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  1. 1

    Oral contraceptives and breast cancer: a consumer toxic tort.

    Brannigan V

    JOURNAL OF CONSUMER POLICY. 1990 Jun; 13(2):201-14.

    Recent epidemiological studies show a correlation estrogen based oral contraceptives and breast cancer. In certain groups, the studies indicate a 2-4-fold increase in breast cancer. The epidemiological data are bolstered by a well-accepted connection between estrogens and breast cancer. The unique status of OCs and the special problem of breast cancer make this 1 of the 1st viable consumer "toxic tort" cases. Consumers in the US who use OCs and develop breast cancer should be able to recover damages based on a theory of failure to warn. (author's) (summary in GER)
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  2. 2

    Epidemiological and public health aspects of oral contraceptives and thromboembolic disease.

    Vessey MP

    Journal of Clinical Pathology 23 (Suppl. 3):62-66. 1970. 1970; 23 Suppl(3):62-66.

    The evidence linking oral contraceptive use with venous thrombosis pulmonary embolism and cerebral thrombosis and the risks associated with pill use are reviewed. 3 British and 1 American case-controlled retrospective studies yielded 3-fold risk for superficial thrombophlebitis, 4-7 fold risk for hospitalization or 5-8 fold risk for death from deep thrombosis, cerebral thrombosis or pulmonary embolism among pill users relative to nonusers. The proportion of users increased with certainty of diagnosis, frequency of pill use among population in Britain, and among sequential pill users in U.S. This association of thromboembolic disease with pill use is also consistent with results of several reviews of clinical series, 2 analyses of trends in mortality statistics, reports of thromboembolism in those given estrogen to suppress lactation, and for treatment of prostate cancer. Biomedical research on clotting factors, platelet behavior and blood vessels also implicates estrogen. Absolute risks of death from thromboembolism due to pills from British mortality statistics are about one-fourth the risk of death from motor accidents, and one-twentieth the risk of death from all causes of pregnancy. Thus the pill is probably as safe as barrier methods, considering their failure rates, and possibly more risky than the IUD.
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