as well as intermediate production. Long term investment by technology suppliers should be ensured. Public-private partnerships should be included and supported. USAID should provide assistance in quality oversight capabilities, establish a clearinghouse for requests, and coordinate with other agencies. Case studies on contraceptive production in India, Bangladesh, Egypt and Mexico are presented.
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  10. 10

    Oral rehydration salts: an analysis of AID's options.

    Elliott V

    [Columbia Maryland], Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Public Applied Systems, 1984 Sep. 26, [13] p. (Contract No. PDC-1406-I-02-4062-00, W.0.2; Project No. 936-5939-12)

    Westinghouse Health Systems, under a US Agency for International Development (USAID) contract, ass ssed the global supply and demand of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and developed a set of recommendations concerning USAID's future role as a supplier of ORS. 1.5 billion ORS packets (assuming each packet is equivalent to 1 liter of ORS solution) would be required to treat all ORS treatable cases of diarrhea which occur annually among the world's children under 5 years of age. Currently, about 200 million packets are manufactured/year. In 1983, international sources supplied slightly less than 37 million packets, and the remaining packets were produced by local or in-country manufacturers. UN Children's Fund (UNICEF), which currently provides 81% of the international supply, contracts with private firms to manufacture ORS and then distributes the packets to developing countries, either at cost or free of charge. UNICEF purchases the packets for about US$.04-US$.05. USAID provides about 12.3% of the international supply. Prior to 1981, USAID distributed UNICEF packets. Since 1981, USAID has distributed ORS packets manufactured by the US firm of Jianas Brothers. USAID must pay a relatively high price for the packets (US$.08-US$.09) since the manufacturer is required to produce the packets on an as needed basis. Other international suppliers of ORS include the International Dispensary Association, the Swedish International Development Authority, the International Red Cross, and the World Health Organization. Currently, 38 developing countries manufacture and distrubute their own ORS products. These findings indicate that there is a need to increase the supply of ORS; however, the supply and demand in the future is unpredictable. Factors which may alter the supply and demand in the future include 1) the development of superior alternative formulations and different type of ORS products, 2) a reduction in the incidence of diarrhea due to improved environmental conditions or the development of a vaccine for diarrhea, 3) increased production of ORS in developing countries, 4) increased commercial sector involvement in the production and sale of ORS products, and 5) the use of more effective marketing techniques and more efficient distribution systems for ORS products. USAID options as a future supplier of ORS include 1) purchasing and distributing UNICEF packets; 2) contracting with a US firm to develop a central procurement system, similar to USAID's current contraceptive procurement system; 3) contracting with the a US firm to establish a ORS stockpile of a specified amount; 4) promoting private and public sector production of ORS within developing countries; 5) including ORS as 1 of the commodities available to all USAID assisted countries. The investigators recommended that USAID should contribute toward increasing the global supply of ORS; however, given the unpredictability of the ORS demand and supply, USAID should adopt a short-term and flexible strategy. This strategy precludes the establishment of a central procurement system; instead, USAID should contract a private firm to establish an ORS stockpile and to fill orders from the stockpile. Consideration should be given to altering the ORS packets size and to alternative ORS presentations. USAID should also promote the production of quality ORS products within developing countries and continue to support research on other diarrhea intervention strategies. This report also discusses some of the problems involved in manufacturing and packaging ORS. The appendices contain 1) a WHO and UNICEF statement on the ORS formulation made with citrate instead of bicarbonate, 2) a list of developing countries which manufacture ORS, and 3) statistical information on distribution of ORS by international sources.
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  11. 11

    Caribbean contraceptive social marketing project, a project of the Futures Group: progress report.

    Futures Group

    Washington, D.C., Futures Group, [1984]. [2] p.

    The current status of the Caribbean contraceptive social marketing project, implemented by the Futures Group in conjunction with the Barbados Family Planning Association, is described. Contraceptive social marketing is a strategy in which commercial marketing techniques are used to promote the subsidized sale of contraceptive products. The contraceptives distributed in the Caribbean program are provided by the US Agency for International Development (USAID). Under a contract with USAID, the Futures Group, a private management and marketing consulting firm, provides financial and technical assistance for the Caribbean project. The project represents the 1st attempt to implement a social marketing project on a regional basis. The program is in the initial implementation stage and, at the present time, involves only Barbados, St Lucia, and St Vincent. Later, the program will be extended to Antigua, Dominica, St. Kitts and Nevis, and Trinidad and Tobago. Many of these countries requested their own social marketing program, due in part to their high rate of teenage pregnancy; however, the cost of setting up a separate program in each of these countries would be prohibitive. For this reason the regional approach was adopted. Many elements of an existing social marketing program in Jamaica were transferred to the Caribbean project after a study demonstrated that these elements were culturally acceptable to other countries in the Caribbean region. The Caribbean project distributes Pearl, a standard dose oral contraceptive (OC), Pearl LD, a low dose OC, and Panther, a condom. The USAID-developed package for Panthers was used in the program, and the Pearl package, used in the Jamaican project, was updated for use in the regional program. The regional advertising firm of Corbin, Compton Associates, based in Barbados, was hired to promote the products. The agency developed point of purchase materials and mass media messages, using the successful Jamaican slogan, "if you care about life." Since Caribbean youth rely on their elders for advice, a mature voice is used to present family planning messages over the radio. Panther commercials explain that real men take responsibility for family planning. Frank B. Armstrong, Limited, a firm experienced in distributing pharmaceuticals, was hired to distribute the program's products. In Barbados, the products are currently available in almost all pharmacies, in 1/3 of the country's supermarkets, and 1/2 of the country's small retail outlets. In the other 2 countries, they are available in selected pharmacies and small shops. Prices for the products are set differently in each country and are well below the price of commercially marketed contraceptives. The program was officially launched in February, 1984, by holding receptions for pharmacists and physicians in each of the 3 countries. Numerous meetings will be held in the future to promote the program among community leaders, health providers, and medical associations. The initial reaction to the program was positive in all 3 countries. The program includes a research component. The Operation Research Project of Tulane University, a USAID funded project, will be in charge of the research component. The impact of the advertising campaign will be monitored, and information will be collected periodically to assess the impact of the program on contraceptive usage and purchases. The research protocol is expected to be applicable to other social marketing programs outside the Caribbean region. The Futures Group's resident advisor for the project is Gail A. Washchuck, and the project's director is Enric C. Connolly. In view of the smooth initiation of the project, the launch date for the programs in the remaining countries may be advanced to early 1985.
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  12. 12

    Trip report: Tegucigalpa, Honduras, November 17-21, 1980.

    Samuel SJ

    Washington, D.C., Futures Group, International Contraceptive Social Marketing Project, 1980. [28] p. (Project No. AID/DSPE-CA-0087)

    As an initial step in implementing a contraceptive commercial retail sales project, the Family Planning Association of Honduras, ASHONPLAFA, requested US Agency for International Development (USAID) assistance in assessing the feasibility of a commercial retail sales (CRS) project. This report consists of the findings of a consultant visit made for this purpose from November 17-21, 1980. The consultation focused on the following: development of an organizational design for the project; development of a preliminary marketing plan, including identification of subcontractors and outline of tasks; preparation of a brief statement of the underlying socioeconomic conditions which justify a CRS project; and preparation of a preliminary report for immediate use, which was written during the site visit and appears as Appendix B in this report. On the basis of the consultation visit, it was determined that a commercial sales project is desirable and feasible in Honduras. A significant portion of the population which does not currently have access to contraceptives (because of high commercial prices and insufficient public health services) could afford them at lower prices. In addition, more than adequate advertising, distribution, and packaging resources exist in Honduras. Market research services, though inadequate locally, are readily available through firms based in Guatemala. A retail sales program in Honduras might have the following characteristics: products and packaging -- an oral contraceptive, condom (in packages of 3), and a vaginal tablet (in tubes of 12 or 20 tablets) with packaging locally designed and produced; prices and margins -- a month's supply of each product would cost the consumer about 1 Lempira, and margins would be comparable to those of other products in the same distribution system; distribution -- 1 or 2 commercial distributors could be used to distribute the 3 products in return for their standard margin; advertising and promotion -- a low key campaign emphasizing radio and point-of-purchase promotion is indicated here, with a modest press campaign directed to opinion leaders; personnel -- at a mimimum, the project will require an experienced manager and secretary to coordinate advertising, distribution, inventory, packaging, and other project elements; timing -- after the project is approved and funding obtained, market research, construction of an advertising campaign, and contracting with a distributor and packaging may occur within 3-4 months; project organization -- the project may be undertaken directly by ASHONPLAFA, by a separately incorporated subsidiary of ASHONPLAFA, by subcontracts, or by some combination or variation of these forms of organization; and a nationwide program can be expected to reach between 50-70,000 users at maintenance levels.
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  13. 13

    Relationship of condom strength to failure during use.

    Program for the Introduction and Adaptation of Contraceptive Technology [PIACT]

    Piact Product News. 1980 Oct; 2(2):1-2.

    Less-than-ideal environmental conditions, especially in developing countries with tropical or desert climates, prolonged storage times because of unpredictable supply and distribution, and inexperience with warehousing and logistics causing haphazard turnover of stocks can accelerate deterioration of condoms and render them unsuitable for use. As condom strength standards have never been related directly to failure during use, a Program for the Introduction and Adaptation of Contraceptive Technology (PIACT) study, in collaboration with Planned Parenthood of Seattle-King County, Washington, was conducted to determine the actual relationship between condom strength and failure during use (see July 1980 issue of Contraception). The study found that: 1) air burst test parameters can effectively and sensitively measure changes in condom strength; 2) condoms produced by Western industrial standards exceed by a wide margin the minimum strength required for effective use; and 3) stored condoms should not necessarily be thrown out if they are uniform in strength, even though they fall below accepted standards for new condoms. The study also brought out the issue of condom packaging. The potent deteriorating effect of ultraviolet light on condoms is well-known, and it is therefore suggested that condoms be packaged in foil or opaque laminates on both sides. A separate study requested by the U.S. Agency for International Development investigating the relationship between the 2 tests for condom strength (air burst standards as used in the PIACT study and tensile strength measurements) showed that air burst data and tensile strength parameters closely reflected the same characteristics, thus providing support for the use of air burst strength measurements for predicting useful life of stored condoms.
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  14. 14

    An evaluation of the commercial distribution of contraceptives program in Nepal.

    Seims T; Smith T

    [Unpublished] 1978. 26 p.

    The 4 marketing variables of product concerns, pricing, distribution and promotion, as well as planning and finance, transition from Westinghouse toNepali management, and areas needing improvement are discussed for a commercial distribution of contraceptives project in Nepal. The selection process for brand names for project pills and condoms indicated the effort expended in adapting the products for Nepali conditions. Packaging opportunities discussed by the consultants include possible need for introduction of the low-dose pill and addition of "piggy-backed" vitamins with the pills. It was recommended that consumer demand be generated for existing distrigution outlets before new outlets and marketing areas are sought, that th bond requirement for dealers stocking the contraceptives be dropped, and that adequate storage space be sought. Serious problems were found in project advertising in both content and media mix; suggestions for improvement included increased local promotion, market research and sampling of products, and production of a promotional movie. 3 organizations were identified which might be capable of absorbing the project after termination of activities by the present contractor.
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  15. 15

    Integrating oral rehydration therapy into community action programs: what role for private voluntary organizations?

    Centre for Population Activities [CEFPA]

    Washington, D. C., CEFPA, 1980. 42 p.

    A workshop, sponsored by the Centre for Population Activities, the National Council for International Health, and the Pan American Health Organization, meet in 1980 to discuss the use of ORT (oral rehydration therapy) in health and development programs and to determine how private and voluntary organizations could be encouraged to become involved in efforts to extend ORT availability. ORT is a technique for reducing dehydration in patients suffering from prolonged diarrhea. Diarrhea related dehydration is a serious problem among children in developing countries, especially among malnourished children. In 1975, 5 million children under 5 years of age died from diarrhea in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. The therapy consists of administering a solution of sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, potassium chloride, glucose, and water to the patient in order to balance the composition of body fluid. Initially the solution had to be administered intravenously at a treatment center; however, the solution can now be administered orally to mildly or moderately dehydrated patients by the patient's family in the home setting. The solution is given to the patient frequently and amount is determined by the patient's thirst for the solution. Packets containing enough dry ingredients to mix with 1 liter of water are now available. These packets can be centrally or locally manufactured. The solution can be mixed at health centers upon request, or the packets can be distributed directly to family members who are then taught how to mix and administer the solution. Various community action programs can incorporate an ORT component. Personnel in these community action programs, working at all organizational levels, should receive training in ORT. Community workers should receive intensive training so that they in turn can teach families in the community to use the therapy. The programs should use all available communication channels to send out accurate messages about ORT. The program should also organize the distribution of the packets and develop evaluation procedures for the ORT program component. WHO, UNICEF, USAID, and the National Council for International Health provide various forms of assistance to governments or to private and voluntary organizations interested in developing ORT programs.
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  16. 16

    Commercial contraceptive marketing development in Bangladesh. Annual report, June 20, 1975 to June 20, 1976.

    Population Services International [PSI]

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, PSI, 1976. 34 p.

    The contraceptive social marketing program in Bangladesh, sponsored by USAID, is described. Contraceptive usage and sales data for the year June 20, 1975, to June 20, 1976, are tabulated and graphed. The program involves distribution of condoms and pills at subsidized prices through commercial outlets. Experience through June 1976 has shown that the demand for subsidized contraceptives is high, despite the government program for free distribution of contraceptives. The May/June bimonthly figures showed a 194% increase in the sale of condoms and a 154% increase in pill sales. An upturn in the general economy should help overall sales. Various market research, packaging, distribution, and promotion activities of the program are described. Evaluation of prices and sales is an ongoing activity. Continued expansion of the pill and condom promotion and distribution campaign is recommended. With the revenue generated from pill and condom sales, it is hoped that innovative programs in nutrition and health care may be initiated. Examples of the promotion being used are included.
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  17. 17

    Consultant report on commercial contraceptive distribution in Bangladesh.

    Markow TG; Smith RH

    Washington, D.C. American Public Health Association, 1975. 16 p. (APHA Assgn. No. 1100-020)

    A commercial contraceptive distribution program in Bangladesh, funded by USAID and contracted by Population Services International (PSI) was evaluated upon completion of the market testing phase of the operation. The evaluation team reported that the program was generally in compliance with the contract, made a number of recommendations for modifying both the program and the contractual agreement, and offered suggestions for USAID drafting of similar contracts in the future. The evaluation team recommended that the prices should not be so high as to reduce sales but high enough to permit future price setting flexibility, to inhibit smuggling, to enhance the identification of the product as a quality item, to discourage the use of the product for other purposes, and to insure the self-reliance of the program in the future. All pills should be packaged as soon as possible to insure sanitary handling. A timetable for covering the distribution network should be submitted promptly so that distribution and promotional efforts can be coordinated. Expanding the program by adding new administrative units each month was considered an inappropriate approach in a small country. Instead efforts should be made to promote national coverage within 1 year. No decision should be made at this time on whether or not a non-profit organization should be established for carrying on the program after PSI phases out. Additional funds should be allocated for market research and for promotional activities and allocations for consumer attitudinal surveys should be reduced. A foreign advisor shoud be hired to help coordinate the distribution phase since it is difficult to hire a qualified local person given governmental salary restrictions. In reference to the establishment of contract guidelines for future distribution projects in developing countries, the team recommended against the development of a uniform contract. A flexible contract tailored to the needs of the specific country was viewed as more appropriate. The development of a technical marketing plan should not be a contract requirement. USAID should determine the most appropriate form of packaging for the contraceptives and then use this form of packaging in all future distribution programs.
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  18. 18

    Commercial contraceptive marketing development in Bangladesh. Annual report, June 20, 1974-June 20, 1975.

    Population Services International [PSI]

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, PSI, 1975. 5 p.

    The current status of an USAID contract for testing, surveying, and eventually marketing oral contraceptives and condoms in Bagladesh is reported. The following accomplishments are outlined briefly, summarizing the contract fulfillment to date. 1) A marketing plan was begun by Population Serivces International immediately upon arrival in the country. This plan is further outlined in the semiannual report. 2) Draft articles, as required by Bangladesh laws, for a nonprofit company were drawn up, but their implementation is presently being held in abeyance. 3) Local resources for subcontracting were investigated; it is anticipated that several general contracts will be entered into. (4 consultants in the country are being sought. 5) The recruitment of 3 professional personnel is reported, including a marketing manager, a chief accountant and administrative manager, and an area sales manager. 6) Material is being developed for the training of retailers and project salesmen. 7) The pharmaceutical manufacturing and distributing firm of Fisons Limited (Bangladesh) has agreed to act as distributer for project products. 8) Local delivery of contraceptive supplies is acknowledged (455,000 cycles of Norinyl and 33,160 gross of condoms from Korea; 2000 gross of colored AID/Washington condoms; and an order scheduled to arrive between October 1975 and June 1976). 9) A 4-area test market was researched and planned. 10) a variety of promotional materials have been developed (including a national mass media campaign). And 11) a baseline KAP study is halfway completed (1600 interviews total), and results from this 800-interview study are being collated.
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  19. 19

    An evaluation of the retail contraceptive sales program Ghana- AID/pha/C-1145.

    Altman DL; Samuel SJ

    Washington, DC, American Public Health Association, 1978. 35 p.

    As part of an evaluation of previous conditions and current status of contraceptive sales program in Ghana the following recommendations were made: 1) AID and USAID donated supplies of contraceptives would probably be necessary beyond the present Westinghouse contract period; 2) in an effort to reduce consumer confusion condoms supplied by AID, USAID should be unlabeled; 3) retail sales records should be modified due to excess costs associated with monitoring them; 4) household distribution rather than vending machines was considered the more appropriate method of contraceptive distribution; 5) the pricing of contraceptives must remain flexible; 6) advertising could benefit from additional funds; 7) generic advertising of family planning would enhance contraceptive advertising. Environmental factors and constraints were discussed in terms of the present economy, law, community support and more specifically the role of the "market women" in the retail trade in Ghana.
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  20. 20

    Consultant report on the contraceptive marketing programs in Indonesia and Thailand.


    Report prepared during the period April 11 through May 10, 1976, under the auspices of the American Public Health Association, in agreement with the U.S. Agency for International Development. 9 p. (Authorization: AID/pha/C-1100 Ltr. POP/FPS 2/11/76) (APHA Assgn. No.: 1100-031)

    Summary of observations and recommendations from consultations to assist an Indonesian marketing program and advise on design of a pilot promotion campaign in rural Thailand. The Indonesian program distributed condoms through commercial outlets distributing an indigenous herbal medicine, and was initiated by Yayasan Indonesia Sejaktera (YIS). Sales were lower than anticipated, but there was only modest allocation for promotion. The program met with notable success given the constraints of the existing marketing system, which is almost wholly passive, relying on consumer demand, and the limited staffing and budgetary resources available to YIS. As originally designed the program was too ambitious, and it was recommended that it be continued in a different format. Preconditions that would have to be met included change to an experimental marketing program rather than a commercial distribution project, inclusion of oral contraceptives, and change to an urban setting. Specific recommendations on establishing the project, stimulation of demand, staffing, research backup, feedback mechanisms, pricing, direct selling, repackaging, establishing a brand name, and point of purchase promotion, are offered. The Thai program was at the implementation stage, research on attitudes toward condoms among rural Thai residents and clinic personnel having been completed, and a media promotion designed on the basis of the findings. The consultant met with program personnel and recommended arrangements for implementation. His chief concern was that funds would not be sufficient or not enough time would be allowed to obtain meaningful results.
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  21. 21

    The ideal vaginal barrier contraceptive. (Staff memorandum).


    Washington, D.C., U.S. Agency for International Development, March 2, 1978. 2 p.

    The ideal vaginal contraceptive is described in terms of the requirements of any other contraceptive method, i.e., that it be effective, acceptable, deliverable, and safe. In terms of effectiveness, the spermicidal action should be powerful, long lasting, and ideally instantaneous in action. Overkill should be overwhelming. Some type of active dispersal (such as foaming) is probably mandatory. Regarding acceptability, the contraceptive should be easy and convenient to insert into the vagina, and messiness, running, odor, itching, irritation, residue and probably sensation of heat should be minimized. The aspect of deliverability is a positive feature of this method, since it easily lends itself to household distribution. It would be useful for the product to be conveniently packaged in multiple dose packaging as well as in unit dose packaging suitable for vending machines. Stability of the product with respect to heat, humidity, and other physical forces is very important, and cost should be comparable to condoms. The potential toxicity of these kinds of methods is favorable, since they compare favorably with the alternatives. Preparations ought not to contain heavy metals nor be detrimental to the normal vaginal flora. These products should potentially offer considerable protection from venereal disease.
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  22. 22

    Oral contraceptives - 50 million users. Les contraceptifs oraux : 50 millions d'utilisatrices.

    Piotrow PT; Lee CM

    Population Reports. Series A: Oral Contraceptives. 1974 Apr; (1):[28] p.

    This report provides data on worldwide distribution of oral contraceptives (OCs) over the last decade. Marketing figures and information on government and international distribution programs were provided by AID, the Swedish International Development Authority, UNICEF, and IPPF. It is noted that in at least 5 developed countries (Canada, Australia, West Germany, the Netherlands, and New Zealand) 25% or more of all women aged 15-44 are regularly purchasing OCs from pharmacies. If women receiving supplies from family planning programs are included, the U.S. and the United Kingdom are now close to the 20% level. The highest usage rate is in the Netherlands where nearly 30% of the fecund women bought OCs regularly in 1972 and 37% in the first half of 1973. The hazards of OCs publicized in 1969 and 1970 caused noticeably reduced purchases. In Australia 15-22% of the women taking OCs discontinued their use following adverse reports. By 1971 when further evaluations put earlier warnings into a more reassuring perspective and lower dosage formulations became available, sales in developed countries substantially exceeded previous levels.
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  23. 23

    Contraceptive social marketing guidelines for project development.

    Ravenholt BB

    Washington, D.C., Futures Group, 1982 Sep. 25 p.

    A checklist of information and points of analysis is presented which experience has shown are nearly always required before a contraceptive social marketing (CSM) project to be funded by the US Agency for International Development (AID) can be implemented. The checklist is divided into 4 major parts: project organization and management structure; target market; product line and pricing strategy; and project costs. The 1st section discusses program goals and objectives, which are essential to all other project activities. The basis for sound feasibility evaluations and project development of CSM programs must be a clear statement of project objectives. A partial list of CSM project objectives which have been cited in the past are given for purposes of illustration. The list includes: increased availability (number and geographic distribution of outlets) of contraceptives; lower prices of contraceptives; increased use of contraceptives for total population or some population segments; establishment of a self-sufficient and a cost efficient project; generation of revenues for the support of other projects; transfer of current contraceptive clients from 1 delivery system to another; and support for the private sector in the development process. To be successful, the strategies designed to establish and implement a CSM project must lead to fulfillment of program objectives. Thus, the project objectives must be internally consistent so that a coherent and unified strategy can be designed. In the development and implementation of any CSM project, several government entities will be involved, and the position of each in the project initiation and operation processes must be clearly understood and accounted for in CSM management and marketing planning. The host country agency which will become the sponsoring or operational entity for the CSM project should be carefully chosen, its capabilities fully described, and its responsibilities understood. In every CSM project receiving US government funds, there must be a mechanism for financial and programmatic reporting and accountability. Research by a competent, local legal firm should be commissioned to provide precise information on project requirements. The existing marketing infrastructure in the country should be described according to the following: distributing; advertising; market research; and packaging. The product line which is appropriate to the goals and target market of the subject CSM project should be designated. Proposing product prices early in project development is necessary for making a preliminary assessment of program costs. Virtually all CSM programs use commercial distribution firms to deliver products to outlets, and this method is regarded as efficient and cost effective.
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  24. 24

    Social marketing audit: Family of the Future, Cairo, Egypt. Revised.

    Andreasen AR

    Washington, D.C., Triton Corp., 1982 Oct 25. vi, 65 p.

    The following activities were undertaken to prepare this contraceptive social marketing program, Family of the Future (FOF), privately sponsored and managed by the government of Egypt and the US Agency for International Development (USAID): interviews were conducted with all senior personnel at FPF Cairo; discussions were held with additional FOF staff on specialized topics germane to the audit; a weekly meeting of the medical distribution staff was attended; a trip was made to Alexandria to observe a training session for newly hired volunteers and to learn more about this new expansion program; discussions were held with Tom Reese and Laura Slobey at USAID/Cairo and with Donald Newman and Anthony Boni at USAID/Washington about their expectations for the marketing audit and perceptions of the FOF program; interviews were held with various individuals in the broad area of Egyptian contraceptive marketing; a pilot field study of 57 pharmacies in various sectors of Cairo was designed and implemented to assess the extent and character of FOF penetration into various socioeconomic areas; secondary analysis was conducted with various available FOF performance data; and discussions were held with consultants and staff at Triton corporation. This report of the audit focuses on the following: scope and organization of the audit; present status (FOF objectives, core strategy, and recent accomplishments and future plans); key issues for the 1980s -- organizational positioning, geographical coverage, and the volunteer program; organization and individual goal setting; future research and the management information system; the marketing mix (product line, packaging, pricing, distribution, medical representatives, and advertising); coordinating the mix; resource allocation and future experiments; and long run positioning issues. FOF is best characterized as an organization with a dual purpose. 1 part of the organization has a social service orientation that focuses primarily on achieving behavior change by consumers directly through person-to-person contacts and media advertising. The 2nd orientation is commercial and focuses on achieving better and more aggressive distribution through physicians and pharmacists with the expectation that such efforts will indirectly lead to greater usage by contraception households. To secure better coordination, a new position of regional managers should be created. The middle managers would have authority over medical representatives, distributors, and volunteers in 1 or more of FOF's submarkets. The acquisition of a low-dose oral contraceptive must have high priority in 1982-83. The pilot investigation of 57 pharmacies in urban Cairo indicated both strengths and weaknesses in FOF's marketing mix. Medical representatives and the research department should improve the accuracy and completeness of their list of pharmacists and physicians in the urban areas they serve. In the advertising area, the audit recommends that new communication vehicles for FOF products should be explored.
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