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[Unpublished] 1978. 26 p.The 4 marketing variables of product concerns, pricing, distribution and promotion, as well as planning and finance, transition from Westinghouse toNepali management, and areas needing improvement are discussed for a commercial distribution of contraceptives project in Nepal. The selection process for brand names for project pills and condoms indicated the effort expended in adapting the products for Nepali conditions. Packaging opportunities discussed by the consultants include possible need for introduction of the low-dose pill and addition of "piggy-backed" vitamins with the pills. It was recommended that consumer demand be generated for existing distrigution outlets before new outlets and marketing areas are sought, that th bond requirement for dealers stocking the contraceptives be dropped, and that adequate storage space be sought. Serious problems were found in project advertising in both content and media mix; suggestions for improvement included increased local promotion, market research and sampling of products, and production of a promotional movie. 3 organizations were identified which might be capable of absorbing the project after termination of activities by the present contractor.
Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association, 1977. 75 p. (APHA Assign. No. 1100-079)In order to evaluate and assess basic progress and problems in the implementation of the AID contract with Syntex Laboratories for a Commercial Retail Sales(CRS) project in Tunisia, various specific tasks and the overtly specific schedules are divided into 6 broad categories: 1) the dissemination of better medical information on oral contraceptives and condoms; 2) publicizing of the products directly to consumers by advertising through mass media, point of purchase, and other advertising promotional methods; 3) improvement of the current commercial system of distributing oral contraceptives and condoms through pharmacies; 4) extension of availability of both products nationwide by initiating distribution through general retail outlets; 5) establishment of a retail sale price affordable by the poor and with sufficient profit incentive for all merchants along the distribution chain; and 6) attainment of an economically self-sustaining system. It is believed that too much emphasis is put on developing a comprehensive, activity-specific plan with a rigid, artificial schedule, and that it is more productive to focus on practical expectations for the program within the general areas of program action. This review of progress to date is therefore centered on actual achievements and obstacles within the 6 program areas than on the detailed requirements and deadlines in both the contract and the marketing plan. Recommendations are made in the following areas: 1) general and basic; 2) administrative; 3) programmatic--information and advertising; 4) programmatic--distribution; and 5) programmatic--pricing. The following appendices are included: 1) evaluation of Tunisian Program, July 1975; 2) GOT documents announcing decisions to restrict importation of oral contraceptives to 3 brands, July 1977; 3) letter exchange between GOT and USAID approving contract AID/pha-C-1143; 4) letters of John Thomas and Robert Smith, 1977; 5) initial package designs for project commodities; 6) report from Institute Superior de Gestion on brand name choices; 7) proposed Advisory Board; 8) examples of information/ education materials produced by ONPEP; 9) list of persons contacted during Nov. 5-14 visit to Tunisia; 10) program statistics, 1971-76; and 11) scope of work for evaluation of CRS project in Tunisia.
Report prepared during the period April 11 through May 10, 1976, under the auspices of the American Public Health Association, in agreement with the U.S. Agency for International Development. 9 p. (Authorization: AID/pha/C-1100 Ltr. POP/FPS 2/11/76) (APHA Assgn. No.: 1100-031)Summary of observations and recommendations from consultations to assist an Indonesian marketing program and advise on design of a pilot promotion campaign in rural Thailand. The Indonesian program distributed condoms through commercial outlets distributing an indigenous herbal medicine, and was initiated by Yayasan Indonesia Sejaktera (YIS). Sales were lower than anticipated, but there was only modest allocation for promotion. The program met with notable success given the constraints of the existing marketing system, which is almost wholly passive, relying on consumer demand, and the limited staffing and budgetary resources available to YIS. As originally designed the program was too ambitious, and it was recommended that it be continued in a different format. Preconditions that would have to be met included change to an experimental marketing program rather than a commercial distribution project, inclusion of oral contraceptives, and change to an urban setting. Specific recommendations on establishing the project, stimulation of demand, staffing, research backup, feedback mechanisms, pricing, direct selling, repackaging, establishing a brand name, and point of purchase promotion, are offered. The Thai program was at the implementation stage, research on attitudes toward condoms among rural Thai residents and clinic personnel having been completed, and a media promotion designed on the basis of the findings. The consultant met with program personnel and recommended arrangements for implementation. His chief concern was that funds would not be sufficient or not enough time would be allowed to obtain meaningful results.