Important: The POPLINE website will retire on September 1, 2019. Click here to read about the transition.

Your search found 21 Results

  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Literacy and contraception: exploring the link.

    Parker RM; Williams MV; Baker DW; Nurss JR

    OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY. 1996 Sep; 88(3 Suppl):72S-77S.

    A review of the research literature on the impact of functional literacy on contraceptive use failed to identify any study specifically devoted to this association; however, there have been 46 studies published in the past twenty years that addressed this topic as part of a broader analysis. For example, a survey of 2659 patients presenting for acute care at two urban US hospitals revealed that 42% could not read and understand basic medical instructions. Furthermore, studies have demonstrated that the package insert instructions accompanying contraceptives generally require a tenth-grade education, placing then beyond the comprehension of those at highest risk of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Literacy status is a better marker for educational attainment than number of years of schooling completed--the variable traditionally used--given variations in the quality of education. Future research should focus on the actual tasks required to comply with contraceptive instructions; once this knowledge package has been defined, ways to best communicate this information that do not involve reading can be developed. The Program for Appropriate Technology in Health guide for preparing family planning materials for low-literate audiences in developing countries is recommended to US health educators as well. Finally, low-literate patients themselves should be consulted about ways to address this communication barrier.
    Add to my documents.
  2. 2

    Visit to WHO / GPV to discuss introduction of vaccine vial monitors, March 20-24, 1995.

    Fields R

    Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, 1995. [3], 10, [14] p. (BASICS Trip Report; BASICS Technical Directive: 000 HT 51 012; USAID Contract No. HRN-6006-C-00-3031-00)

    In March 1995, a BASICS (Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival) Project technical officer participated in a World Health Organization (WHO) Global Programme on Vaccines and Immunization (GPV) meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, about introduction of vaccine vial monitors (VVMs). VVMs constitute color-coded labels that can be affixed to vials of vaccines which, when exposed to heat over time, change irreversibly. In 1994, WHO and UNICEF requested that, starting in January 1996, VVMs be affixed on all UNICEF-purchased vials of oral polio vaccine. Yet, UNICEF does not require vaccine manufacturers to include VVMs in their vaccine labels. USAID has supported much of the development and field testing of VVMs since 1987. Participants discussed status of interactions between UNICEF and vaccine manufacturers, issues and means related to introducing VVMs worldwide, and the prospect for conducting a study or studies on the initial effect of VVMs on vaccine-handling practices. They also heard an update on the pilot introduction of VVMs in some countries. BASICS could contribute to the development of a plan for global VVM introduction, since time constraints and heavy workloads face WHO/GPV leaders. UNICEF and GPV staff suggested that other VVM products from different manufacturers also be sold to avoid a monopoly. Participants considered issues of global introduction and resolution of issues with manufacturers of VVMs and vaccines to be high priority issues. WHO and UNICEF asked BASICS to draft general training materials for staff at the central, provincial, district, and periphery levels, focusing on actions that each level should take as a result of VVM use. They also asked BASICS to develop a quick-reference sheet for policy makers.
    Add to my documents.
  3. 3

    The use of private sector marketing research techniques in CSM projects in the developing world.

    Tipping S

    [Unpublished] 1989. Presented at the IIDSS Conference, August 18-20, 1989. [15] p.

    The author explains the operations of and rationale behind the Social Marketing for Change (SOMARC) project of the Futures Group. Using indigenous private sector company commercial channels in developing countries, SOMARC helps develop advertising campaigns and other marketing approaches to sell branded condoms, oral contraceptives, vaginal foaming tablets, and sometimes IUDs. Commercial marketing research techniques are employed in these exercises, and include developing and evaluating advertising and marketing strategies, designing and testing advertising messages, and selecting and improving product names and packaging for their contraceptive products. Although technical assistance is generally required in most countries, local companies are nonetheless depended upon to develop and manage the projects overall. The importance of brand image research in reaching target markets is discussed, followed by examples of testing and evaluating marketing strategies, product names, package testing, and advertising messages.
    Add to my documents.
  4. 4

    Recommendations for improving instructions for taking oral contraceptives.

    Family Health International [FHI]

    Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, FHI, 1991 Feb 8. [262] p.

    A special notebook for use at a U.S. Food and Drug Administration meeting held February 8, 1991, for the Advisory Committee on Fertility and Maternal Health Drugs, contains draft instructions for oral contraceptive users to be included in the Patient's Package Insert (PPI). There are 9 manufacturers of 56 types of oral contraceptives in the U.S., as well as 26 family planning organizations, with many different sets of directions for use. Particular discrepancies exist in start date, what to do if 1, 2 or more pills are missed, and in related factors such as the design of the package. The suggested instructions are readable by a person with 5-6th grade reading level, are the same for all pills, and resemble those issued by the IPPF and WHO. THe only exception is the difference between 21- and 28-day pill packages. This draft has been pre-tested on a limited basis on 70 users. The rest of the notebook contains sections on advantages and disadvantages of the proposed instructions, a review of relevant biomedical and social literature on pill-taking with excerpted readings, list of manufacturers, types of instructions by manufacturer, bibliography, and contributors. With a 1st-year failure rate as high as 10%, leading to a 10-year failure rate of 40%, it is assumed that if compliance could be improved, the current estimated 250,000 pill failures annually in the U.S. would decrease.
    Add to my documents.
  5. 5

    Marketing and sale of ORS.

    Batra R; Baker J

    In: Manual for assessment and planning of national ORT programs, edited by John LeSar, Polly Harrison, and Ann Buxbaum. Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health, 1985 Dec. 23 p..

    In November 1984 the AID Office of Health, through the Pritech project, sponsored a workshop which explored the potential of marketing oral rehydration therapy/salts for the treatment of childhood and infant diarrheal dehydration. This chapter reflects the conclusions and recommendations of that gathering's working groups, as well as key findings from some of the most important experience to date in the area of the marketing of ORS/ORT. One of the most important PRITECH findings about the development and administration of ORS/ORT programs is the usefulness of the marketing approach to program development and assessment. The issues of primary concern here are: potential target markets and segments; consumer behavior; market research; products and packaging; distribution and sales; pricing; information, education, communication, and advertising; and evaluation of marketing programs. Country-specific findings are reported for the following countries: Bangladesh, Egypt, Honduras and the Gambia. Constraints and options are summarized. Evaluation procedures will vary for programs promoting a premixed powder from those promoting homemade solutions. If a program is promoting a commercially-available premixed packet of salts, further evaluation would be based on: the % of people in the target market who have been aware through the campaign of the existence of ORS, how it can be used, and where it is available; the % of people with a favorable attitude; and the % of people who report using it correctly.
    Add to my documents.
  6. 6

    Field experience with ORT production.

    Faust H

    In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Oral Rehydration Therapy, June 7-10, 1983, Washington, D.C., edited by Richard Cash. Washington, D.C., AID, International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh [ICDDR/B], United Nations Children's Fund [UNICEF], and the World Health Organization [WHO], 1983. 156-9. (International Conference on Oral Rehydration Therapy, 1983, proceedings)

    In 1969 the World Health Organization (WHO) arranged for trials of oral rehydration salts (ORS) production. The formula that was developed contained the following basic ingredients per liter of water: 20.0 grams of glucose anhydrous, 3.5 grams of sodium chloride, 2.5 grams of sodium bicarbonate and 1.5 grams of potassium chloride. As the product has become more widely used, a problem with its stability has been discovered, due to the interaction of glucose and sodium hydrogen carbonate. The stability problem was solved in some developing countries by packing glucose or bicarbonate separately, but the solution was not feasible in some countries due to a lack of necessary facilities or funds to maintain them. Based on WHO initiated testing, trisodium citrate offered the best prospects as a substitute for bicarbonate. It should be noted that the present ORS formulation is not discredited by the citrate alteration. If the bicarbonate formula is to be produced it should be packaged in a number of ways including aluminum foil, polyethylene bags, or 2 separate bags, depending upon where or when they will be distributed. The citrate formula should be packaged in aluminum foil, polyethylene bags, or paper/polyethylene laminations, depending upon use. Choice of formula and packing material depends also on the quantity to be produced. Small amounts of ORS can be prepared in hospital pharmacies for in and outpatients. Quantities of more than 2 million packets per year are easier to fill with semiautomatic equipment. Quantities of 4 million or more are more conveniently filled with an automatic machine. In most cases locally produced ORS is no less expensive than imported packets, but they offer advantages like the ability to respond immediately in an emergency and freedom to choose a dosage that is adapted to a standard size container for the country. Flexibility to produce ORS according to local needs and the principle of self reliance are also important advantages of locally produced ORS.
    Add to my documents.
  7. 7

    ORS in the context of the essential drug program.

    Goodall R

    In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Oral Rehydration Therapy, June 7-10, 1983, Washington, D.C., edited by Richard Cash. Washington, D.C., Agency for International Development [AID], Bureau for Science and Technology, 1983. 159-62. (International Conference on Oral Rehydration Therapy, 1983, proceedings)

    Diarrheal diseases and associated states of malnutrition account for the deaths of 5 million children under 5 years of age every year. Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) is a proven tool in dealing with this problem. The best approach to ORT should be decided according to local circumstances. Home prepared solutions (ORS) may be introduced either as a sugar/salt type of solution or a food based solution such as rice water. Availability of these ingredients at an affordable price would be required. Investment of time on the part of health educators would also be required. Prepackaged ORS is perceived as providing greater efficacy and is considered preferable. The problem of logistics is greater, however, and the following requirements must be met: 1) an estimation must be made of the quantities of ORS packets required in the area; 2) packaging may be done at a a cottage industry level or centrally on a national or regional scale, or packets may be imported; 3) supplies must be distributed efficiently to the user. Options include: 1) fully commercial channels, 2) semicommercial channels or social markets, or 3) the health services. Continuous restocking will need to be pushed through the system. Additionally, at least 2 other areas need to be dealt with: 1) promotion and public education concerning ORT and 2) research both in terms of developing the formula into super ORS using amino acids and in terms of social anthropology.
    Add to my documents.
  8. 8

    Expert meeting on oral contraceptive needs of developing countries.

    Briere R

    [Unpublished] 1984. i, 17 p.

    On March 8, 1984, a group of experts was assembled by the American Public Health Association (APHA) to discuss oral contraceptive (OC) needs of developing countries. The group reviewed current information on OC clinical trial performance, lipid effects, potency/dosage issues, relationship to female reproductive cancers, specific developing country concerns, and various programmatic issues. Particular concern was voiced about the need to try to avoid OC formulation switching in developing country programs since this can have significant adverse effects. Because of logistical difficulties, many developing country programs have difficulty suppling more than 1 OC. Recommendations for minimizing this continuity problem include: 1) providing a single predominant OC for most developing country programs; 2) engaging in multiple-year procurements; and 3) attempting to continue to provide a particular formulation in special circumstances where it has a high proprietary and/or continuity value, (e.g., social marketing programs). Some 30-35 ug estrogen OCs currently available in the US appear to perform in clinical trials at roughly the same general acceptable level as the 50 ug estrogen OCs. Accordingly, there was a general consensus among the group that a single predominant pill should be selected from among these particular 30-35 ug estrogen OCs. At the same time, it was clearly not the group's intent to recommend limiting OCs provided to developing countries to this particular set. Based on concern about human variability, contraceptive efficacy, program continuity, and the desires of developing countries themselves, another list of formulations was also considered suitable. (author's modified)
    Add to my documents.
  9. 9

    Procurement and use of drugs: managing the process.


    [Unpublished] 1979. Presented at the Program for Applied Research on Fertility Regulation and Asociacion Pro-bienestar de la Familia de Guatemala International Workshop on New Developments in Vaginal Contraception, Guatemala City, Guatemala, April 25-27, 1979. 20 p.

    Since contraceptives are usually procured and delivered through the same channels as other drugs, field experience with public health supply systems in developing countries is presented to elucidate problems of supply of family planning programs. Observations, reports, and case studies in 13 developing countries on the problems encountered in procurement and use of pharmaceuticals and contraceptives are the basis of this review of reasons why drug-delivery processes are important. Description of the procurement and use process is divided into 4 activity areas: 1) selection; 2) procurement; 3) distribution; and 4) use. Problems common to all 4 areas of the process concern the availability of information used to make decisions. In the area of selection, there is often an unnecessarily large number of different types of drugs available, resulting in unnecessary overstocking of numerous formulations. Problems relating to procurement include supplier performance, quality assurance, and the question of in- or out-country manfacture. Commonly seen problems associated with distribution include inadequate storage facilities, insufficient transportation services, inefficient stock management, and loss due to theft or spoilage. Use-associated problems fall into 3 categories: 1) prescribing and dispensing practices; 2) misuse of drugs by patients; and 3) problems of packaging and labeling. The discussion ends with case studies of developing areas with successful programs in the 4 fields of pharmaceutical use and procurement (e.g., use of heat-sealing equipment in tropical climates to extend drug shelf-life).
    Add to my documents.
  10. 10

    Summary minutes of the thirty-fifth meeting July 27-28, 1977.

    United States. Food and Drug Administration [FDA]. OTC Panel on Contraceptive and Other Vaginal Drug Products

    Adopted. 1977 Oct 2; 3.

    The statements made in these summary minutes of the OTC Panel on Contraceptives and Other Vaginal Products are provisional in nature and may be modified or revised in subsequent meetings of the Panel or in their final report to the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration. At the 35th meeting of the Panel discussion focused on the merits of having information on the relative use-efectiveness of the currently available contraceptive methods including vaginal products in patient labeling. The panel concluded that there was insufficient scientifically valid data to provide any useful information to the consumer. In discussion of the term deodorizing the Panel agreed that deodorizing is a result of cleansing but left for future deliberation the final classification of the term "deodorizing."
    Add to my documents.
  11. 11

    Summary minutes of the forty-first meeting April 28-29, 1978.

    United States. Food and Drug Administration [FDA]. OTC Panel on Contraceptive and Other Vaginal Drug Products

    Adopted. 1978 Jun; 8:6.

    Participants of this meeting included representatives from national and international health agencies, consumer groups, pharmaceutical industry, scientific groups and the general public. The consumer groups proposed that adequate informative labeling (to include list of active and inactive ingredients, expiration date, duration of product stability and directions for use) be displayed in both the outer and primary containers of the products. In the discussion of clinical protocols, it was suggested that double blind and placebo control studies should be used only in rare instances. One workshop report stated that well planned surveillance studies carried out during Phases 3 and 4 testing should be able to generate enough theoretical effectiveness data, and that a monitored multicentered study could permit choice of methods and allow comparisons with other contraceptive methods. An appropriate protocol for evaluation of a new product would involve a 1-year study with 3 month-post study-follow-up using an adequate number of sexually active women (18-35 years old, no history of infertility, have normal menses). Other issues addressed in the meeting included concern for statistical validity and variability encountered in multicentered programs; the need to reduce bias against vaginal contraceptives among health professionals; information exchange between pharmaceutical industry and health care systems; and the Panel's need for effectiveness data.
    Add to my documents.
  12. 12

    Comparison of the effects on circulating hormone levels of a conventional and a paper pill oral contraceptive.


    In: Haspels, A.A. and Kay, C.R., eds. International Symposium on Hormonal Contraception. (Proceedings of a Symposium, Utrecht, The Netherlands, September 10, 1977) Amsterdam-Oxford, Excerpta Medica, 1978. p. 89-97

    10 healthy women were studied during a control cycle and during treatment with either a conventional (CP) or paper pill (PP) formulation containing 150 mcg of levonorgestrel plus 30 mcg of ethinylestradiol (Microgynon 30) to test the effects of the PP on pituitary-ovarian function in relation to plasma levels of the exogenous synthetic hormones. Analyses of the natural hormones showed that all control cycles, with 1 exception, exhibited normal menstrual pattern. Data for treated cycles showed that no follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) peaks were evident during any of the treated periods, and in nearly all cases pill withdrawal was followed by a rise in FSH levels. Luteinizing hormone analysis for all treatment periods displayed a similar pattern to that observed for FSH, confirming that ovulation did not occur. Maximal mean treated plasma concentration of levonorgestrel for the CP was 11.3 nmol/1, and for the PP it was 12.68 nmol/1; corresponding values for ethinylestradiol were for the CP 1.53 nmol/1 and for the PP 1.37 nmol/1. There was no statistical difference between the maximal plasma concentrations of the Microgynon 30 components when using either of the 2 differeent formulations (leveonorgestrel, 2P>.55; ethinylestradiol, 2P>.05). 2 short-term plasma profiles from each subject, one at the beginning (Days 2-8) and one at the end (Days 15-21) of the treatment course, showed that plasma titers of levonorgestrel were higher in the 2nd than in the 1st profile, whereas ethinylestradiol levels remained unaffected. The PP formulation compares favorably with the CP.
    Add to my documents.
  13. 13

    The role of the regulatory agency in drug development.


    In: Sciarra, J.J., Zatuchni, G.I., and Speidel, J.J., eds. Risks, benefits, and controversies in fertility control. (Proceedings of the workshop, Arlington, Virginia, March 13-16, 1977) Hagerstown, Maryland, Harper and Row, 1978. (PARFR Series on Fertility Regulation) p. 12-16

    The mechanism of regulatory action pertaining to oral contraceptives (OCs) rests with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Premarketing sources of information available to the FDA are usually generated by clinical studies conducted by clinics or private investigators. Patients who participate in these studies must be informed of its nature and of risks involved before data can be collected on the safety and effectiveness of a product. Clinical studies must at least include 200 patients who have completed 2 years of use. Still, it is impossible to always detect all adverse reactions to a product. Postmarketing sources of information come to the FDA through spontaneous reporting of users and alert physicians; through case-control studies; through commercially conducted prescription audits; or through the published literature. The FDA reviews and evaluates information by its staff, by the use of consultants, or by advisory committees, which are often public meetings. Alternative regulatory actions include changes in drug labeling, especially if addressed to patients, removal from the market, and press releases.
    Add to my documents.
  14. 14

    Summary minutes of the twenty-second meeting November 7-8, 1975.

    United States. Food and Drug Administration [FDA]. OTC Panel on Contraceptive and Other Vaginal Drug Products

    Adopted. 1975 Dec 11; 5.

    The statements made in the summary minutes of the 22nd meeting of the OTC Panel on Contraceptives and Other Vaginal Products are provisional in nature and may be modified or revised in subsequent meetings of the Panel or in their final report to the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration. The Panel reviewed the preamble of the Draft Report and identified the following additional issues: 1) labeling for douches is to include the warning "not for prevention of pregnancy;" 2) the use of the term "feminine hygiene" was discussed by the Panel and found to be vague, and it was concluded that a clear statement should be made by the Panel regarding the difference between such vague terms and definite therapeutic terms; and 3) a discussion of the use-effectiveness of contraceptives is needed in the Report. Dr. Pearlman presented a summary on phenylmercuric acetate in vaginal contraceptives along with several other papers, and he summarized comments on the safety of talc based on a transcript of a recent Food and Drug Administration symposium on this subject. Dr. Tyrer discussed 2 references on the microbial flora of the cervix and papers on the detection of vaginal malodors, and Dr. Gordon presented draft statements for vaginal douche labeling. The Chairman designated 3 "ad hoc" subcommittees as follows: 1) to develop standards and testing guidelines in support of the various vaginal douche claims; 2) to review the use of pressure in connection with vaginal douche devices, defining pressure limitations, possible hazards, and unsafe and ineffective practices; and 3) to develop appropriate labeling, instructions, inserts, and warnings with respect to vaginal contraceptives, douches and other vaginal drugs.
    Add to my documents.
  15. 15

    Summary minutes of the fourteenth meeting December 16-17, 1974.

    United States. Food and Drug Administration [FDA]. OTC Panel on Contraceptive and Other Vaginal Drug Products

    Adopted. 1975 February 7; 5.

    The statements made in these summary minutes of the 14th meeting of the OTC Panel on Contraceptives and Other Vaginal Drug Products are provisional in nature and may be modified or revised in subsequent meetings of the Panel or in their final report to the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration. The question as to how the upcoming symposium was to be edited and published was explored. The question of ownership and publication of these proceedings arose as well as the course of funding for the publication. The Panel was concerned about what their approach should be to the subject of professional labeling. Mr. Welch noted to the Panel that products that will be promoted ethically under professional labeling as having therapeutic claims over and above those allowed for OTC labeling should be identified by the sponsor. It was also indicated that the Panel may have to address any therapeutic claims made for vaginal douches under professional labeling. Draft reports for the ingredients hexachlorophene, benzocaine and vaginal suppositories were presented and discussed by the Panel.
    Add to my documents.
  16. 16

    Summary minutes of the OTC Panel on Contraceptives and Other Vaginal Drug Products, twenty-ninth meeting, November 19 and 20, 1976, Parklawn Building, Rockville, Maryland.

    United States. Food and Drug Administration [FDA]. OTC Panel on Contraceptive and Other Vaginal Drug Products

    [Unpublished] 1976 Dec 17. 5 p.

    The FDA (Food and Drug Administration) legislation concerning douches was reviewed during the meeting. It was noted that the OTC Panel had jurisdiction both over douche ingredients per se and also over douche apparatus (when packaged with douche ingredients). Task Force 1 (for testing contraceptive efficacy of vaginal preparations) stressed the need for developing new in vitro tests for spermicidal activity and for evaluating postulated modes of other contraceptive mechanisms, such as acrosomal proteinase inhibition. A review of animal model systems brought out the need for using other animals, such as sheep, in laboratory research. Task Force 2 discussed the concept of a vaginal douche as a drug delivery system with implied health and therapeutic benefits. Labeling guidelines for vaginal douches were also reviewed and revised. A discussion of the preliminary classification of the language, phrases, and symbols found on the labels of vaginal douches brought out the need to reexamine the claims and accepted actions of the ingredients.
    Add to my documents.
  17. 17

    Summary minutes of the second meeting September 28-29, 1973.

    United States. Food and Drug Administration [FDA]. OTC Panel on Contraceptive and Other Vaginal Drug Products

    Adopted. 1973 October 20; 10.

    The panel members decided that their major goals were 1) the establishment of safety and effectiveness standards to be used in reviewing ingredients; 2) the development of labeling standards for over the counter products; and 3) the compilation of a pertinent bibliography. The members divided themselves into 3 review teams, and each team was made responsible for specific tasks. The members decided to ask a number of experts, knowledgeable about the ingredients under review, to lecture to the panel during the following month. The members decided to review ingredients one by one instead of reviewing product by product. The members decided to arrange all ingredients by their mode of action into sulfactants, antiseptics, aromatics, astringents, and chelating agents. Areas of future study were also determined. These areas included 1) the storage potential of the products; 2) venereal disease prevention and vaginal products; 3) the relationship between cervical cancer and vaginal contraceptive products; 4) hygiene vaginal sprays; and 5) the possibility of selling low dose estrogen pills over the counter. The panel was notified about consumer concern regarding the use of phenylmercuric acetate in vaginal products. A recent study found that phenylmercuric acetate was vaginally absorbed in rat tests. The panel will carefully consider this matter at a later date.
    Add to my documents.
  18. 18

    Summary minutes of the tenth meeting June 6-7, 1974.

    United States. Food and Drug Administration [FDA]. OTC Panel on Contraceptive and Other Vaginal Drug Products

    Adopted (Unpublished). 1974 July 18; 11.

    The Over the Counter Drug Panel tentatively decided to place the following ingredients used in vaginal douches in Category 1 of labeled active ingredients: citric acid; sodium lactate; povidone-iodine; 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone iodine complex; oxyquinoline citrate; 8-quinolinol citrate; oxyquinoline sulfate; 8-quinolinol sulfate; papain; disodium edetate; disodium tetraacetate; chlorophyllin. Eucalyptol (oil of eucalyptus) was listed in Category 2 as an inactive ingredient. The Panel agreed that there were no standards of efficacy for vaginal douches. The Panel also decided that the misunderstanding by the public of vaginal douches as contraceptives could be clarified with proper labeling.
    Add to my documents.
  19. 19

    Jamu and K.B.: condom marketing through indigenous herbal medicine retailers.

    Hendrata L

    Paper presented at the I.G.C.C. Workshop: Meeting of Experts between Family Planning Administrators and Commercial Marketing Executives, Penang, Malaysia, September 22-24, 1974. 7 p. (Mimeo)

    Condom marketing must be viewed as an integral part of any population program. The mere implementation of a marketing plan will not alone change the socioeconomic and cultural conditions which affect attitudes toward family planning. Jamu, the traditional herbal medicine of Indonesia, has been marketed for years through a system deeply rooted in the cultural fabric of the country. Because sex-related items have always been included in the Jamu program, an additional product, i.e., a condom, could be integrated in the distribution system. Jamu is distributed throughout the country, largely by mobile/promotional units. The system has its fingers constantly on the pulse of the country and is a traditional cultural fixture. Condoms can be distributed inexpensively by integrating their distribution into this existing system. A program should be initiated to involve the retailers more actively and to increase demand by promotional messages.
    Add to my documents.
  20. 20

    Japanese experience in distribution of condoms.

    Ando H

    Paper presented at the Meeting of Experts between Family Planning Administrators and Commercial Marketing Executives, Penang, Malaysia, September 22-24, 1974. 16 p

    Distribution of the condom in Japan is briefly surveyed and its marketing approaches and method are explored. Contraceptives involving less medical technology appear to be more conducive for commercial distribution since they require less attention from medical personnel and fewer medical facilities. Japan is one country where the condom is the major contraceptive distributed through nonclinical channels. Nearly 75% of family planning acceptors in Japan were using the condom in 1973. Condoms are not distributed through public health facilities, probably because Japan does not have any national family planning policies or programs to provide services and information to the public. Condoms are sold in drug stores and by door-to-door females salespeople. The Japanese have already accepted the 2-child family norm. Advertisement for condoms does not have to emphasize the family planning aspect of the product. It focuses on happiness and pleasure derived from the use of condoms. Attempts have been made to make the use of condoms more convenient and to remove the psychological barrier by removing verbal communication between client and seller.
    Add to my documents.
  21. 21

    Report of study group 2. (Family planning)

    Canfield C

    In: International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). Proceedings of the seventh conference of the IPPF, Singapore, February 10-16, 1963: Changing patterns in fertility. Amsterdam, Excerpta Medica, 1964. (International Congress Series No. 72) p. 590-591

    The purpose of the study group was to consider the best ways family planning organizations and governments can get cheap, reliable, acceptable, and harmless contraceptives which will stand up to climatic conditions. It was pointed out in an introductory paper that in countries with heavy import duties or adverse currency regulations it would be advantageous to manufacture such products locally. Several European countries have shown that it is possible to manufacture spermicides and caps with modest expenditure of funds. The IPPF has 2 s ubcommittees that deal with the evaluation of all contraceptive products . Participants called for better packaging of foam tablets to withstand heat and damp, the testing of imported contraceptives and their resale at moderate prices, an increase in the number of condom factories and government approval of the establishment of foreign factories. It was f elt that India possessed the technical knowledge and skills to start of factory for the production of low-cost oral contraceptives.
    Add to my documents.