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[Seattle, Washington], PATH, 2011 Jun.  p.Facilitated by project Optimize and conducted by a multidisciplinary group of partners, these landscape analyses highlight ongoing work related to five priority areas that comprise the vision for immunization supply systems in 2020. The analyses also highlight critical gaps that need to be addressed to achieve the vision. The five priority areas are vaccine and related products, supply system design, environmental impact, information systems, and human resources.
[Plan for social marketing of oral rehydration salts (ORS), "Keneyaji" in Mali] Plan de marketing social des S.R.O., "Keneyaji" au Mali.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health, Technologies for Primary Health Care [PRITECH], 1989. 24,  p. (USAID Contract No. AID/DPE-5969-Z-00-7064-00)Social marketing of oral rehydration salts in Mali is intended to help make oral rehydration packets available throughout the nation and especially in rural areas where the incidence of diarrhea is very high. In an effort to coordinate its various activities under 1 administrative plan, the National Program to Combat Diarrheal Disease developed a social marketing plan for oral rehydration salts including an analysis of current marketing, marketing objectives and strategies for attaining them, and specifications of the different activities to be undertaken. The plan was developed over the course of a 5-day technical meeting attended by representatives of the various agencies and organizations responsible for carrying it out. Oral rehydration salts are considered 1 of 60 essential medications that will be available in local health centers. KAP surveys of mothers and interviews with prescribers and vendors indicated that knowledge and acceptance of oral rehydration salts are growing and that mothers would be willing to pay a small fee for the packets. Antidiarrheal medications of questionable efficacy are often used in combination with the oral rehydration salts. Greater efforts are needed to inform the public and health personnel of the benefits of oral rehydration salts. It is anticipated that local production of 1 million packets/year of oral rehydration salts will begin in February 1990. Polyethylene packets will contain 27.9 g of powder made according to the World Health Organization formula, enough for 1 liter of solution. It is currently estimated that 19.2 million packets will be needed to treat all diarrhea episodes in children under 5 for 1 year in Mali. Over 5 million packets would be needed annually just to correct dehydration that has already occurred. Specific goals of the social marketing campaign include increasing the rate of use of oral rehydration salts by mothers from 30% in 1989 to 50% in 1992 and assuring increases in accessibility of packets from 50%of the national territory in 1990 to 70% in 1992. The packets will be marketed under the name "Keneyaji", which means "the water of health" in the Bambara language and is a term already known to the public. Instructions appropriate for illiterate mothers will be included with the packets. The marketing plan contains suggestions for pricing, overcoming initial resistence of vendors, obtaining needed raw materials and equipment, training production workers, estimating existing stocks of oral rehydration salts within Mali, and distribution. Promotion will be addressed to specific target groups, primarily mothers and secondarily health personnel, drug vendors, and community leaders. The promotional campaign is planned to begin in March 1990 after the oral rehydration salts become available. Face-to-face communication with mothers will be reinforced by popular theatre, radio spots, and other means.
Alexandria, Virginia, Keene, Monk and Associates, 1984 Nov 5. 56 p. (Contract No. PDC-0092-1-02-4045-00)This document defines social marketing and delineates its objectives; discusses, in detail, the role of market segmentation and market research in social marketing; describes the concept of mix planning in reference to product design, packaging, pricing, advertising, promotion, and distribution; and identifies the skill requirements of effective social marketers. Social marketing uses the techniques of commerical marketers to increase the acceptability of social ideas, causes or products in a target population. The social marketing process includes 1) market research to identify the needs of the target audience, 2) segmenting the target population, 3) designing offerings to match the needs of the target audience, 4) establishing a price for the offering consistent with the target population's ability to pay, 6) communicating information about the product to the target audience, and 6) making the offering accessible to the target group. Market segmentation refers to the division of a large heterogeneous population into smaller and more homogeneous submarkets or audience groups. Social marketers then select appropriate submarkets as targets of the marketing program and develop alternative and relevant marketing strategies for each selected submarket. For example, specific market programs may be designed for influencers, decision makers, buyers, and users. These submarkets may be further segmented on the basis of geographic, demographic, socioeconomic, psychographic, behavioral, or consumption characteristics. Social marketers seek to promote cognitive, action, behavioral, or value changes in the target audience. In order to effectively promote these changes social marketers must be aware of the variables which influence decision making. Market research is a critical component of social marketing. Market research is used to conduct market consumer, and institutional analyses; to develop market objectives, plans, and strategies; to test and refine marketing plans; and to implement and evaluate marketing programs. A variety of techniques are used in conducting market research. Qualitative techniques are generally used to collect preliminary or exploratory information and include focus groups and indepth interviews. Semiquantitative techniques include panel studies, central location intercept interviews, and field tests. Quantitative information is colleted by surveying large representative sample populations. When consumers buy a product they are purchasing a benefit bundle which includes the product's physical, service, and symbolic attributes. Product acceptability and differentiation from other products is achieved by adopting appropriate design, packaging, promotional, pricing, and distribution strategies. Social marketing is a problem solving, technical, managerial, and behavioral process, and social marketers need a combination of problem solving, technical, behavioral, communication, and management skills to design, develop, and operate successful marketing programs.