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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Indian National Code for Protection and Promotion of Breast-feeding. [Resolution No. 18-11/81-NT dated 19 Dec 1983].

    India. Ministry of Social Welfare

    Indian Pediatrics. 1984 Mar; 21(3):259-64.

    The objective of the Indian National Code for Protection and Promotion of Breastfeeding is to contribute to the provision of safe and adequate nutrition for infants by the protection and promotion of breastfeeding and by ensuring the proper use of breast milk substitutes, when these are necessary, on the basis of adequate information and through appropriate marketing and distribution. The Code applies to the marketing and practices related thereto, of the following products: breast milk substitutes, including infant formula; other milk products, foods, and beverages, including bottle fed complementary foods, when marketed or otherwise represented to be suitable, with or without modification, for use as a partial or total replacement of breast milk; and feeding bottles and teats. It also applies to their quality and availability and to information about their use. Article 4 of the Code maintains that the government shall ensure that objective and consistent information is provided on infant and young child feeding for use by families and those involved in the field of infant and young child nutrition. This responsibility shall cover the planning, provision, design, and dissemination of information and their control. Informational and educational materials, whether, audio, or visual, should include clear information on the following: the benefits and superiority of breastfeeding; maternal nutrition and preparation for the maintenance of breastfeeding; the negative effect on breastfeeding of introducing partial bottle feeding; the difficulty of reversing the decision not to breastfeed; and where needed, the proper use of infant formula. According to the Code, there shall be no advertising or other form of promotion to the general public of products within the scope of the Code. Manufacturers and distributors should not provide, directly or indirectly, to anybody, samples of products within the scope of this Code. Other provisions of the Code include: health authorities should take appropriate measures to encourage and protect breastfeeding and promote the principles of the Code; health workers should encourage and protect breastfeeding; in systems of sales incentives for marketing personnel, the volume of sales of products within the scope of this Code should not be included in the calculation of bonuses, nor should quotas be set specifically for sales of these products; labels should be designed to provide the necessary information about the appropriate use of the product so as not to discourage breastfeeding; the quality of products is an essential element for the protection of the health of infants and should be of a high recognized standard; and the government shall give effect to the principles and objective of the Code through legislation and other appropriate measures.
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  2. 2

    [Recommendations for marketing of infant foods] Recommandations pour la commercialisation des aliments de l'enfance.

    Societe Francaise de Pediatrie. Comite de Nutrition

    Archives Francaises de Pediatrie. 1980 Jun; 6(37):415-6.

    Frequency of breast feeding has decreased in most European countries; this decrease is due partly to the lack of knowledge of the importance of breast feeding on the part of young mothers and also of nursing personnel, but it is especially due to the excessive promotion of infant formula on the part of the industry. This promotion is carried out even in maternity hospitals through distribution of pamphlets and brochures to mothers, and through radio and television commercials, and through the liberal distribution of free samples. Several international organizations have already acted to limit the publicity in favor of maternal milk substitutes. A document, elaborated by the French Pediatric Association, and approved in 1979 by the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, makes several recommendations to encourage breast feeding and limit bottle feeding. The major recommendations are: 1) publicity in favor of maternal milk substitutes must never be addressed directly to the public, but it must be filtered through information given by the medical and paramedical profession; 2) all labeling of maternal milk substitutes must clearly state that maternal milk is the ideal infant food until at least 3 months of life; 3) breast feeding must occupy the 1st place in all brochures on infant feeding directed to the public; 4) distribution of free samples to families and hospitals must stop; and 4) no reduced prices are admissable even for the sale of products to clinics, hospitals, and maternity hospitals.
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  3. 3

    [Infant food labels: some aspects of marketing practices in Brazil] Rotulos de alimentos infantis: alguns aspectos das praticas de marketing no Brasil.

    Toma TS; Rea MF

    REVISTA DE NUTRICAO DA PUCCAMP. 1997 Jul-Dec; 10(2):127-35.

    A monitoring study of the Brazilian Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes was carried out during 1995-96 with the objective of verifying the compliance of companies with the Code with regard to labeling and packaging their products. In 32 cities of 13 states a total of 125 products were analyzed (feeding bottles, teats, pacifiers, infant food, formula, and liquid milk). The following rules were found to have been violated: 1) prohibition of pictures of babies idealizing bottle feeding and questioning the ability of the mother to breast-feed; 2) the requirement of stating the superiority of mother's milk over formula and the use of formula only if directed by the physician or nutritionist; 3) the requirement not to use skim milk, semi-skim milk, or whole milk as the sole source of nutrition for the infant; 4) the requirement that the labeling should state the continuation of breast-feeding after the introduction of formula; 5) the requirement that for feeding bottles, teats, and pacifiers the labeling should not contain expressions that suggest connection to the maternal breast and that the breast-fed infant had no need for feeding bottles and teats. In comparison to previous evaluations using the same methodology, a certain degree of compliance was ascertained. However, several products lacked adequate labels, particularly feeding bottles and pacifiers. The rules dealing with warning require a review on account of poor visibility. Furthermore, routine monitoring procedures are needed to assist the authorities in promoting breast-feeding over commercial breast-feeding substitutes.
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