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  1. 1
    050233

    Resolution no. 3068 of 15 April 1986 on the conditions for the sale of products for oral rehydration.

    Chile. Instituto de Salud Publica

    INTERNATIONAL DIGEST OF HEALTH LEGISLATION. 1988; 39(2):433.

    Secs. 1-3 of this Resolution, which has been issued by the Director of the Public Health Institute of Chile, read as follows: "1. The products known as oral rehydration salts shall be sold directly in Type A and Type B establishments, this condition for sale being indicated in the labels of authorized products or products registered in the future. 2. Authorized packages shall contain an insert providing the following particulars: composition, indications, mode of preparation, directions for use, precautions, and the name of the manufacturing laboratory. 3. Any advertising or publicity text in respect of such products shall be submitted for the approval of the Department of National Control of the Public Health Institute of Chile, and shall provide simple and clear information on the prevention and control of infantile diarrheas and rehydration." (full text)
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  2. 2
    046138
    Peer Reviewed

    Uses of formal and informal knowledge in the comprehension of instructions for oral rehydration therapy in Kenya.

    Eisemon TO; Patel VL; Sena SO

    Social Science and Medicine. 1987; 25(11):1225-34.

    Information for using pre-mixed oral rehydrations salts solutions which have been made widely available in rural Kenya is normally printed on the packets in English, along with illustrations, and is either read or explained to the purchaser. This report found that comprehension of these directions could be improved with simple changes in the printed text that would reinforce prior knowledge and increase the effectiveness of the illustrations. The larger issue at stake is the need to develop long term health care remedies such as education and literacy, as well as short term. Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) was adopted as a short term way of combatting infant mortality due to diarrhea with explanation of ORT becoming the responsibility of village level health workers. This study suggests, however, that education including literacy, knowledge of environmental and biological causes of disease, and the ability to comprehend treatments is essential to long term health care goals.
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  3. 3
    268035

    ORS in the context of the essential drug program.

    Goodall R

    In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Oral Rehydration Therapy, June 7-10, 1983, Washington, D.C., edited by Richard Cash. Washington, D.C., Agency for International Development [AID], Bureau for Science and Technology, 1983. 159-62. (International Conference on Oral Rehydration Therapy, 1983, proceedings)

    Diarrheal diseases and associated states of malnutrition account for the deaths of 5 million children under 5 years of age every year. Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) is a proven tool in dealing with this problem. The best approach to ORT should be decided according to local circumstances. Home prepared solutions (ORS) may be introduced either as a sugar/salt type of solution or a food based solution such as rice water. Availability of these ingredients at an affordable price would be required. Investment of time on the part of health educators would also be required. Prepackaged ORS is perceived as providing greater efficacy and is considered preferable. The problem of logistics is greater, however, and the following requirements must be met: 1) an estimation must be made of the quantities of ORS packets required in the area; 2) packaging may be done at a a cottage industry level or centrally on a national or regional scale, or packets may be imported; 3) supplies must be distributed efficiently to the user. Options include: 1) fully commercial channels, 2) semicommercial channels or social markets, or 3) the health services. Continuous restocking will need to be pushed through the system. Additionally, at least 2 other areas need to be dealt with: 1) promotion and public education concerning ORT and 2) research both in terms of developing the formula into super ORS using amino acids and in terms of social anthropology.
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  4. 4
    267974

    Developments in oral rehydration therapy (ORT).

    Program for Appropriate Technology in Health [PATH]

    In: Infant and child survival technologies, annual technical update No. 1 by Technologies for Primary Health Care Projects [PRITECH]. Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health, PRITECH Project, 1984 Sep. 15-8.

    WHO and UNICEF have recommended a universal oral rehydration solution (ORS) for the treatment of dehydration caused by diarrhea. Several features of this formula have been debated. Some pediatricians in developed countries have expressed concern about the sodium content of the solution, arguing that this can potentially cause an excess of sodium in the blood. However, when used properly, significant adverse consequences of the high sodium concentration (90 mmol/liter pf the solution) have not been demonstrated, and formulas employing lower sodium concentrations have not proven uniformly adequate in correcting dehydration. The replacement of glucose with sucrose in ORS has also been investigated. In the past few years, futher studies have been undertaken to investigate possible improvements in the ORS formula. For instance, a formula employing sodium citrate in the same molarity as the sodium bicarbonate has been proven effective in field studies sponsored worldwide by WHO. The citrate is now recommended for all packets as it extends shelf life. Other alternatives and supplements to the simple sugar in the formula are also under investigation. Solutions using rice-based starches have been demonstrated to be as effective in correcting dehydration as those using glucose or sucrose. In addition, the caloric intake is twice as high with rice-fortified ORS as with regular ORS. Research is under way to identify a super ORS in which the formula is modified to increase further the absorption of water and sodium from the intestinal lumen. Controversy over the potable quality of water for preparation of ORS continues. There is no evidence that bacterial contamination in any way changes the physiologic effectiveness of the resulting ORS solution. Recent studies show that boiling ORS does not change its compostion. Thus, to ensure the quality of water ORS can be boiled. More attractive ORS market presentations, e.g., ORS in tablet form, the provision of pre-mixed solutions in cheap containers such as those for juices, are being introduced in the commercial sectors of many countries. Uses of oral rehydration are reviewed for neonates, for hypernatremia and hyponatremia and other dehydrating conditions such as respiratory illness and dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome.
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