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American Journal of Public Health. 2009 Oct 15; 99(12)We assessed awareness and experience with the NYC Condom via surveys at 7 public events targeting priority condom distribution populations during 2007. Most respondents (76%) were aware of NYC Condoms. Of those that had obtained them, 69% had used them. Most (80%) wanted alternative condoms offered for free: 22% wanted ultra-thin, 18% extra-strength, and 14% larger-size. Six months after the NYC Condom launch, we found high levels of awareness and use. Because many wanted alternative condoms, the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene began distributing the 3 most-requested alternatives.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2006 Nov; 14(28):63-67.DKT International is a non-profit social marketing enterprise whose mission is to provide safe, affordable options for family planning and STI/HIV prevention. In Brazil, DKT sells male and female condoms to mostly lower-income couples nationwide. This paper is about the introduction of a ribbed, lubricated, latex condom called Affair to the Brazilian market in 2000. Sales were initially very low, but based on reports that Affair was well liked by some men who have sex with men, we took the opportunity to give Affair that positioning. We worked with our advertising agency, a local research company and Dignidade, a Brazilian NGO working for the rights of men who have sex with men. Two new products - a baggy condom called Affair Sensation and a complimentary lubricating gel called Affair Personal Lubricant - with new packaging and a promotional campaign were launched in February 2006. The billboard advertisement generated controversy in Sao Paulo, where the Advertising Council required it to be taken down due to complaints. However, the controversy helped promotion and at the same time generated public debate on sexuality and human rights. Our overall experience has been positive, sales are up and we have received messages of support for the products and their promotion from consumers. (author's)
Emergency contraception: common legal questions about prescribing, dispensing, repackaging, and advertising.
New York, New York, Center for Reproductive Rights, 2002 Apr. 10 p. (Briefing Paper)In the United States, emergency contraceptive pills (EC) are distributed both "on-label" and "off-label." With respect to "on-label" distribution, two designated EC products-- Preven and Plan B--are currently available and have been approved by the FDA for EC marketing. In addition, some health-care providers continue to provide patients with regular oral contraceptive pills (OCs) for EC use, despite the fact that the OC manufacturers have refused to label their products for postcoital use. This "off-label" use of OCs as EC was long employed before the emergence of designated EC products, and it was given the FDA's explicit "stamp of approval" on February 25, 1997, when the FDA announced that Levlen and Tri-Levlen, manufactured by Berlex Laboratories, and Ovral, Lo/Ovral, Nordette, and Triphasil, manufactured by Wyeth Laboratories, were safe and effective for use in emergency contraceptive regimens. This briefing paper will answer common legal questions about dispensing, repackaging, and advertising oral contraceptives as "off-label" EC. It will also address questions about prescribing, and liability related to the provision of, both "off-label" EC and designated EC products. (author's)
Population Services International, Afghanistan. Focus group discussion summary of result. Birth spacing attitudes, experience and contraceptive branding among Afghan women. Final report.
Kabul, Afghanistan, Population Services International [PSI], 2003 Jul-Aug. 21 p. (USAID Award No. 306-A-00-04-00508-00)With funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, PSI will launch a social marketing program for birth spacing in late 2003, in an effort to address the urgent need for improved maternal and child health in Afghanistan. In November 2003, PSI will introduce Number One Condoms, to be followed by OK oral and injectable contraceptives in early 2004. To better understand consumer’s attitudes, tastes, and preferences, PSI’s Research Team conducted a series of focus group discussions (FGDs) with Afghan women to negative test three sample logos for OK contraceptives. The three logos were: a pale flower, a bright flower, and two birds. FGDs were conducted in Kabul City and Logar Province in July and August 2003. Focus groups were organized with the assistance of Aide Medical International (AMI) and Action Contre Le Faim (ACF). Discussions were conducted on premises at AMI and ACF health facilities. During the study, women were asked to discuss their likes and dislikes regarding these logos and to explain their meaning. The FGD results did not point to a clear mandate for either a flower or bird logo. In every FGD women liked both styles, and when directly asked to compare, both flowers and the birds were chosen with similar frequency. (excerpt)
Contraceptive Technology Update. 2004 Sep; 25(9): p..When it comes to using combined oral contraceptives (OCs), clinicians and patients look to drug package labeling for the most current information on how the Pill may be safely and effectively used. If new industry guidance for package labeling goes into effect, however, combined OC labels may not reflect the most current thinking in contraceptive provision. While the guidance offers a more simplified approach to the label and patient instructions, several women’s health groups have called for the directive to contain more updated medical information, a more thorough explanation about contraceptive method failure rates, and expanded information on the noncontraceptive benefits of the Pill. “My understanding is that package labeling is intended to provide accurate and up-to-date drug information for consumers and providers,” says David Grimes, MD, vice president of biomedical affairs at Family Health International in Research Triangle Park, NC. “The proposed labeling I reviewed was neither accurate nor up to date.” Groups such as the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), National Association of Nurse Practitioners in Women’s Health (NPWH), both based in Washington, DC; Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA) in New York City; and drug manufacturers such as Raritan, NJ-based Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical and Philadelphia-based Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, have filed comments with the regulatory agency. The deadline for filing comments was May 4, 2004. The FDA is analyzing the comments, says Susan Cruzan, FDA spokeswoman. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 1981 Sep 30. 17 p. (AID Contract No. DS/POP/FPSD; DPE-0611-C-00-1001-00)This discussion of the Nepal Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) Program focuses on promotional message strategy development, advertising strategy, local promotion strategies, distribution strategies, sales commission incentive program, the new product introduction plan, marketing research, project organization and management -- sales, communication, administration and finance, and personnel positions, training, management information system, definitive plans for institutionalization of CRS, and plans for funding the CRS project deficit. Nepal's CRS Program officially began on July 1, 1976. As of July 31, 1981, a total of 2,729,016 condoms and 110,472 cycles of oral contraceptives (OCs) had been distributed to retailers through the CRS program. The new contract set the objective of a 30% increase in sales in 1981. As of July 31, 1981, the project was behind the target by about 35%. The major reasons for the shortfall were: a shortage of condoms in the spring which prevented the running of the sales-generating Dhaal display contests and delays in getting new Dhaal packages from a subcontractor in Bangkok. One of the most important strategies is to develop promotional materials in local languages as far as is practicable. This will include the production of posters, billboards, and educational/promotional/entertainment audio tape cassettes for the roof-mounted public address (PA) systems of the 4 new jeeps. Personnel for the program will include 1 CRS driver/promoter and 1 sales representative. In response to the prime contract's call for a 30% increase in couple-years-protection (CYP) each year and a greater cost effectiveness in year 2, the primary CRS distribution strategy will be to concentrate on increasing sales in existing outlets and the secondary thrust will be on expanding sales into as many nearby outlets as practicable. To motivate sales representatives and reward their efforts, a sales commission incentive program has been initiated. Sales representatives seem to be satisfied with the system, which is still under study and open to improvement. 4 new products were suggested for market introduction in Nepal under the prime contract: foaming vaginal tablets, low-dose oral contraceptives (OCs), iodized salts, and oral rehydration salts. The idea of introducing iodized salts and oral rehydration salts had to be abandoned at this time, but the Nepal CRS will be introducing foaming vaginal tablets and low-dose OCs. On October 31, 1982, institutionalization of CRS will occur when Westinghouse Health Systems completes its USAID contract.
[Unpublished] 1981 Sep 12. 8 p.The product line of Bangladesh's successful social marketing program should be expanded to include Panther condoms. Bangladesh's social marketing program was implemented in 1975 by Population Services International, and in 1976 the Project Council was established and given responsibility for developing policies and operational guidelines for the program. The program has 4 regional sales divisions, and each division is headed by an areas sales manager. Project products are sold in about 65,000 retail outlets. Products currently distributed are 1) Raja, a condom; 2) Maya, a standard dose oral contraceptive (OC); 3) Ovacon, a low dose OC; and 4) Joy, a foam tablet. Prior to the introduction of the Raja condom, a number of commercially marketed condom brands were available in the country. These other brands have almost disappeared from the market. In commercial marketing it is widely recognized that when several brands compete for the consumers' attention, total sales increase. Variety sells for a number of reasons. Consumer tastes and needs vary, and this is the reason Baskin and Robbins sells 31 flavors of ice cream. Professional marketers are keenly aware of the need to offer brands that sell for different prices. For example, soap companies offer brands tailored to the income level of all segments of the population in order to capture a broad market for their products. The addition of new products also leads to an increase in product promotion. If there is only 1 product on the market, advertisers run out of things to say about the product. The addition of competing products gives advertisers new things to say about their product. As a result, public exposure to the entire product line is increased. Commercial marketers also recognize the advantages of introducing a premium, or high priced brand. These products lend status to the entire product line. Social marketers must overcome their hesitancy about introducing products which appeal primarily to middle and upper class or urban segments of the population. If elite groups use a product, the popularity of the product will increase in the general population. In summary, commercial marketing guidelines indicate that the introduction of a higher priced condom into the product line of Bangladesh's social marketing program will not only increase total condom sales but will increase sales of the Raja condom. The Panther condom should be introduced as a luxury brand. The current price of a Raja condom is US$0.01, and the price of a Panther condom should set somewhere between Ta.2.50-Ta.3.00. Sales from the Panther condom will reduce the operating deficit of the program. Panther condoms can be produced by Akwell Industries for about the same price that the company now manufactures Raja condoms. Packaging for the product should be developed locally, and the package should be designed to appeal to the middle and upper classes. An initial supply of 3.5 million Panther condoms should be obtained from the US. This purchase and the intial cost of designing an appropriate package and sample promotional material can be covered by the program's current budget.
Summary proceedings of the Contraceptive Social Marketing Asia Regional Conference, Dacca, Bangladesh, 20-24 June 1981.
[Washington, D.C., Futures Group], 1981. 92 p.The 6 basic stages of marketing are: 1) analyzing the institutional structure, the market, and the consumer; 2) planning goals, objectives, strategies, and tactics; 3) developing, testing, and refining product concepts, packaging, brand names, promotion, pricing, and distribution; 4) implementing and monitoring the scheduled marketing activities; 5) assessing in-market effectiveness, response, and sales; and 6) obtaining feedback and using it. To be of value, marketing research must be affordable, useful, planned, and reliable, requiring management support, a budget, and professional expertise. Qualitative research provides general information and generates areas of study for quantitative research which is done on a large scale with a randomly selected sample. Regarding the 3rd step in marketing, commodity procurement, central procurement is seen as a way of lowering costs but the process is time consuming and the variety of products available is limited. Introducing a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC) provides a choice for the consumer but too low a price may cause a low-quality image and insufficient profit. There seems to exist a need to provide medical detailing and to make available in general; 2 promotional campaigns, aimed at retailers and 1st consumers, are needed. Introducing a new product into the contraceptive social marketing program's product line requires prior research and government approval in some cases. Distributing products directly to the consumer offers the advantage of having direct control over the distribution process but requires a great deal of time, while distribution through retailers means loss of this control.
Columbia, Maryland, Westinghouse Health Systems, 1978. 22 p.An evaluation report of the Nepal Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) Project for a 6 month period indicated the cumulative number of retail outlets for Gulaf and Dhaal were 191 and 798 respectively with cumulative dealer to retailer sales being 9130 and 166,516 respectively. Major distribution problems included obtaining credit, commercial resistance, salesman training and delivery errors and delays. Advertising events centered around radio announcements, billboards, print ads and program brochures in addition to various innovative ideas still awaiting approval or delivery. Major components of the CRS project are consumer and retailer education focusing on radio announcements, telephone information service coupled with efforts to inform, involve and motivate Nepali physicians. Additional topics addressed in the report include supply and packaging difficulties plus a product inventory as of November 26, 1978.
Columbia, Maryland, Westinghouse Population Center (AID Con tract #csd/3319). 1974 Apr; 164.The Westinghouse Population Center, Columbia, Maryland, under contract to the United States Agency for International Development, has investigated the current and potential distribution of contraceptives through available commercial channels in Turkey as well as in 8 other developing nations. It is believed that commercial sector contraceptive distribution can have a significant effect on fertility patterns. The purpose of the investigation is to identify and evaluate the existing contraceptive market, the channels of distribution, and the potential for increasing private sector participation in expanding the availability and usage of contraceptive products. The private sector currently supplies a larger percentage of the couples using contraceptives in Turkey than does the public sector. The private sector's distribution capability is such that it can reach people who do not reside within a reasonable distance of a pharmacy or clinic as well as make a wider range of products and information available so that consumers can choose the brand and/or method they wish to use. Included in the findings of the report are recommendations for action. It is recommended that the government eliminate duties and taxes on the importation of finished condoms and of raw materials for producing oral pills and vaginal contraceptives, streamline the procedures for importing condoms, and increase the number of retail outlets for contraceptive products. The government and manufacturers should initiate physician education programs. At the manufacturer's level, pharmacists and other retail outlet operators who sell contraceptive products need to be supplied with accurate information. Mass media should be used at the consumer level to inform the public about the proper use of contraceptives, for the majority of couples has limited knowledge of how to obtain and use contraceptives. Promotion of contraceptives should be targeted to both male and female audiences. A research strategy should be incorporated which makes a series of quick evaluations of various elements of the program possible.
In: 1st Pacific Regional HIV / AIDS and STD Conference, Nadi, Fiji, 23-25 February 1999. Conference proceedings, [compiled by] Pacific Community. Secretariat. Noumea, New Caledonia, Pacific Community, Secretariat, 2000. 172-6.This paper covers social marketing in general, answers frequently asked questions and addresses the potential for condom social marketing in the Pacific. Social marketing is becoming increasingly important in efforts to assure developing countries have access to the health products and services they need. The key to successful social marketing is effective communications. Oceania is a vast space with small populations; however, commercial wholesale and retail networks and mass media communications are well developed. Social marketing may be the best means to promote healthy sexual behavior and to ensure access to condoms. (author's)
British Journal of Family Planning. 1996 Oct; 22(3):139-41.Faced with an annual increase in the number of individuals infected by heterosexual transmission of HIV in Scotland, health authorities in Lothian have sought innovative ways to reduce the threat of HIV transmission. One such measure is the "Take Care Campaign," which presents individuals with a range of safe and safer sex behavior choices to choose from at different stages of their life (abstinence, choosing to avoid penetrative intercourse, using a condom, and remaining in a longterm monogamous relationship with an uninfected partner). In 1992, a pilot study was initiated which involved providing doctors with a special pack containing oral contraceptives (OCs) and condoms. The purpose of this study was to make it easier for physicians to discuss HIV prevention while prescribing OCs, to link the prescription of OCs with the condom in the minds of the physicians and clients, and to provide women with a way to carry condoms in their handbags. The 92 women involved in the study all found the pack acceptable, and, at 3-month follow-up, nearly half kept it in their handbags. All 16 physicians found the pack helpful in raising the topic of HIV prevention, and 14 women stated that it helped them raise the subject with their partners. The success of this pilot program led to development of a pill/OC pack that would accommodate 3 condoms, a leaflet, and 80% of the brands of OCs available locally. The pack is intended to be given to first-time OC users. More than half of the general practitioners in the Lothian area have ordered packs.
SOCIAL MARKETING MATTERS. 1995 Nov; 1(1):4-5.The pharmaceutical company, Pharmanova, in collaboration with UNICEF, BASICS, and a local researcher conducted consumer market research to develop a brand identity for a new locally manufactured oral rehydration salts (ORS) product to introduce to the market of Malawi. A review of consumer research showed that mothers recognized weakness as the key danger sign of childhood diarrhea and that they mainly wanted a medical product that restores the child's strength. Thus, the research team decided to market the ORS product as a special solution that maintains and restores strength by replacing fluids lost from diarrhea. This market strategy differentiates the new ORS product from other home fluids by promoting it as a special medicinal product which is better than other available fluids for home use. The team strived to develop positive and reassuring product packaging that would make mothers feel positive about the product yet without weakening its image as a pharmaceutical. Focus groups tested a short list of product names, graphic concepts for product packaging, product benefits statements, and illustrated mixing instructions aimed at illiterate consumers. They provided clear-cut results. The selected package design had a silhouette of a mother administering ORS solution to a child. The selected brand name was "Madzi a Umoyo" (Water of Health). The mixing instructions were revised and retested. Later the team learned that a local healer was claiming to have a cure for AIDS, cancer, and other diseases that is being called madzi a umoyo. This cure is now known throughout Malawi. To avoid confusion with the new ORS product, the team decided to use a name that also ranked high among the focus groups, "Thanzi" (strength or vitality in Chichewa). There was no need to make changes in other packaging components.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, 1994. , 35,  p. (BASICS Trip Report; BASICS Technical Directive: 000 ML-00-012; USAID Contract No. HRN-6006-C-00-3031-00)In 1994, the USAID-supported BASICS project sent a team to Malawi to help USAID/Malawi, Pharmanova, Ltd., the Ministry of Health (MOH), and other participating groups develop a social marketing strategy for oral rehydration salts (ORS) and a new ORS package design. USAID agreed to buy raw materials and packaging material for the local manufacture and distribution of ORS. Pharmanova agreed to produce packaged ORS to supply MOH with 7 million ORS packets over 2 years. Pharmanova would manufacture 1.4 million more ORS packets to be sold commercially. The preliminary plan for the marketing of a new ORS product centers on marketing activities to promote the national launch of Pharmanova's ORS product scheduled for April 1995. The BASICS team developed marketing objectives and strategies that addressed major issues identified by the market situation analysis: development of a product identity and presenting the ORS product in a productive way to users, ORS distribution in rural areas to complement public sector distribution, improvement of health providers' and drug retailers' knowledge in oral rehydration therapy (ORT), and coordination of all ORS/ORT activities among UNICEF, MOH, USAID, Pharmanova, and other suppliers and professional associations. The team designed and managed a rapid qualitative study of consumer reaction to 5 graphic concepts, promotional copy, illustrated mixing instructions, and a list of potential product names in Chichewa. Based on this research, the silhouette package design, the product name of Madzi A Moyo, clear and direct statements of product benefits were chosen for ORS brand identity. Feedback from focus groups led to two revisions of the illustrated mixing instructions. Recommendations centered on coordination and implementation of the ORS marketing program, training of health professionals, mobilizing retailers, sustaining ORS marketing, designing a long-term sustainable strategy for ORS supply, and working with Pharmanova to strengthen other child survival activities in Malawi.
Integrating Depo-Provera in Nepal's social marketing initiative: what mechanisms are being developed to ensure high quality services?
SOMARC III HIGHLIGHTS. 1993 Dec; (8):1-2.The Social Marketing for Change (SOMARC) project and the Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) Company in Nepal, with assistance from the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC), are introducing Depo-Provera (DMPA) in 280 medical shops in Kathmandu Valley. At the first training session for Nepalese trainers, which was held in September, 1993, SOMARC and CRS provided an overview of DMPA administration. This included product features and benefits, product side effects and their management, precautions, client screening, injection techniques, infection prevention, syringe disposal, counseling, and myths and misconceptions about injectable contraceptives. Upjohn (the manufacturer of Depo-Provera) provided technical support and materials for this training session. CRS intends to train at least 1 staff person (medical staff or paramedical assistant) at each medical shop in the pilot program. Distribution of the product will be monitored. To insure proper technique and infection prevention, DMPA will be packaged with a disposable syringe, an alcohol swab, a consumer acceptor card, and product information. Consumer advertising and materials at the point of sale will inform consumers that the intact package should be opened in their presence. Posters and mass media will be used to inform the consumer of the provider's recommended screening process. Booklets will contain information regarding conditions requiring medical care. Consumer acceptor cards will list the date of the next injection as a reminder. The Nepal Fertility Care Center (NFCC), a private family planning association with facilities in the Kathmandu Valley, will provide further information or follow up to clients when necessary. NFCC physicians, who have been trained by AVSC, will evaluate medical shop personnel administering DMPA. The program is expected to be launched in mid 1994.
CRS NEWS. 1994 Jan; 9(2):1, 4.In December 1993, the Nepal CRS Company reintroduced the oral contraceptive (OC), Nilocon, and the condom. Panther, during a ceremony in Kathmandu. The ceremony reflected CRS' goals of pursuing and using modern commercial marketing concepts, approaches, and techniques to market its contraceptives. A member of the National Planning Commission complimented CRS for always trying to identify ways to market its products optimally. He expressed hope that the relaunching will help to greatly increase sales to new levels. The Chief of USAID's Health and Family Planning Division also praised CRS for its marketing efforts and affirmed USAID's support in promoting family planning in Nepal. The Chair of CRS's Board of Directors addressed the rationale of CRS; product strategies to increase couple-years-of-protection (CYP) goals while reducing the per-CYP costs. The CRS acting managing director showed a slide program about the development of CRS and its ongoing commitment to promote family planning in Nepal. A representative of bulk buyers of CRS products provided suggestions on how to improve CRS: distribution system. CRS's Communication Division began its advertising and promotional plan in early 1993. It had decided to create a new image of Nilocon and to market it as the premium, high quality OC suitable for all Nepalese women. Before 1993, CRS targeted Nilocon to urban, educated, upper class, married women. CRS is thinking about phasing out its other 2 OCs, Gulaf and Kanchan, SOMARC, the Development Communication and Research Group, and SynchroMedia conducted market research to develop an advertising strategy for Nilocon. The research included a product preference survey and pretesting of new and existing package designs, 2 radio jingles, 4 storyboards, and 4 types of instruction sheets. A similar market study was done for Panther. CRS is in the process of conducting premarket launch activities for the injectable Depo-Provera. It has also done research among injectionists in Kathmandu Valley for Depo-Provera.
In: Notes from the field in communication for child survival, edited by Renata E. Seidel. Washington, D.C., Academy for Educational Development [AED], Communication and Marketing for Child Survival [HEALTHCOM], 1993 Apr. 189-99. (USAID Contract No. DPE-1018-C-00-5063-00; USAID Contract No. DPE-5984-Z-00-9018-00)Mexico produces and distributes 10 million packets of oral rehydration solution (ORS) annually in its oral rehydration therapy program against diarrheal disease in children under 5 years old. For mothers to seek out, accept, and use the product, however, they must find it appealing, user-friendly, and capable of producing desired health results. Doctors must also provide, recommend, instruct, and reinforce the use of ORS. The product in Mexico long held a scientific-sounding brand name and included misleading instructions on mixing and use. The authors describe the development of a new ORS product name, package design, and graphic mixing/administration instructions which reflect national ORT norms. Consumer research lay at the heart of the project. Research and evaluation consisted of activities in the following phases: exploratory qualitative research with mothers, initial concept screening, quantitative testing of the 2 best designs, quantitative testing of the winning design against the original package, and comprehension testing of mixing instructions and the flyer. Sections consider maintaining a consumer focus; the challenge; getting started; phase 1-5 research; promotion among the primary audience; consensus-building among the secondary audience; reflections; and final thoughts.
Achieving self-sufficiency. The Turkey Contraceptive Social Marketing project sold 2.1 million cycles of low-dose pills in 1992.
INTEGRATION. 1993 Sep; (37):32-3.To encourage women in lower socioeconomic groups to realize the benefits of low-dose oral contraceptive (OC) use, the Turkey Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) project was initiated in December 1991. Until this time, most Turkish women who used OCs could only obtain high-dose preparations. Many discontinued use because of health concerns, causing the OC market to decline. Working with 3 OC manufacturers, Wyeth, Schering, and Organon CSM is promoting 5 different low-dose OCs with a method-specific educational campaign. Packaging of the OCs contains use instructions written for low-literacy women. Survey results show an increase in OC use in Metropolitan areas from 8 to 12% during 1990-92, with low-dose OCs capturing 61% of the market in 1992 vs. 50% in 1991. With sales at 128% of the first year's objective, the total OC market showed its first increase in years (to 18%). The low-dose OCs have an approval rating of 84%, and 61% of current acceptors are from lower socioeconomic groups. The success of the program was assured by the marketing efforts of the manufacturers, who tripled CSM's efforts. This result has led to plans to include injectables and implants in CSM's marketing efforts, with commercial distribution to being in 1994.
[Unpublished] 1990 Jun. viii, 64,  p.To enhance the effectiveness of the Malawi Social Marketing Project's upcoming condom distribution effort, focus group discussions were held in Blantyre and Lilongwe Cities and Mulanje and Mangochi rural districts. The target population was comprised of low-income men and women 20-40 years of age. In Malawi in 1989, 367,000 condoms were distributed by the Ministry of health and 75,000 were sold in the private sector; thus, knowledge of the condom market is limited. Although there was widespread support for the concept of child spacing, no focus group participants were current contraceptive users. Ever-use of the condom was reported by half the urban men and a third of the rural respondents. Condom use was discontinued for reasons such as interference with sexual pleasure, a belief that semen has beneficial health effects for women, the association with prostitution, and fears that condom use facilitates infidelity. There were significant sex differences, with female respondents viewing the condom as a means of preventing pregnancy or spacing children and men valuing the condom's role in disease prevention. Of interest was the finding that men indicated their female partner rejected condom use, while women believed it was the men who objected to this method. Questions on product design revealed no preference for colored condoms. There was a consensus that the brand name should relate explicitly to the condom's function; Protector and Chishango were suggested. Finally, respondents shared concerns that condoms should be priced low enough to be affordable to rural residents (1-10 tambala) and that privacy be available at the distribution site. The degree of misinformation about condom use, different perceptions about its main function, and sensitive nature suggest that the social marketing effort should be preceded by an extensive educational campaign.
[Unpublished] 1991 Nov.  p.The sales of Sathi brand condoms in Pakistan remained low in November 1991. In fact, a warehouse in Karachi only sold 138,240 condoms. Nonavailability of packaging material and price stickers prevented higher sales at the wholesale level. Yet the percentage of retail outlets carrying Sathi condoms climbed from 47-53% between August-September 1991. Only 11-19% of retail outlets carried other condom brands. Further only 17% of stores that sell Sathi and Durex condoms did not have Sathi condoms in stock in September compared to 18-24% of stores did not have other condoms brands in stock. Moreover the market share for Sathi condoms climbed to 69%. At the same time, the market share for the public sector brand Sultan and Durex fell from 14-10% and to 7% respectively. Rough Rider condoms held 8% of the market share. Other brands claimed 6%. A new marketing plan for Sathi revealed that PSi would hold off introducing oral contraceptives (OCs) and a premium condom. PSI and other nongovernmental organizations conducted market research of married women with 2-4 years of education to test instructions for OCs. The study indicated that they better grasped instructions when they included a lifelike pointing hand instead of an arrowhead and all arrows pointed from left to right rather than zig zag. The test marketers also improved instructions in Urdu so the women could discern other aspects of OC use. A staff member from Family Health International evaluated storage conditions of condoms in karachi and lahore. He also obtained samples of USAID procured condoms for testing in the U.S. Family planning specialists observed distribution of Sathi condoms in several villages in the Punjab and in working class areas of Lahore.
[Unpublished] 1990 Jul 19.  p.In this article, the author explains how SOMARC (Social Marketing for Change) employs commercial marketing research techniques to introduce new contraceptive products in the developing world. Working through the private sector in each country, SOMARC helps develop and evaluate advertising and marketing strategies, design and test advertising messages, and select and improve names and package designs for new contraceptive products. The author begins by discussing how manufactures in the US and Europe use brand image research to target consumers and create in their minds an image associated with the product. SOMARC uses these same marketing research techniques for its products. Since it relies on local commercial companies to conduct the market research and the advertising campaign, SOMARC first strengthens the capabilities of these companies through technical assistance. The author goes on to discuss the testing and evaluation of marketing strategies, including the testing of product names, package testing, and testing of advertising messages. The author provides examples of how these strategies have worked in developing countries, and explains how focus group discussions and interviews are used for brand image research. The author describes how the "Dualima" campaign in Indonesia succeeded in dispelling negative notions towards condoms by creating an image of condoms as clean, reliable, and for use within marriage. The author stresses that the marketing campaigns are particular to each country. The advertisements used reflect not only the product, but also the culture and country in which they are aired. Product names and packages that work in one country will probably not work in another.
[Unpublished] 1989 Nov.  p.The foundations of a contraceptive social marketing project aimed at increasing the availability and use of condoms among urban, married, low-income men in Morocco are described. Aiming to sell the condom through commercial retail outlets with the goal of increasing overall prevalence of condom use, the Moroccan Social Marketing Project (MSMP) is the 1st major contribution by the commercial sector in the national effort to increase participation in family planning. 18 months of research on the Moroccan condom market and promotion strategy served as initial groundwork for the project. Specifically, pre-campaign surveys on contraceptive usage, attitude, and pharmacies; product name and pack development research; and advertising positioning research and message testing were conducted. Low condom usage was found in Morocco, with <5% of urban, married, male contraceptors using condoms; nationwide, <1% of women and their partners used condoms. Using radio and point of purchase advertising in urban and peri-urban pharmacies, a marketing strategy was developed urging non-contracepting men to choose condoms once they decided to begin using a contraceptive method. Focus was placed upon shifting the image of the condom away from its association with illicit relationships, encouraging the continued strong male support of and role in family planning, and choosing an appropriate product name, advertising positioning, and price through the assistance of focus groups' suggestions.
[Unpublished] 1989. Presented at the IIDSS Conference, August 18-20, 1989.  p.The author explains the operations of and rationale behind the Social Marketing for Change (SOMARC) project of the Futures Group. Using indigenous private sector company commercial channels in developing countries, SOMARC helps develop advertising campaigns and other marketing approaches to sell branded condoms, oral contraceptives, vaginal foaming tablets, and sometimes IUDs. Commercial marketing research techniques are employed in these exercises, and include developing and evaluating advertising and marketing strategies, designing and testing advertising messages, and selecting and improving product names and packaging for their contraceptive products. Although technical assistance is generally required in most countries, local companies are nonetheless depended upon to develop and manage the projects overall. The importance of brand image research in reaching target markets is discussed, followed by examples of testing and evaluating marketing strategies, product names, package testing, and advertising messages.
[Washington, D.C.], Futures Group, SOMARC, . iv, 147 p.This training manual in social marketing of contraceptives (CSM) in text format presents the elements of a program, summarizes marketing theory, and describes practical examples. It is based primarily on written material by marketing professionals and population communication experts. The elements of social marketing, elaborated in 10 chapters, include: marketing, products selection, pricing, promotion, distribution, market research, marketing plan, organization, management, and management information systems. CSM use commercial marketing techniques to expand availability of contraceptive products, information and services by existing or newly created outlets, thereby complementing private and public services. While commercial and social marketing share the same management process and the same activities planned around product, price, promotion and distribution, they differ in that the goal of commerce is profit, while that of social marketing is maximizing sales and contraceptive usage. Contraceptive products supplied by USAID are described. Types of promotion used in CSMs are advertising, point-of-purchase, personal selling, and sampling: local conditions determine which is most effective. Distribution may be by commercial distributors or by program distributors if needed. The section on market research is particularly detailed and broken down into types and steps, preparing for the annual marketing plan, itself divided into 15 sub-sections. 2 methods of forecasting contraceptive demand are given, a matrix projection model and logit analysis. Types of marketing organization suggested are by functional and product specialties, the latter modeled after pharmaceutical firm management and most commonly used in CSM. Suggestions on minimal software requirements for marketing information systems, covering commodity tracking, finances, and donor agency data requirements are briefly outlined, and a monthly report form is shown.
Jakarta, Indonesia, Survey Research Indonesia, 1988 Sep. 40,  p. (SRI - 737)This report of a survey of awareness, usage and attitudes of 2106 men from Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan and Bandung, Indonesia, featuring condoms and the Duo Lima condom in particular, by Survey Research Indonesia, comparing 1988 to 1987, consists of 27 tables and 2 conceptual maps. Many of the data compare location or economic class. Unaided awareness of condoms had decreased from 20 to 16% overall between 1987-1988, while knowledge of vasectomy and Norplant had increased. Use of condoms as the main method fell from 7 to 5%. 10% have ever tried condoms. The main source of purchase was the Apotik (50%), drug store (195) and puskesmas (12%). The most common condom pack size purchased was 12, followed by 3 and 6. Men described condoms' "messiness" as their worst drawback. Most users tried condoms for <1 year, indicating falling off of use. Awareness of the Duo Lima brand has increased to 48%, up from 43% in 1987. It was the 1st brand mentioned by all men; 69% recalled Duo Lima advertising, primarily on radio, on billboards, and in newspapers. Duo Lima was the leading brand with 39% of subjects using it. Perceptual maps placed Duo Lima as an attractive, modestly priced, well advertised brand, the right size, and best suited for family planning.