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  1. 1

    Influence of oral contraceptives on body temperature [letter]

    Meyboom RH

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 1991 Apr 27; 302(6783):1025.

    Dr R H B Meyboom (Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre, PO Box 5406, 2280 HK Rijswijk, The Netherlands) writes: 1 of the physiological effects of progesterone is a slight rise in body temperature, up to 0.5 degrees Celsius. Midcycle temperature rise may be used as evidence of ovulation and the formation of a corpus luteum. Although progestagens are a basic constituent of oral contraceptives (OCs), the possibility of an influence on temperature is not mentioned in the usual sources of information on side effects. A recent case report to The Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre described a 35 year old woman with longstanding rise in body temperature of about 0.5 degrees Celsius, which in the evening reached subfebrile values up to 38 degrees Celsius, in suspected association with Microgynon 30 (levonorgestrel 150 mcg, ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg). No medical cause was found and the course of the temperature after stopping and during rechallenge, as established by daily rectal assessment of morning temperature, was consistent with an effect of the contraceptive agent. Although the influence of progesterone on temperature is well known, there is a remarkable paucity of data in current physiology textbooks concerning this effect. With regard to OCs, only 1 reference was found in the medical literature, but without quantification and comment. A body temperature raised by 0.5 degrees Celsius may be mistaken for a subfebrile temperature and may be a cause of unnecessary concern and medical investigations. More information on the influence of progestagens on temperature is needed. The product information of all OCs containing a progestogen should mention the possibility of a slight rise in body temperature. (full text) (9 references cited in original document)
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  2. 2

    Comparison of the effects on circulating hormone levels of a conventional and a paper pill oral contraceptive.


    In: Haspels, A.A. and Kay, C.R., eds. International Symposium on Hormonal Contraception. (Proceedings of a Symposium, Utrecht, The Netherlands, September 10, 1977) Amsterdam-Oxford, Excerpta Medica, 1978. p. 89-97

    10 healthy women were studied during a control cycle and during treatment with either a conventional (CP) or paper pill (PP) formulation containing 150 mcg of levonorgestrel plus 30 mcg of ethinylestradiol (Microgynon 30) to test the effects of the PP on pituitary-ovarian function in relation to plasma levels of the exogenous synthetic hormones. Analyses of the natural hormones showed that all control cycles, with 1 exception, exhibited normal menstrual pattern. Data for treated cycles showed that no follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) peaks were evident during any of the treated periods, and in nearly all cases pill withdrawal was followed by a rise in FSH levels. Luteinizing hormone analysis for all treatment periods displayed a similar pattern to that observed for FSH, confirming that ovulation did not occur. Maximal mean treated plasma concentration of levonorgestrel for the CP was 11.3 nmol/1, and for the PP it was 12.68 nmol/1; corresponding values for ethinylestradiol were for the CP 1.53 nmol/1 and for the PP 1.37 nmol/1. There was no statistical difference between the maximal plasma concentrations of the Microgynon 30 components when using either of the 2 differeent formulations (leveonorgestrel, 2P>.55; ethinylestradiol, 2P>.05). 2 short-term plasma profiles from each subject, one at the beginning (Days 2-8) and one at the end (Days 15-21) of the treatment course, showed that plasma titers of levonorgestrel were higher in the 2nd than in the 1st profile, whereas ethinylestradiol levels remained unaffected. The PP formulation compares favorably with the CP.
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  3. 3

    ...And paper pills.

    People. January 1974; 1(2):30-31.

    China claims to have completed successful trials on contraceptive paper "pills" according to an article in the British "Daily Express." The month's supply looks like a sheet of perforated postage stamps. These are made of edible paper which has been soaked in a contraceptive solution during manufacture and then dried. Each day 1 stamp in torn off, and placed on the tongue where it dissolves. The new paper pill is described as having a number of advantages, particularly in manufacturing, for it is easier to make a suitable solution of hormone than to ensure that traditional pills each receive an identical and very small amount of progesterone. Fewer precautions against inhalation of the hormone are needed by the workers who make the contraceptives, and the paper birth control devices do not require expensive packaging. They are comparatively easy to store and to carry, as well as being easier for the woman to swallow. Confirmation of this report comes from an unpublished paper by Dr. David Berliner who saw the "paper pills" during the course of his trip to China. He described the paper contraceptives as "1 of the most remarkable and advanced Chinese birth control projects." (FULL TEXT)
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