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Distribution of contraceptives in the commercial sector of selected developing countries. Summary report.
Columbia, Maryland, Westinghouse Population Center, Health Systems Division. 1974 Apr; 135.The role of the commerical sector in delivering contraceptive products (primarily the pill and condom) is examined in the following 8 developing countries: Turkey, Iran, Thailand, Korea, the Philippines, Venezuela, Panama, and Jamaica. Current status of distribution was obtained from surveys of fertile couples. Recommendations are given for action at both the national and international level: an illustrative marketing plan for increasing commercial distribution is presented. The commerical sector is considered a needed component in helping to meet national population policies; it is suggested that governments and donor agencies help eliminate barriers to increased commercial distribution, and that commercial companies cooperate with these organizations. Major findings are detailed by examining the distribution systems, marketing activities, pricing policies, and consumer attitudes, knowledge and behavior. Major factors which impede or facilitate contraceptive usage and current commerical distribution are given for each country.
Summary minutes of the OTC Panel on Contraceptives and Other Vaginal Drug Products, twenty-ninth meeting, November 19 and 20, 1976, Parklawn Building, Rockville, Maryland.
[Unpublished] 1976 Dec 17. 5 p.The FDA (Food and Drug Administration) legislation concerning douches was reviewed during the meeting. It was noted that the OTC Panel had jurisdiction both over douche ingredients per se and also over douche apparatus (when packaged with douche ingredients). Task Force 1 (for testing contraceptive efficacy of vaginal preparations) stressed the need for developing new in vitro tests for spermicidal activity and for evaluating postulated modes of other contraceptive mechanisms, such as acrosomal proteinase inhibition. A review of animal model systems brought out the need for using other animals, such as sheep, in laboratory research. Task Force 2 discussed the concept of a vaginal douche as a drug delivery system with implied health and therapeutic benefits. Labeling guidelines for vaginal douches were also reviewed and revised. A discussion of the preliminary classification of the language, phrases, and symbols found on the labels of vaginal douches brought out the need to reexamine the claims and accepted actions of the ingredients.