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[Unpublished] 1981 Sep 30. 17 p. (AID Contract No. DS/POP/FPSD; DPE-0611-C-00-1001-00)This discussion of the Nepal Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) Program focuses on promotional message strategy development, advertising strategy, local promotion strategies, distribution strategies, sales commission incentive program, the new product introduction plan, marketing research, project organization and management -- sales, communication, administration and finance, and personnel positions, training, management information system, definitive plans for institutionalization of CRS, and plans for funding the CRS project deficit. Nepal's CRS Program officially began on July 1, 1976. As of July 31, 1981, a total of 2,729,016 condoms and 110,472 cycles of oral contraceptives (OCs) had been distributed to retailers through the CRS program. The new contract set the objective of a 30% increase in sales in 1981. As of July 31, 1981, the project was behind the target by about 35%. The major reasons for the shortfall were: a shortage of condoms in the spring which prevented the running of the sales-generating Dhaal display contests and delays in getting new Dhaal packages from a subcontractor in Bangkok. One of the most important strategies is to develop promotional materials in local languages as far as is practicable. This will include the production of posters, billboards, and educational/promotional/entertainment audio tape cassettes for the roof-mounted public address (PA) systems of the 4 new jeeps. Personnel for the program will include 1 CRS driver/promoter and 1 sales representative. In response to the prime contract's call for a 30% increase in couple-years-protection (CYP) each year and a greater cost effectiveness in year 2, the primary CRS distribution strategy will be to concentrate on increasing sales in existing outlets and the secondary thrust will be on expanding sales into as many nearby outlets as practicable. To motivate sales representatives and reward their efforts, a sales commission incentive program has been initiated. Sales representatives seem to be satisfied with the system, which is still under study and open to improvement. 4 new products were suggested for market introduction in Nepal under the prime contract: foaming vaginal tablets, low-dose oral contraceptives (OCs), iodized salts, and oral rehydration salts. The idea of introducing iodized salts and oral rehydration salts had to be abandoned at this time, but the Nepal CRS will be introducing foaming vaginal tablets and low-dose OCs. On October 31, 1982, institutionalization of CRS will occur when Westinghouse Health Systems completes its USAID contract.
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, Family Health International [FHI], 1989 Nov. , 4,  p.Under contract with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), Family Health International compared 2 brands of condoms for acceptability in Mali, Sri Lanka, and the Dominican Republic. Lifestyle 3, 3.4 mils thick, was compared with Prime, 2.6 mils, to determine whether the thicker of the 2 could be potentially distributed by USAID in developing countries. 65 current condom users, sexually active, and free of STDs for the past year were provided with the Lifestyle 3 condoms, informed that they were thicker, and then interviewed after 1 month of use. 8 condoms were given to each user in the Dominican Republic, and 15 for each in Sri Lanka and Mali. No study data was available for Sri Lanka due to political unrest. Lifestyle 3 was, however, well-accepted in Mali and the Dominican Republic, with additional strength and security cited as extremely desirable factors by over 1/2 of the study participants. Greater protection against both pregnancy and AIDS was considered important. Almost all who were interested in buying the stronger condoms said that they would pay more for them. Lifestyle 3 condoms were also reported to be more comfortable with sensitivity comparable to Prime. The breakage rate for the stronger condom was 1:143, comparable to Consumer Report's March, 1989, study results of 1:140. The Lifestyle 3's labelless silver foil packaging was also found to be overwhelmingly preferred to the standard plastic packaging of other brands. Addition studies of both breakage rates and consumer preference for condom packaging are encouraged. Limited market introduction of Lifestyle 3 is also suggested.
Alexandria, Virginia, Keene, Monk and Associates, 1984 Nov 5. 56 p. (Contract No. PDC-0092-1-02-4045-00)This document defines social marketing and delineates its objectives; discusses, in detail, the role of market segmentation and market research in social marketing; describes the concept of mix planning in reference to product design, packaging, pricing, advertising, promotion, and distribution; and identifies the skill requirements of effective social marketers. Social marketing uses the techniques of commerical marketers to increase the acceptability of social ideas, causes or products in a target population. The social marketing process includes 1) market research to identify the needs of the target audience, 2) segmenting the target population, 3) designing offerings to match the needs of the target audience, 4) establishing a price for the offering consistent with the target population's ability to pay, 6) communicating information about the product to the target audience, and 6) making the offering accessible to the target group. Market segmentation refers to the division of a large heterogeneous population into smaller and more homogeneous submarkets or audience groups. Social marketers then select appropriate submarkets as targets of the marketing program and develop alternative and relevant marketing strategies for each selected submarket. For example, specific market programs may be designed for influencers, decision makers, buyers, and users. These submarkets may be further segmented on the basis of geographic, demographic, socioeconomic, psychographic, behavioral, or consumption characteristics. Social marketers seek to promote cognitive, action, behavioral, or value changes in the target audience. In order to effectively promote these changes social marketers must be aware of the variables which influence decision making. Market research is a critical component of social marketing. Market research is used to conduct market consumer, and institutional analyses; to develop market objectives, plans, and strategies; to test and refine marketing plans; and to implement and evaluate marketing programs. A variety of techniques are used in conducting market research. Qualitative techniques are generally used to collect preliminary or exploratory information and include focus groups and indepth interviews. Semiquantitative techniques include panel studies, central location intercept interviews, and field tests. Quantitative information is colleted by surveying large representative sample populations. When consumers buy a product they are purchasing a benefit bundle which includes the product's physical, service, and symbolic attributes. Product acceptability and differentiation from other products is achieved by adopting appropriate design, packaging, promotional, pricing, and distribution strategies. Social marketing is a problem solving, technical, managerial, and behavioral process, and social marketers need a combination of problem solving, technical, behavioral, communication, and management skills to design, develop, and operate successful marketing programs.
Washington, D.C., Futures Group, International Contraceptive Social Marketing Project, 1981. 51 p. (Project No. AID/DSPE-CA-0087)APROFE (Asociacion Pro Bien Estar de la Familia Ecuatoriana), an International Planned Parenthood Affiliate (IPPF), is interested in undertaking a contraceptive social marketing project, and requested the US Agency for International Development (USAID) to make a consultation visit. The purposes of the consultant visit, made between July 20-28, 1981, were as follows: to prepare a description of the contraceptive social marketing (CSM) market in Ecuador, which includes present resources and capabilities in distribution and advertising, definition of target market, recommended initial project range, and projection of potential revenues and project costs; to prepare and present a scope of work; to provide any necessary assistance to the Porter, Novelli & Associates representative in initiating the market research procedure; and to brief the AID/QUITO Mission Director and his Health and Population officer on the plan of action developed by the consultants. This report contains the findings of the consultant visit in 3 sections: socioeconomic conditions, preliminary marketing approach, and next steps for project development. On the basis of the consultant visit, it was determined that a contraceptive social marketing project is feasible in Ecuador and has the potential to add substantially to existing public, private, voluntary, and commercial family planning activity. Large segments of the population which do not currently have access to contraceptives would buy them at lower prices if they were effectively distributed simulataneously with an advertising campaign. More adequate adevertising, distribution, and packaging services are locally available. Certain support services, such as marketing research, are adequate but will probably require some outside supervision. A contraceptive retail sales project in Ecuador might have the following characteristics: products and packaging -- the project would be organized to market at least 1 brand of each oral contraceptive, condom, and vaginal tablet obtained through AID donation or purchased locally with donated funds; distribution -- distribution of all 3 products would be nationwide to about 1500 pharmacies, boticas, and droguerias and to 1-2000 additional outlets for condoms and vaginal tablets by subcontract with a local distributor; prices -- a 1-month supply of each project would cost consumers between 15-20 Sucres; advertising -- a nationwide campaign, focused on radio and point-of-purchase materials, would be undertaken by subcontract with a local advertising agency; personnel -- APROFE will require a manager experienced in consumer product marketing, 1 secretary, and 2 sales persons; project organization -- the project can be undertaken and managed directly by APROFE with the technical assistance of an outside contractor during the initial 2-3 years of the project; and timing -- after the project is approved and funding obtained, market research could begin and be completed in 3 months.
Washington, D.C., Futures Group, International Contraceptive Social Marketing Project, 1980.  p. (Project No. AID/DSPE-CA-0087)As an initial step in implementing a contraceptive commercial retail sales project, the Family Planning Association of Honduras, ASHONPLAFA, requested US Agency for International Development (USAID) assistance in assessing the feasibility of a commercial retail sales (CRS) project. This report consists of the findings of a consultant visit made for this purpose from November 17-21, 1980. The consultation focused on the following: development of an organizational design for the project; development of a preliminary marketing plan, including identification of subcontractors and outline of tasks; preparation of a brief statement of the underlying socioeconomic conditions which justify a CRS project; and preparation of a preliminary report for immediate use, which was written during the site visit and appears as Appendix B in this report. On the basis of the consultation visit, it was determined that a commercial sales project is desirable and feasible in Honduras. A significant portion of the population which does not currently have access to contraceptives (because of high commercial prices and insufficient public health services) could afford them at lower prices. In addition, more than adequate advertising, distribution, and packaging resources exist in Honduras. Market research services, though inadequate locally, are readily available through firms based in Guatemala. A retail sales program in Honduras might have the following characteristics: products and packaging -- an oral contraceptive, condom (in packages of 3), and a vaginal tablet (in tubes of 12 or 20 tablets) with packaging locally designed and produced; prices and margins -- a month's supply of each product would cost the consumer about 1 Lempira, and margins would be comparable to those of other products in the same distribution system; distribution -- 1 or 2 commercial distributors could be used to distribute the 3 products in return for their standard margin; advertising and promotion -- a low key campaign emphasizing radio and point-of-purchase promotion is indicated here, with a modest press campaign directed to opinion leaders; personnel -- at a mimimum, the project will require an experienced manager and secretary to coordinate advertising, distribution, inventory, packaging, and other project elements; timing -- after the project is approved and funding obtained, market research, construction of an advertising campaign, and contracting with a distributor and packaging may occur within 3-4 months; project organization -- the project may be undertaken directly by ASHONPLAFA, by a separately incorporated subsidiary of ASHONPLAFA, by subcontracts, or by some combination or variation of these forms of organization; and a nationwide program can be expected to reach between 50-70,000 users at maintenance levels.
(London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, (1973)). 30 p.This handbook treats of the establishment of community-based programs for contraceptive distribution as called for by the IPPF 21st Anniversary Conference. It was resolved that family planning supplies should be made more widely available by expanding the number of distribution channels. The selection, training, and supervision of distributors is considered to be the key. Guidelines for this as well as for selection of supervisors and the implementation of the total program are given.
Draft report of a meeting of specialists in contraceptive distribution, London, September 28-30, 1973. (London, IPPF, 1973), 65 p.A report of a meeting of specialists in contraceptive distribution held in London in September 1973 is presented. The specialists represented most of the community-based distribution schemes outside the People's Republic of China. They unanimously agreed that these schemes are capable of involving millions who are not reached by the existing programs. The meeting recommended that the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) take the lead in the formation of groups to work in community-based contraceptive distribution. The programs are discussed in terms of: 1) organizational structure; 2) staff; 3) contracted skills; 4) distribution chain; 5) depot holders; 6) contraceptives; 7) promotion,; and 8) program results. The possible aims of any program to distribute supplies and resources are discussed. Criteria for judging the appropriateness of an organization for carrying out the tasks are given. 5 options for the future with their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. They are: 1) no new initiative; 2) activities confined to the IPPF; 3) organizations linked to the IPPF; 4) supplementation of the resources of an appropriate existing organization; and 5) a new organization.