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  1. 1

    Contraceptive retail sales program: Jamaica.

    Westinghouse Health Systems

    Columbia, Maryland, Westinghouse Health Systems (AID/pha-C-1063). 1977 Dec; 68.

    In July 1974, Westinghouse Health Systems began the process of establishing a contraceptive retail sales program (CRS) to market condoms and oral contraceptives in Jamaica. The program, designed to utilize existing retail distribution systems, had as its major focus the development of indigenous resources to augment the existing clinic activities of the Jamaica National Family Planning Board, and centered on 5 major areas: 1) advertising and promotion; 2) product pricing and packaging; 3) distribution; 4) consumer and retailer education; and 5) program evaluation and monitoring. Initial research was aimed at educating the public, distributors, and retailers in the availability, usage, and potential side effects of oral contraceptives. A major advertising campaign involving radio, television and the press was directed at promoting the 2 contraceptive brands - Perle oral contraceptives and Panther condoms. In September, 3 years after implementation, management of the program was turned over to the Jamaican National Family Planning Board. Annual program sales had reached 184,000 cycles of pills, and 880,000 condoms through 267 Perle outlets and 1108 Panther outlets, nearly doubling and tripling pill and condom sales. Introduction of the new brands has had no effect on sales of competitive brands, nor has there been a negative impact on distribution of condoms and oral contraceptives through the public clinic sector. In addition, the cost per acceptor has been less when compared to costs per acceptor in the public sector clinics. By 1979, the projected costs per acceptor will be $262 in the CRS program versus $32.73 in the public sector program.
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  2. 2

    Commercial contraceptive marketing development in Bangladesh. Annual report, June 20, 1974-June 20, 1975.

    Population Services International [PSI]

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, PSI, 1975. 5 p.

    The current status of an USAID contract for testing, surveying, and eventually marketing oral contraceptives and condoms in Bagladesh is reported. The following accomplishments are outlined briefly, summarizing the contract fulfillment to date. 1) A marketing plan was begun by Population Serivces International immediately upon arrival in the country. This plan is further outlined in the semiannual report. 2) Draft articles, as required by Bangladesh laws, for a nonprofit company were drawn up, but their implementation is presently being held in abeyance. 3) Local resources for subcontracting were investigated; it is anticipated that several general contracts will be entered into. (4 consultants in the country are being sought. 5) The recruitment of 3 professional personnel is reported, including a marketing manager, a chief accountant and administrative manager, and an area sales manager. 6) Material is being developed for the training of retailers and project salesmen. 7) The pharmaceutical manufacturing and distributing firm of Fisons Limited (Bangladesh) has agreed to act as distributer for project products. 8) Local delivery of contraceptive supplies is acknowledged (455,000 cycles of Norinyl and 33,160 gross of condoms from Korea; 2000 gross of colored AID/Washington condoms; and an order scheduled to arrive between October 1975 and June 1976). 9) A 4-area test market was researched and planned. 10) a variety of promotional materials have been developed (including a national mass media campaign). And 11) a baseline KAP study is halfway completed (1600 interviews total), and results from this 800-interview study are being collated.
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  3. 3

    Guide to "Blue Lady" oral contraceptives.

    Pathfinder Fund

    Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, Pathfinder Fund. 1975; 2.

    2 oral contraceptives provided by the Pathfinder Fund, Norinyl 1/50 and Norinyl 1/80, were discussed in a guide to their use, covering pharmacology, selection of dose, packaging, and management. These drugs, composed of 1 mg norethindrone, a moderately progestational agent and either 50 mcg or 80 mcg of mestranol, act through suppression of gonadotrophin release from the hypothalamus, altering the cervical mucus and interfering with transcervical sperm migration and sperm capacitation. For most women Norinyl 1/50 is an effective preparation. Spotting or breakthrough bleeding may occur in the first 2-3 months use. Persistent bleeding is treated by doubling the dose for 2 or 3 days in these patients and in patients treated with the larger dose having bleeding problems. Contraindications are a history of thromboembolism or cancer or clinically significant hypertension, and these contraceptives should be used with caution with hepatic disease or undiagnosed abnormal uterine bleeding. The pills come in packages of 28 pills - 3 rows of 7 white pills and 1 row of brown ferrous sulfate pills. Norinyl 1/80 is packaged with a diagonal blue line to distinguish it from 1/50. Pills are started on day 5 of the menstrual cycle and taken every day thereafter. Procedure for a forgotten pill is explained. Women should be informed of side effects that may occur in early days of use. Circumstances requiring withdrawal of this treatment were enumerated. This preparation provides almost complete contraceptive effectiveness with discontinuation rates for pill related reasons, 2-10%.
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