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  1. 1

    [Launching a contraception campaign. Client: ASHONPLAFA (The Futures Group)] Campana lanzamiento anticonceptivos. Cliente: ASHONPLAFA (The Futures Group).

    McCann-Erickson Centroamericana

    [Unpublished] 1981. [37] p.

    This document presents plans for a 6-month campaign designed by the McCann-Erickson advertising agency to launch 3 contraceptive products in Honduras. The clients for the campaign were the Honduran Family Planning Association and the Futures Group. The campaign was intended to educate its primarily lower class target population about the objectives and benefits of family planning and to promote the specific brand of contraceptives offered by the family planning association. The safety, efficacy, and moderate price of the products were stressed. Considering the educational level of the target population, the language used was simple, direct, and informative. The theme was the advantage of being able to decide responsibly how many children to have and to space births through the rational use of the products. 5 full-page newspaper advertisements were suggested, each consisting of a title, photograph, subtitle, brief text, and slogan. Radio messages included three 15 second spots designed to promote the specific products through frequent appearance and four 30-second spots intended to promote family planning in general. A poster was specifically designed for the points of sale and for placement in other strategic locations in both rural and urban areas. The photographs from the newspaper campaign were designed to be used as posters at the discretion of the family planning association. It was recommended that 66% of the media budget be allocated to radio, 16% to newspapers, and 18% to posters.
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  2. 2

    Summary proceedings of the Contraceptive Social Marketing Asia Regional Conference, Dacca, Bangladesh, 20-24 June 1981.

    International Contraceptive Social Marketing Project

    [Washington, D.C., Futures Group], 1981. 92 p.

    The 6 basic stages of marketing are: 1) analyzing the institutional structure, the market, and the consumer; 2) planning goals, objectives, strategies, and tactics; 3) developing, testing, and refining product concepts, packaging, brand names, promotion, pricing, and distribution; 4) implementing and monitoring the scheduled marketing activities; 5) assessing in-market effectiveness, response, and sales; and 6) obtaining feedback and using it. To be of value, marketing research must be affordable, useful, planned, and reliable, requiring management support, a budget, and professional expertise. Qualitative research provides general information and generates areas of study for quantitative research which is done on a large scale with a randomly selected sample. Regarding the 3rd step in marketing, commodity procurement, central procurement is seen as a way of lowering costs but the process is time consuming and the variety of products available is limited. Introducing a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC) provides a choice for the consumer but too low a price may cause a low-quality image and insufficient profit. There seems to exist a need to provide medical detailing and to make available in general; 2 promotional campaigns, aimed at retailers and 1st consumers, are needed. Introducing a new product into the contraceptive social marketing program's product line requires prior research and government approval in some cases. Distributing products directly to the consumer offers the advantage of having direct control over the distribution process but requires a great deal of time, while distribution through retailers means loss of this control.
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  3. 3

    Triton quarterly analysis of FOF [Family of the Future] plans, fiscal report and funding request for September-November 1981 (Quarter 3).

    Triton Corporation

    Washington, D.C., Triton, 1981. 28 p. (Contract No. NEB-0029-C-1037-00, Egypt)

    The report details plans for the activities and expenditures related to the promotion and sale of contraceptive devices in Egypt for the 3rd quarter of 1981. Family of the Future (FOF) is a nongovernmental agency which operates on a US Agency for International Development grant of $27,200. Major activities from the previous quarter are summarized and plans for each of the 6 FOF departments are provided. The Medical Promotion and Distribution department will develop distribution strategies including locating new cities and establishing sales targets for IUDs, condoms, and spermicides; prepare information booklets for doctors and pharmacists on devices as they are added to the product line; and oversee warehousing details and sponsor conferences for pharmacists and doctors. These activities are expected to consume 25.6% of the proposed budget. The advertising and art department will determine communication strategies for all products. Copy and time slots will be suggested for mass media promotion of FOF and of available family planning methods to be aired on television stations and 6 radio stations. Inserts for 6 newspapers, 7 weekly magazines, 5 bi-monthly or monthly magazines, and 4 special audience publications will be prepared. This department will operate on 31.3% of the budget. Other promotional activities will include the design and production of multi-product countertop displays and of giveaway items. The medical and scientific department will sponsor a symposium for influential university affiliated obstetricians and gynecologists from 4 cities to stimulate interest in family planning and in FOF and its products. Training programs on IUD insertions will be provided. Volunteers and social affairs departments will use 25 volunteers to organize 110 rallies reaching 2500 people each that are gathered in crowded places or through door-to-door contact. Volunteers will also continue to collect interview data. Volunteer training is planned to target seasonal vacation areas. Samples of condoms and spermicides, booklets, and pamphlets will be distributed during upcoming festivals. A central location will be established from which volunteers can answer questions. The market research department plans to conduct 19 group sessions and continue data collection for the pharmacy intercept study. Market research training in the US is arranged for an FOF employee. No changes are planned which would affect the administration department. A detailed financial analysis of quarterly projections and expenditures is provided. Revenues from sales of contraceptive devices are also included in the report. An evaluation of the planned activities and recommendations for additional activities are detailed.
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Effectiveness of breast self-examination prompts on oral contraceptive packaging.

    Ferris DG; Golden NH; Petry LJ; Litaker MS; Nackenson M; Woodward LD

    JOURNAL OF FAMILY PRACTICE. 1996 Jan; 42(1):43-8.

    The inclusion of a breast self-examination (BSE) "prompt" on oral contraceptive (OC) packaging resulted in an increased frequency of this critical breast cancer preventive practice. 907 women 13-40 years old from 7 health care sites in the US were recruited without knowledge of the goals of the study and given a general health promotion pamphlet and a BSE demonstration. 601 of these women were randomly assigned to receive 3 prompt-included OC packets; the remainder received unmarked OCs. The marked OC packets printed a reminder of the ideal time for BSE (7 days after menstrual period) beneath the first row of pills. At baseline, 49.3% of all subjects had performed BSE at least once in the preceding 3 months, while 21.5% had never done so. The interventions were most effective among women who were at least partially compliant with BSE at baseline (50.9% of prompt subjects and 45.5% of education-only subjects increased BSE frequency to monthly), but there was a 40% increase in frequency among women new to this regimen. The percentages of women performing BSE at the proper time of the cycle increased from baseline levels of 24.7% in the prompt group and 24.1% in the education-only group to 68.1% and 62.2%, respectively. These improvements in the frequency and timing of BSE persisted, although at a reduced level, 3 months after completion of the special OC packets. Finally, 91.2% of women who received the prompt indicated they would like this to be a regular feature of their OC packaging and 80.3% said it had reminded them to perform BSE.
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  5. 5

    Integrating Depo-Provera in Nepal's social marketing initiative: what mechanisms are being developed to ensure high quality services?

    Futures Group. Social Marketing for Change [SOMARC]

    SOMARC III HIGHLIGHTS. 1993 Dec; (8):1-2.

    The Social Marketing for Change (SOMARC) project and the Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) Company in Nepal, with assistance from the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC), are introducing Depo-Provera (DMPA) in 280 medical shops in Kathmandu Valley. At the first training session for Nepalese trainers, which was held in September, 1993, SOMARC and CRS provided an overview of DMPA administration. This included product features and benefits, product side effects and their management, precautions, client screening, injection techniques, infection prevention, syringe disposal, counseling, and myths and misconceptions about injectable contraceptives. Upjohn (the manufacturer of Depo-Provera) provided technical support and materials for this training session. CRS intends to train at least 1 staff person (medical staff or paramedical assistant) at each medical shop in the pilot program. Distribution of the product will be monitored. To insure proper technique and infection prevention, DMPA will be packaged with a disposable syringe, an alcohol swab, a consumer acceptor card, and product information. Consumer advertising and materials at the point of sale will inform consumers that the intact package should be opened in their presence. Posters and mass media will be used to inform the consumer of the provider's recommended screening process. Booklets will contain information regarding conditions requiring medical care. Consumer acceptor cards will list the date of the next injection as a reminder. The Nepal Fertility Care Center (NFCC), a private family planning association with facilities in the Kathmandu Valley, will provide further information or follow up to clients when necessary. NFCC physicians, who have been trained by AVSC, will evaluate medical shop personnel administering DMPA. The program is expected to be launched in mid 1994.
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  6. 6

    CSM - SOMARC project in Mexico.

    Futures Group. Social Marketing for Change [SOMARC]

    [Washington, D.C], Futures Group, SOMARC, [1986]. [6] p.

    Protektor is a condom introduced as a social marketing scheme in Mexico by SOMARC, with the Ministry of Health, and CONASUPO, a government-owned chain of grocery stores. Protektor condoms will be sold for half the average price of condoms, packaged in 3-packs of assorted colors and displayed in a dispenser in both the health and beauty aids section and at the check-out counter. CONASUPO is an ideal distributor because it is patronized by C and D class consumers, it accounts for 30% of grocery sales in Mexico, and it has the largest distribution network in rural areas. The Protektor campaign will begin with ads showing sports personalities during the World [soccer[ Cup in June 1986, featuring 18 weeks of advertising on radio, transit vehicles, and point of purchase displays. The theme "responsible loving couples" will be emphasized, with images of affection and intimacy. The Protektor campaign has been tested in 14 small 24-hour grocery stores in Cuidad Juarez, with an extremely positive consumer response. The campaign will be evaluated for both sales results, by a subsidiary of A.C. Nielson Co., and for consumer attitudes and awareness, by a subsidiary of Gallup Research. Mexico's population of 82 million, including 11.2 million fertile women, will double in 27 years. 51% of fertile women use contraception. Although 70% of people questioned know of condoms, 1.8% of contracepting couples use condoms.
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  7. 7

    Woman buyers targeted.

    ASBURY PARK PRESS. 1986 Jun 26; [1] p.

    US condom manufacturers have begun marketing their product directly to the people they most protect--women. "With the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and the growing number of unplanned pregnancies, women aren't just assuming that their partners will take the responsibility for birth control and disease prevention," said Stuart Gold, president of National Sanitary Laboratories Inc. in suburban Lincolnwood. Women account for over 40% of condom sales in this country, he said. The company's "Lady Protex" line of condoms--packaged in silver foil boxes with fuchsia or turquoise trim--is designed to be sold at the feminine hygiene sections of drug stores and supermarkets, spokesman Kevin Foley said yesterday. 7 months ago, a Minneapolis-based medical supply manufacturer, Mentor Corp. entered the condom market with the "Mentor Contraceptive" designed with the female buyer in mind. Mentor spokeswoman Jane O'Meara said the company would begin a national advertising campaign in September women's magazines. (full text)
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  8. 8

    The social marketing of contraceptives in Mexico.

    de la Macorra L


    The success in social marketing of the PROFAM brand of subsidized contraceptives, by a nonprofit private institution that supports the Mexican government program, is related here. PROFAM began in 1978, when half of contraceptives were purchased commercially from drugstores: they were neither economical, consistently distributed, nor advertised. Comprehensive market research revealed that a great demand existed. It generated information for choice of items to market, package design, and instructions. In 1979, pills, condoms, foam, cream and vaginal suppositories, all locally produced were distributed. A serious problem initially was the impropriety of using the word "contraceptive" in the media. The first phase of advertising targeted newspapers. After 3 months, 40% of Mexico's drugstores carried PROFAM. The second phase of advertising, in radio, magazines and newspapers, approached consumers with information tailored to the specific socioeconomic group involved. The third phase, geared to rural areas and general stores, concentrates on advantages of each method. Other aggressive aspects of the campaign include house to house sampling and a mail-in question and answer service. Evidence of success in broadcasting the PROFAM message is the frequent reference to PROFAM in jokes in the media and even in graffiti. The government's goal is to reduce the growth rate form 2.9 percent annually to 1 percent by 2000.
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  9. 9
    Peer Reviewed

    Uses of formal and informal knowledge in the comprehension of instructions for oral rehydration therapy in Kenya.

    Eisemon TO; Patel VL; Sena SO

    Social Science and Medicine. 1987; 25(11):1225-34.

    Information for using pre-mixed oral rehydrations salts solutions which have been made widely available in rural Kenya is normally printed on the packets in English, along with illustrations, and is either read or explained to the purchaser. This report found that comprehension of these directions could be improved with simple changes in the printed text that would reinforce prior knowledge and increase the effectiveness of the illustrations. The larger issue at stake is the need to develop long term health care remedies such as education and literacy, as well as short term. Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) was adopted as a short term way of combatting infant mortality due to diarrhea with explanation of ORT becoming the responsibility of village level health workers. This study suggests, however, that education including literacy, knowledge of environmental and biological causes of disease, and the ability to comprehend treatments is essential to long term health care goals.
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  10. 10

    Counseling on contraceptives: an unfilled need.

    Steadman S

    American Pharmacy. 1985 Sep; NS25(9):42-6.

    The dictum that pharmacists have a fundamental responsibility to provide health care information for their patients includes the need to furnish complete and accurate information on all of the contraceptive products that currently are on the market. To help accomplish this, many different resources are available that provide guidance for comprehensive patient education on all the different products and devices. If one agrees to the principle that an individual's sexuality is an accepted element of his or her life, then promoting sexual well-being should be an important part of health care. Yet, it seems that pharmacists and other health care professionals in general have not been particularly liberated about talking about and making objective assessments on sexual matters. Health care professionals seem to need more education to enable them to provide accurate information, to augment their own knowledge bases, and to reduce their inhibitions and possible misconceptions about sexual matters. Pharmacists do not want to appear as if they are encouraging or promoting sexual activity, but, given the consequences of nonuse of contraception, socially responsible pharmacists need to disseminate basic information about the use of contraceptive products. At some level, too, objective guidelines should be established to help pharmacists in handling contraceptive information. Pharmacists can play a key role in counseling on both prescription and nonprescription methods. In fact, pharmacists may be the only health care professionals with whom a sexually active person can speak about nonprescription contraceptive methods. Some pharmacists have been reluctant to provide patient information because of the risk of possible liability. But this attitude seems to be changing. The recent emphasis on clinical functions in pharmacy practice has led to speculation that, as pharmacists come to assume new roles, they may become liable for not providing some of this information. At present, at least 22 states already have guidelines or regulations requiring pharmacists to counsel patients. To provide the most effective learning experience, active participation is the key ingredient. It is necessary to elicit active participation in the counseling process. It is not possible to give complete guidance on the subject of contraceptives to every patient that comes in the store. Nor is every person going to be receptive, at least initially, to the idea of talking about contraception with a pharmacist. Yet, the role of the pharmacist takes on greater significance now because of the controversy that continues to surround some of the safety and efficacy issues of oral contraceptives and IUDs. Brochures and other materials are available to help pharmacists counsel patients on all of the different contraceptive methods.
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  11. 11

    Social marketing: its nature, scope, tasks and relationships.

    El-Ansary AI

    Alexandria, Virginia, Keene, Monk and Associates, 1984 Nov 5. 56 p. (Contract No. PDC-0092-1-02-4045-00)

    This document defines social marketing and delineates its objectives; discusses, in detail, the role of market segmentation and market research in social marketing; describes the concept of mix planning in reference to product design, packaging, pricing, advertising, promotion, and distribution; and identifies the skill requirements of effective social marketers. Social marketing uses the techniques of commerical marketers to increase the acceptability of social ideas, causes or products in a target population. The social marketing process includes 1) market research to identify the needs of the target audience, 2) segmenting the target population, 3) designing offerings to match the needs of the target audience, 4) establishing a price for the offering consistent with the target population's ability to pay, 6) communicating information about the product to the target audience, and 6) making the offering accessible to the target group. Market segmentation refers to the division of a large heterogeneous population into smaller and more homogeneous submarkets or audience groups. Social marketers then select appropriate submarkets as targets of the marketing program and develop alternative and relevant marketing strategies for each selected submarket. For example, specific market programs may be designed for influencers, decision makers, buyers, and users. These submarkets may be further segmented on the basis of geographic, demographic, socioeconomic, psychographic, behavioral, or consumption characteristics. Social marketers seek to promote cognitive, action, behavioral, or value changes in the target audience. In order to effectively promote these changes social marketers must be aware of the variables which influence decision making. Market research is a critical component of social marketing. Market research is used to conduct market consumer, and institutional analyses; to develop market objectives, plans, and strategies; to test and refine marketing plans; and to implement and evaluate marketing programs. A variety of techniques are used in conducting market research. Qualitative techniques are generally used to collect preliminary or exploratory information and include focus groups and indepth interviews. Semiquantitative techniques include panel studies, central location intercept interviews, and field tests. Quantitative information is colleted by surveying large representative sample populations. When consumers buy a product they are purchasing a benefit bundle which includes the product's physical, service, and symbolic attributes. Product acceptability and differentiation from other products is achieved by adopting appropriate design, packaging, promotional, pricing, and distribution strategies. Social marketing is a problem solving, technical, managerial, and behavioral process, and social marketers need a combination of problem solving, technical, behavioral, communication, and management skills to design, develop, and operate successful marketing programs.
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  12. 12

    The measure, the problem: communication at work in Ecuador.

    Booth EM; Pareja R

    [Washington, D.C.], Academy for Educational Development, 1985 Apr. [4] p. (Mass Media and Health Practices Field Note No. 14)

    Many children who die each year from diarrheal dehydration could be saved if they were given the oral rehydration salts (ORS) promoted in many countries today. But a common problem for diarrheal disease control programs is how to be sure that the correct amount of water is used in preparing the ORS. In Ecuador a practical and original solution was found that is economically feasible: a plastic bag which could be used as the liter measure. The bag is made of durabe polyethylene plastic, measures 6 x 10.5 inches, and costs US $.02 apiece when ordered in lots of 60,000. 1 side of the bag contains instructions on how to mix and administer the solution: 1) filling the bag with water to a clearly printed line; 2) emptying the water into another container; 3) pouring in the contents of 1 packet; and 4) mixing the salts. The bag also teaches the mother to give the child as much of the solution as it wants throughout the day and to continue breastfeeding and feeding soft foods throughout the diarrhea episode. Logo and instructions were pretested with rural mothers to insure that they were understandable and attractive. Laboratory tests were performed to determine proper strength of the bag. Community distributors instruct mothers in its use, and radio spots adivse mothers to bring dehydrated children to a clinic as soon as any signs of dehydration appear. This response to the measurement dilemma has proven to be a highly effective communication tool, as well as providing an accurate standardized measuring device.
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  13. 13

    Trip report: Honduras Contraceptive Social Marketing Program, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, June 11 - June 18, 1984.

    Levy T

    Washington, D.C., Futures Group, International Contraceptive Social Marketing Progam, 1984. 25 p. (Project No. AID/DSPE-CA-0087)

    At the request of the International Contraceptive Social Marketing Project, Tennyson Levy of the Tritora Corporation visited Honduras in June, 1984, to assist the Honduras Contraceptive Social Marketing Project to conduct market research to assess the impact of a 5-week advertising program. The campaign was undertaken to launch the introduction of the program's 1st product, Perla, a standard dose oral contraceptive (OC). During the visit the consultant was asked to assist in the development of an advertising plan for all 4 products which will be distributed by the program. The other 3 products are 1) Prebien, a low dose OC; 2) Guardian, a condom; and 3) Sana, a vaginal tablet. The consultant also helped develop research to guide the development of appropriate packages for the Guardian and Sana products. The distribution of Perla began in March, 1984, and the media campaign was conducted during May, 1984. Monthly sales for March amounted to 5271 cycles, and for May, 11,256 cycles. The campaign consisted of 2 45-second radio spots which ran 30 times a day for a month and a press ad. A visit to 12 pharmacies in June to obtain feedback about the advertising campaign led to the conclusion that the campaign increased awareness of Perla, of how it could be obtained, and of how much it cost; however, the campaign did little to alter women's fears and misconceptions about OCs. Recommendations were made for conducting a 2-phase advertising campaign to further promote Perla. The 1st phase will begin immediately and run for 8 weeks. The objective of the 1st phase will be to address women's fears and misconceptions about OCs. The 2nd phase will run from September 1984-July 1985, and the objectives of this phase will be to promote Perla as a method to avoid pregnancies which might keep women from attaining their personal goals, to encourage married women to use Perla to space their births and to limit family size, and to protect unmarried women from the fear of an unwanted pregnancy. Specific messages and channels for disseminating the messages for each phase of the campaign were specified. Communication strategies for the other 3 products were also provided. Guardian messages will seek to equate the macho image with responsible behavior. The Prebien campaign will be directed toward 16-24 year olds, and the Sana compaign will stress that vaginal tablets are a convenient method for lactating women, for teenagers, and for women who engage in sexual activities infrequently. A research strategy for conducting market research throughout the 13-month advertising campaign was developed. A previously developed survey questionnaire for evaluating the advertising campaign was redrafted, and an appropriate sampling strategy for the survey was developed. Pertinent research topics were identified, and a research time table was proposed. An advertising budget was also developed. Funds currently available for the campaign (US$93,000) are inadequate, and additional funds must be requested. The radio spots used in the initial Perla campaign are included in the appendix.
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  14. 14

    Beyond the flip chart.

    Smith WA

    [Unpublished] 1985. 10 p.

    Health education as traditionally practiced far too often fails to communicate effectively. The problem is how to operationalize what we know about how people learn. Communication programs that seek to teach new behaviors, particularly to large disperse audiences, are better when they: 1) define through research what the health problem really is, who it affects, how the audience understands and responds to the problem, and what obstacles are likely to be encountered; 2) segment general audiences into groups who see the problem in similar ways; 3) create messages/products that are salient in solving the problem, actionable, and attractive; 4) test messages and products; 5) ensure the practical availability of supplies; 6) integrate various communication channels around a single set of themes for each segment; 7) monitor all inputs to determine if changes need to be made in the approach; and 8) commit to a long-term strategy which is modifiable but consistent over time. A specific example of how to apply these principles to an oral rehydration program in a developing country is offered; the main steps are: 1) research; 2) message selection; 3) management of communications; 4) typical inputs such as flyers, logos, visual instruction labels, seminars, radio broadcast and posters; 5) costs of air time, printing and distribution; and 6) monitoring and training of field workers. 2 successful models of maternal education for ORT are the BRACS program in Bangladesh and the Honduras/Gambia program. What is needed is careful planning at the country level to select and then organize a strategy tailored to the needs and opportunities of each country situation.
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  15. 15

    Magazine versus physicians: the influence of information source on intentions to use oral contraceptives.

    Halpern DF Blackman SL

    Women and Health. 1985 Spring; 10(1):9-23.

    An experiment was conducted among a group of college students to assess the relative influence of various information sources on the subjects' intentions to either use or recommend the use of oral contraceptives (OCs) to others. 162 females and 90 male students at the University of California were presented with a questionnaire concerning the subjects' background characteristics, their attitudes about OCs. The subjects were then asked to read 600-word passages containing information on OCs. All of the passages contained identical statistical information; but 1/2 of the students were given passages in which the statistical information was used to support the use of OCs, and the remaining students were given passages in which the data was used to discourage OC usage. The students were told that the passage was a summary of a published article and that the article was attributable either to a traditional physician, a nontraditional physician, a traditional women's magazine, or a nontraditional (feminist) women's magazine. After reading the passages, the students were presented with another questionnaire concerning their attitudes toward OCs. The subjects' attitudes both before and after reading the passage were evaluated using a 9-point Likert scale, and analysis of variance was used to determine if the students significantly altered their attitudes toward OCs after reading the passages. Students who read supporting passages had more positive attitudes toward OCs than they had before reading the passages, and students who read opposing passages had more negative attitudes toward OCs than they had before the experiment. Students who read opposing passages attributed to physicians made greater negative shifts in their attitudes than students who read opposing passages attributed to magazines. Students who read supporting passages attributed to physicians made greater positive shifts than students who read supporting passages attributed to magazines. Opposing passages had a greater impact than supporting passages. No significant differences were observed in reference to the traditional and nontraditional variable. These findings indicate that despite the growing discontentment with the medical professions, especially among women who are concerned with the negative side effects of OCs, physician are still more influential in shaping attitudes than womenHs magazines, even feminist magazines. Males were included in the study because women are often influenced by their male partners in the choice of a contraceptive. Male subjects were much more likely to be influenced by the passages than females. Previous studies have found that individuals who are less involved in an issue can more easily be persuaded to alter their attitudes than individuals with a strong involvement in the issue. The statistical information presented in the passages was similar to the type of information contained on OC packages. The fact that this information could be interpreted both negatively and positively and the fact that these interpretations were accepted by the subjects, raises many questions about how the information provided by the manufacturers is interpreted by the women who read the information.
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  16. 16

    Publicity bans and health warnings: a 74-nation resume of oppression.

    World Tobacco. 1974 Jun-Jul; (45):44-5.

    A tabulation of official or officially inspired restrictions on tobacco advertising and of rules governing health warnings in 74 countries, based on data compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Smoking and Health, shows that restrictions are widespread in many advanced countries but less prevalent elsewhere. 37 countries, primarily in developing areas but including Bulgaria, Greece, and Portugal, had no present or pending restrictions on advertising or requirements for health warnings. In addition, advertising restrictions were absent but pending in Brazil, Israel, and Mexico, and daytime advertising restrictions on television and radio were in effect in Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru. 20 developed countries plus Burma, Iraq, South Korea, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Turkey, and Zambia ban television and radio advertising of cigarettes; 11 countries ban cigarette advertising in the press; 14 countries ban television and radio advertising of other tobacco products; and 8 countries ban advertising of other tobacco products in the press. Health warnings are required on cigarette packs only in Canada, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Ireland, New Zealand, Japan, Panama, Peru, the UK, the US, and some areas of Australia. No countries require health warning labels on other tobacco products, and only Australia, Canada, Panama, Peru, and the UK require health warnings in advertisements.
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  17. 17

    Dr. Ley says birth pill users must have more information. Urges full data for pill's users.

    Cohn V

    Washington Post. 1969 Dec 22; A1, A10.

    Dr. Herbert L. Ley, Jr., until three weeks ago, Food and Drug Administration Commissioner, said yesterday the government must consider action to see that the 8.5 million American women taking birth control pills get "much greater information" on their possible ill effects. This could mean giving women several hundreds of words of information on how the pill may cause blood clots, strokes and skin discoloration, and how they may be involved in liver, thyroid, urinary and vaginal problems; changes in pituitary, ovarian and other hormone functions; eye trouble; depression and suicidal urges. He said: "Speaking as a private citizen and as a concerned physician, I feel a need for greater information for the patient. Also, Ley said, his new feeling "is the crystallization of some thinking for a long period of time" about "the whole category of drugs to prevent something, given to healthy people" compounds like birth control pills, anticholesterol drugs and preventive vaccines, all of which sometimes have undesirable effects". "I think the patient has to be involved and involved very deeply in information on this new category of drugs. I think he needs to be involved in the decision on when to use them". Here, he said, he has been impressed by some arguments in a recent book, "The Doctors' Case Against the Pill" by Barbara Seaman, and its case for a patients' package insert explaining the pill's advantages and disadvantages. An announcement by Sen. Gaylord Nelson (D-Wis.) said that on Jan. 14 his Senate Monopoly Subcommittee will begin hearings to learn whether women "are being adequately informed of the pills' known hazards". "It appears evident," Nelson charges, "that a substantial number are not advised of any of the health hazards or side effects". For his part, Ley said he still stands by the September finding of an FDA advisory committee that the pill is "safe" as defined by law, and that the pills' "significant" benefits outweigh their risks. "That was a highly dependable report", he said yesterday, but "it's dated, as any report is", and "we absolutely have to look now at any new British data. Until I see hard data, however, I'm hard pressed to draw different conclusions. I may wish to revise my opinion as a private physician after I see the British data but not until".(AUTHOR'S MODIFIED)
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  18. 18

    A model for market research in contraceptive social marketing.

    Greenberg R; Novelli WD; Curtin L

    Washington, D.C., Futures Group, 1983 Feb 14. 130 p.

    The process model developed in this paper for marketing analysis, planning, implementation, and control of contraceptive social marketing (CSM) programs is circular, with the last stage feeding back into the 1st. In the 1st stage, analysis, it is necessary to examine the market, the consumers, and the organization and structure within which the CSM program must operate. This includes geographical factors, distribution and sales outlets, local resources, behavioral factors, user status, media patterns, and staff resources. The 2nd stage, planning, involves setting marketing program objectives, market target segmentation, marketing mix strategies, identifying the media that will be used and establishing interpersonal contacts. The 3rd stage involves the development, testing, and refinement of plan elements. This involves the concepts and components of the products, distribution, pricing, concept and message communication, and program testing and training. Product tests concentrate on names, packaging, and logo. In the 4th stage, implementation, the full program is put into effect, requiring the implementing of the plan of action prepared in stage 2, monitoring marketing progress, and monitoring the institutional/structural performance of the CSM organization. As part of this step the communication elements of advertising, publicizing, and promotion must be activated. The 5th stage, in-market effectiveness assessment, can tell if the program is meeting its goals, any corrections which need to be made, and how the next cycle should be planned. At the 6th stage the monitoring and assessment is fed back into stage 1 to identify problems and revise the procedure. The author discusses the uses the methods of primary and secondary marketing research as well as qualitative and quantitative market research methods. The following types of research should be given priority: 1) research that will fill serious information gaps, 2) research that is most likely to be applied for marketing decision-making, 3) research that will reduce the risk of uncertainty associated with making major program changes, and 4) research that provides essential, periodic indicators of market response to ongoing program activities.
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  19. 19

    Educating the public about oral rehydration therapy.

    Smith WA

    [Unpublished] 1983. Presented at the International Conference on Oral Rehydration Therapy, June 7-10, 1983, Washington, D.C. 8 p.

    The medical community has shifted its concern from the clinical efficacy of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) towards the practical risks of using ORT in unsupervised settings. The latter can result in dangerously superconcentrated OR salts, ineffective diluted solutions, too rapid administraion, or administration given alone for long periods. Programs exist in Honduras and the Gambia to re-educate the public about ORT. The goal of these programs is to have mothers use ORT early in an episode of diarrhea and to seek help if needed. Early results of evaluations of these programs indicate: 1) after 1 year in Honduras, 48% of the audience reported using Litrosol to treat diarrhea at least once; 2) during that year recognition of Litrosol as a remedy for diarrhea went from 0-93% of the population; and 3) in the Gambia, after 8 months of education, 66% of mothers knew the correct formula and 47% reported using the correct formula to treat their child's diarrhea. In order to produce widespread ORT use in unsupervised settings, it is necessary to reach many people quickly, probably using the media which in most countries means radio, as well as to provide the mixing information where is is needed, such as on the packet label, and to gain credibility. To bring these elements together, a plan must include an adequate supply and distribution system for OR salts, a training program for health providers, print materials, and fixed radio schedules timed to reach specific audiences. Such a program must rise above the everyday clutter of advice and suggestions to become an important new priority in the people's lives and requires a sensitive understanding of how people are affected by specific health problems, articulate wording of messages, and a coordinated distribution network.
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  20. 20

    Final market introduction plan for low dose oral contraceptive, Family of the Future.

    Greenberg R

    [Unpublished] 1983 Aug 10. [42] p.

    This document presents a plan for introducing a low dose oral contraceptives (OC) into the product line of the social marketing program of Family of the Future (FOF), a private Egyptian family planning organization. The program currently markets 2 IUDs, condoms, and a foaming vaginal tablet primarily through pharmacies in Cairo and other urban areas of the country. The OC, which will be introduced into the product line in November, 1983, is manufactured in the US. The plan describes the OC marketing objectives, identifies the target audiences, and describes the communication strategy which will be used to promote the product. Information on the product's ingredients and package is provided. Pricing information is also provided. The marketing objectives are to 1) increase the number of current OC users from 1 million to 1,250,000 million by 1987, 2) increase the proportion of users who continue use for more than 2 years from 30%-60% by 1987, 3) increase FOF revenues, and 4) provide women with a low dose OC to minimize health risks. The target population will be urban married women who are either 1st time users or previous users who discontinued OC use. The name of the product will be Norminest R 28 + Fe. The OC has a 28-day regime and provides 21 tablets containing 0.50 mg norethindrone and 0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol and 7 iron tablets. The package insert will provide information in Arabic and English. Each package will contain 1 cycle and sell for pt. 35. Nordette and Microvlar are currently selling for pt. 32-35. Pt. 35 is the maximum ceiling allowed by the government. The price was set to maximize FOF revenues and to take into account consumer perceptions that price is an indicator of quality. Detailing and distribution targets are provided. By the end of 1984, 80% of all Egypt's pharmacies are expected to carry the FOF product, and by the end of 1985 pharmacy coverage is expected to be 100%. Sales for 1984 are expected to reach 450,000 cycles. Communication target audiences include potential users, influentials, and the medical community. Advertising of ethical products is not permitted; therefore, the advertising messages will be directed toward physicians and pharmacists, and indirect advertising will be used to reach the general public. The week preceding the launch of the product, a conference for physicians and pharmacists will be held. The marketing program will be carefully monitored and evaluated for 3-5 months following the launch date. The appendices contain 1) a description of the messages to be communicated to each target audience, 2) a detailed timetable, and 3) copies of the package insert in Arabic and English.
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  21. 21

    Caribbean Contraceptive Social Marketing Project: initial marketing plan. Chapters V-XII.

    Bayley R; Washchuck G

    [Unpublished] [1983]. [54] p.

    This initial marketing plan reviews the following: family planning levels and current activities; family planning activities through governments and family planning associations in Barbados, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent; commercial sector contraceptive sales; the design of the contraceptive social marketing project; the target market; the product; distribution; advertising/promotion; marketing research strategy and program evaluation; project management structure, evaluations, and quality control procedures; travel schedule for 1 year; project budget for 3 years; the monthly cash flow; and a time phased schedule of activities. The Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys completed recently in all 3 program countries -- Barbados, St. Lucia, and St Vincent -- provide current information on knowledge use, and non-use of contraceptives. Knowledge of family planning methods, particularly for oral contraceptives (OCs) and condoms was reported to be very high in all 3 countries. Awareness of most methods was lowest in St. Lucia, a country with strong Catholic affiliation. Contraceptive prevalence was highest in Barbados, which reports a 36.9% rate. St. Lucia and St. Vincent report 33.8% and 33.2%, respectively. Family planning is supported through government programs and family planning associations in all 3 program countries. OCs are normally distributed through pharmacies, government clinics, and family planning associations, but in the target countries OCs also are sold by some dispensing doctors. Condoms can be more widely distributed to pharmacies, supermarkets, minimarkets, and small shops. While OCs are currently available in all potential retail outlets in the program countries, condom availability has not achieved total coverage of the potential market. The target countries identified for the launch of the contraceptive social marketing project include Barbados, the largest market with approximately 60,000 women of reproductive age (WRA), St. Lucia, and St. Vincent, each with approximately 22-23,000 WRA. 3 broad audiences have been identified as targets for the project: young sexually active women below age 19, working women aged 20-35, and males. A net target market of 22,568 couples has been established. The program will be with single cycle standard and low dose OCs (Perle and Perle LD, respectively) and 1 condom presentation -- the plain Panther condom in a 3-pack. In the 1st year of the project (8 months of sales), it is estimated that 5% of the net target market or 3385 couples will be reached. A 25% increase in sales is projected for year 2, and a 40% increase in year 3 for the original market countries. The project proposes to use advertising and promotional material developed for the Jamaica program with modifications as necessary.
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  22. 22

    Ending the cigarette pandemic.

    Richmond JB

    New York State Journal of Medicine. 1983 Dec; 83(13):1259.

    1 year after the issuance of the original Surgeon General's report, Congress passed the Federal Cigarette Labeling Advertising Act, requiring all cigarette packages distributed in the US to carry a Surgeon General's warning that smoking may be hazardous to health. Congress pased the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act in 1969. This banned cigarette advertising from radio and television. The Surgeon General published the most comprehensive volume on smoking ever issued in the US in 1979, the 15th anniversary of the 1st report. The data on cigarette smoking's adverse effects on health were overwhelming, and the press recognized this. No longer able to rely on journalists to cast doubt on the reliability of the data, the industry changed its strategy by attempting to portray smoking as a civil rights issue. The tobacco industry began to pour millions of dollars into campaigns to prevent the passage of municipal, state, and federal legislation that would ban cigarette advertising or restrict smoking in public places and at the work site. "Healthy People," the Surgeon General's 1st report on health promotion and disease prevention, emphasized the necessary future direction of medicine: prevention. Efforts to end the cigarette pandemic will need to focus on the following in the future: an end to the victimization of women; a greater focus on adolescents; more effective strategies for smoking cessation; more attention to clean indoor air rights; abandonment of recommendations to switch to low-tar, low-nicotine cigarettes; and revelation of chemical additives in cigarettes. The epidemiologists have now documented the devastating nature of the health problems attributable to cigarette smoking, but the minimal budgetary allocations to fight smoking testify to the lack of political will on the part of government.
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  23. 23

    Evaluation of illustrated support material of Maya pill.

    Bangladesh. Family Planning Social Marketing Project

    [Unpublished] [1983]. 17, [5] p.

    The Social Marketing Project (SMP) of Bangladesh developed an illustrated Maya (a regular dose oral contraceptive) packet insert of instructions for use and information on potential side effects and what to do about them. Later, the pictures were further clarified by adding a simple text for women who could read and also for those illiterate women who would be interested to have it read by someone else if they had difficulty in understanding the message. The desired material was prepared during 1980 and printed in early 1981. SMP has considered printing it on a large scale, but first wants to determine if this pamphlet is really useful to the Maya consumers. PIACT International agreed to fund a project in Bangladesh to evaluate this pamphlet. Objectives of the evaluation were to learn if the pamphlet is understood by Maya consumers and to compare knowledge of proper use of Maya, its side effects, and what to do about them between the consumers who received and those who did not receive the pamphlet along with the Maya pill packet. 4 markets from the district of Dacca were chosen: Manikogonj, Tongi, Joydebpur, and Norsingdi. From each market, a number of pharmacies were chosen. The selected pharmacies in each market were divided into 2 groups: 1 group of pharmacies was provided a number of pamphlets depending on their Maya sales of the preceding month; pharmacies in the other group were supplied only the forms to record the addresses of the illiterate Maya consumers during a 1-month period. 200 illiterate Maya consumers were randomly selected and interviewed from each of the study and control groups. A majority of the pamphlet recipients understood the messages in the pamphlets. The illustrated support material was more effective than the text material in communicating messages. Clarification of the pictures by adding simple text was found to be useful. The recipients of the pamphlet possessed better knowledge than the nonrecipients of the pamphlet with regard to proper use of Maya, its side effects, and what to do about the side effects. The SMP should use the illustrative support material of Maya as an insert in the Maya packet. In the future, the SMP should use only the pamphlet as an insert in the Maya packet. Some additional information should be added, such as the irregularity of menses due to the use of Maya and the benefits of the use of Maya for other than birth control.
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