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Alexandria, Virginia, Keene, Monk and Associates, 1984 Nov 5. 56 p. (Contract No. PDC-0092-1-02-4045-00)This document defines social marketing and delineates its objectives; discusses, in detail, the role of market segmentation and market research in social marketing; describes the concept of mix planning in reference to product design, packaging, pricing, advertising, promotion, and distribution; and identifies the skill requirements of effective social marketers. Social marketing uses the techniques of commerical marketers to increase the acceptability of social ideas, causes or products in a target population. The social marketing process includes 1) market research to identify the needs of the target audience, 2) segmenting the target population, 3) designing offerings to match the needs of the target audience, 4) establishing a price for the offering consistent with the target population's ability to pay, 6) communicating information about the product to the target audience, and 6) making the offering accessible to the target group. Market segmentation refers to the division of a large heterogeneous population into smaller and more homogeneous submarkets or audience groups. Social marketers then select appropriate submarkets as targets of the marketing program and develop alternative and relevant marketing strategies for each selected submarket. For example, specific market programs may be designed for influencers, decision makers, buyers, and users. These submarkets may be further segmented on the basis of geographic, demographic, socioeconomic, psychographic, behavioral, or consumption characteristics. Social marketers seek to promote cognitive, action, behavioral, or value changes in the target audience. In order to effectively promote these changes social marketers must be aware of the variables which influence decision making. Market research is a critical component of social marketing. Market research is used to conduct market consumer, and institutional analyses; to develop market objectives, plans, and strategies; to test and refine marketing plans; and to implement and evaluate marketing programs. A variety of techniques are used in conducting market research. Qualitative techniques are generally used to collect preliminary or exploratory information and include focus groups and indepth interviews. Semiquantitative techniques include panel studies, central location intercept interviews, and field tests. Quantitative information is colleted by surveying large representative sample populations. When consumers buy a product they are purchasing a benefit bundle which includes the product's physical, service, and symbolic attributes. Product acceptability and differentiation from other products is achieved by adopting appropriate design, packaging, promotional, pricing, and distribution strategies. Social marketing is a problem solving, technical, managerial, and behavioral process, and social marketers need a combination of problem solving, technical, behavioral, communication, and management skills to design, develop, and operate successful marketing programs.