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Contraception Report. 1999 Jan; 9(6): p..For the first time in the United States, emergency contraceptive pills carrying Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved labeling are commercially available. The specially-packaged product, the PREVEN Emergency Contraceptive Kit, contains four pills of a high-dose combination of ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel oral contraceptives (OCs). The product is for women who have had unprotected sexual intercourse within 72 hours of use who do not want to become pregnant. The high-dose method has been available in some other countries since the 1970s. Globally, the method is known as the Yuzpe regimen, postcoital contraception or the "morning-after pill." The regimen has been marketed in Europe since 1984. While some OCs have been used "off-label" for emergency contraception, routine use has been limited in the US. A survey commissioned by the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation of 2,002 US adults found that only 1% said they or their partners had used emergency contraception. A second survey of 307 obstetrician-gynecologists found that although about 70% said they had prescribed emergency contraception within the last year, 77% did so infrequently--five or fewer times. (excerpt)
Contraception. 1982 May; 25(5):447-56.Silastic implants containing the progestin, levonorgestrel, were placed under the skin of the anterior forearm and tested as a longterm contraceptive system in 101 women. During 5 full years of use, no pregnancies occurred. The 5-year continuation rate was 54%. Menstrual irregularities were the most frequent reason for removal during the 1st year when they caused more than 1/2 the terminations. Some of the subjects elected to continue use of the implants beyond 5 years, allowing release rate data to be obtained through 6 years. From the 2nd through 6th year of use, the implants delivered a constant 30 mcg/day of levonorgestrel to the subjects and even after 6 years, 57% of the original steroid content remained in the capsules. Return of fertility following removal was essentially immediate and not related to time of use. Medical reasons for removal were infrequent and no pattern was discernible. (author's modified)
Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association, 1977. 75 p. (APHA Assign. No. 1100-079)In order to evaluate and assess basic progress and problems in the implementation of the AID contract with Syntex Laboratories for a Commercial Retail Sales(CRS) project in Tunisia, various specific tasks and the overtly specific schedules are divided into 6 broad categories: 1) the dissemination of better medical information on oral contraceptives and condoms; 2) publicizing of the products directly to consumers by advertising through mass media, point of purchase, and other advertising promotional methods; 3) improvement of the current commercial system of distributing oral contraceptives and condoms through pharmacies; 4) extension of availability of both products nationwide by initiating distribution through general retail outlets; 5) establishment of a retail sale price affordable by the poor and with sufficient profit incentive for all merchants along the distribution chain; and 6) attainment of an economically self-sustaining system. It is believed that too much emphasis is put on developing a comprehensive, activity-specific plan with a rigid, artificial schedule, and that it is more productive to focus on practical expectations for the program within the general areas of program action. This review of progress to date is therefore centered on actual achievements and obstacles within the 6 program areas than on the detailed requirements and deadlines in both the contract and the marketing plan. Recommendations are made in the following areas: 1) general and basic; 2) administrative; 3) programmatic--information and advertising; 4) programmatic--distribution; and 5) programmatic--pricing. The following appendices are included: 1) evaluation of Tunisian Program, July 1975; 2) GOT documents announcing decisions to restrict importation of oral contraceptives to 3 brands, July 1977; 3) letter exchange between GOT and USAID approving contract AID/pha-C-1143; 4) letters of John Thomas and Robert Smith, 1977; 5) initial package designs for project commodities; 6) report from Institute Superior de Gestion on brand name choices; 7) proposed Advisory Board; 8) examples of information/ education materials produced by ONPEP; 9) list of persons contacted during Nov. 5-14 visit to Tunisia; 10) program statistics, 1971-76; and 11) scope of work for evaluation of CRS project in Tunisia.