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Prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among young women engaged in sex work aboard foreign fishing vessels in Kiribati.
Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal. 2018 Jan-Mar; 9(1):8-15.Objective: To assess the prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among women who board foreign fishing vessels for sex work in Kiribati. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to collect data on behavioural risk factors for STIs and knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV and STIs during 2007. Urine and blood samples were collected to test for HIV and select STIs. Descriptive statistics were performed for sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics, and chi(2) tests were used to assess associations between potential key determinants and the presence of genital Chlamydia infection. Results: Women who boarded foreign fishing vessels for transactional sex were younger, had less education, were less likely to live with a partner and were less likely to be otherwise employed. Although no HIV infections were detected, more than half (57.5%) of the women were diagnosed with an STI. One quarter of the women tested positive for chlamydia, and 40% tested positive for mycoplasma. The presence of chlamydia was strongly associated with age at first sexual intercourse (P = 0.02) and number of sexual partners during the prior seven days (P = 0.02). Conclusion: The high rate of STIs in this population of sex workers is concerning given the potential of severe pregnancy-related and chronic health problems and the increased risk of transmission within the general population of Kiribati. We identified a specific sex worker population as a priority group for targeted public health efforts to prevent and control the spread of STIs in Kiribati.
Lancet. HIV. 2016 Aug; 3(8):e333.Add to my documents.
Breastfeeding and fisheries management: Exploring infant nutrition as a socioeconomic driver in artisanal fisheries of the Philippines.
Ocean and Coastal Management. 2018; 153:12-16.Destructive fishing practices and overfishing are common throughout the Philippine archipelago. This, coupled with a rapidly increasing human population, puts the marine resources at risk as more and more people become reliant upon the fisheries for sustenance. This paper unpicks infant nutritional choices as a potential socioeconomic driver in fishing effort. Research from a larger study focusing on the viability of tourism as a supplemental livelihood for remote artisanal fishing communities in the Philippines unexpectedly exposed five cases of fishing families going into debt to purchase breast milk substitutes for their children. Building upon previous research that has demonstrated the influence of economic need on fishing effort, infant nutritional choices, specifically the unnecessary use of milk substitutes is discussed as a potentially overlooked driver in fishing effort. This paper discusses potential impacts of infant nutritional choices in the context of economic need, population growth and fisheries management. © 2017
A Comparison of Home-Based Versus Outreach Event-Based Community HIV Testing in Ugandan Fisherfolk Communities.
AIDS and Behavior. 2017 Feb; 21(2):547-560.We compared two community-based HIV testing models among fisherfolk in Lake Victoria, Uganda. From May to July 2015, 1364 fisherfolk residents of one island were offered (and 822 received) home-based testing, and 344 fisherfolk on another island were offered testing during eight community mobilization events (outreach event-based testing). Of 207 home-based testing clients identified as HIV-positive (15% of residents), 82 were newly diagnosed, of whom 31 (38%) linked to care within 3 months. Of 41 who screened positive during event-based testing (12% of those tested), 33 were newly diagnosed, of whom 24 (75%) linked to care within 3 months. Testing costs per capita were similar for home-based ($45.09) and event-based testing ($46.99). Compared to event-based testing, home-based testing uncovered a higher number of new HIV cases but was associated with lower linkage to care. Novel community-based test-and-treat programs are needed to ensure timely linkage to care for newly diagnosed fisherfolk.
The implication of the shortage of health workforce specialist on universal health coverage in Kenya.
Human Resources for Health. 2017 Dec 1; 15(80):1-7.Background: Globally, there is an acute shortage of human resources for health (HRH), and the greatest burden is borne by low-income countries especially in sub-Saharan Africa and some parts of Asia. This shortage has not only considerably constrained the achievement of health-related development goals but also impeded accelerated progress towards universal health coverage (UHC). Like any other low-income country, Kenya is experiencing health workforce shortage particularly in specialized healthcare workers to cater for the rapidly growing need for specialized health care (MOH Training Needs Assessment report (2015)). Efficient use of the existing health workforce including task shifting is under consideration as a short-term stop gap measure while deliberate efforts are being put on retention policies and increased production of HRH. Methods: The Ministry of Health (MOH) with support from the United States Agency for International Development-funded FUNZOKenya project and MOH/Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) project conducted a country-wide training needs assessment (TNA) to identify skill gaps in the provision of specialized health care in private and public hospitals in 46 out of Kenya's 47 counties between April and June 2015. A total of 99 respondents participated in the TNA. Structured questionnaires were used to undertake this assessment. The assessment sought to determine the extent of skill gaps on the basis of the national guidelines and as perceived by the County Directors of Health (CDH). The questionnaires were posted to and received by all the respondents a week prior to a face-to-face interview with the respondents for familiarization. Data analysis was done using SPSS statistical package. Results: Overall, the findings revealed average skill gaps on selected specialists (healthcare professional whose practice is limited to a particular area, such as a branch of medicine, surgery, or nursing, especially, one who by virtue of advanced training is certified by a specialty board as being qualified to so limit his or her practice, Free dictionary) at 85 and 62% when compared to the guideline and as perceived by the CDH respectively. It also revealed that gynecologists exceeded the requirements by 88 and 246% against the guidelines and as perceived by the CDH respectively. Conclusion: There is an overall huge gap in health specialists across the 46 counties, and the focus of training should be on the following specialists: cardio-surgeons, neurosurgeons, oncologists, nephrologists, lung and skin clinical officers, anesthetic clinical officers, cardiology nurses, forensic nurses, dental nurses, accident and emergency nurses, and oncology nurses. More innovative approaches, including the use of technology, need to be considered to address this challenge in the immediate, medium, and long terms. Policies and legal frameworks should be developed to facilitate cross-county sharing of specialist expertise. Efforts need to be made to ensure harmonized skill gaps revealed by the guideline and as perceived by the CDHs to inform the development of mitigation strategies.
No sex for fish: Empowering women to promote health and economic opportunity in a localized place in Kenya.
Health Promotion International. 2017 Oct 1; 32(5):800-807.A pervasive cultural practice called 'jaboya' or women trading sex for fish exists at Nyamware Beach, on Lake Victoria in Kenya, where the fishing industry is the primary source of income. This case study describes how an innovative market-based solution succeeded in changing the gender dynamics on Nyamware beach and empowering women with the means of production in the industry. Over the course of 6 months, three boats were built for women to own and manage, and 29 women and 20 men received business skills training while establishing local community savings and loans associations. This project succeeded in quickly adjusting the economic imbalance that previously left women few options but to exchange sex to purchase the best fish for food and for distribution. Participating women applied resulting increased income to school fees for children and toward their households and businesses. Women owning businesses, earning income and gaining a voice in the community has changed the gender dynamics of men working on the boats for women and has positively altered the perception of women in the community. Additionally, this project offers potential health benefits such as a reduction in the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections due to reduced rates of transactional sex, and reduced rates of depression, alcohol abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder from transactional sex, which can be traumatic. The success of this project demonstrates that small and innovative approaches addressing root causes of economic and social inequality can improve health and promote sustainable economic development.
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2017 Aug 20; 35(8):566-570.Objective: To investigate the reproductive health status of female workers in a railway system and possible influencing factors. Methods: From January to June, 2016, a cross-sectional epidemiological investigation was performed to collect 2 165 female workers aged 17-55 years. A women's health questionnaire was used to collect the data on their occupation and health, and their reproductive health status was analyzed. Results: The female workers exposed to occupational hazards had significantly higher incidence rates of gynecological diseases, abnormal menstruation, and infertility than those not exposed to such hazards (chi(2)=32.29, 12.42, and 4.23, respectively, all P<0.05) . There were significant differences in the incidence rates of gynecological diseases, abnormal menstruation, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and pregnancy complications between the female workers with different working forms and states (chi(2)=17.19, 23.03, 200.65, and 21.28, respectively, all P<0.05) . There were significant differences in the incidence rates of gynecological diseases, abnormal menstruation, and pregnancy complications between the female workers with different behavioral habits (chi(2)=15.65, 36.23, and 25.35, respectively, all P<0.05) . The logistic regression analysis showed that exposure to occupational hazards, married state, medium-grade professional title or above, work in shifts, sitting for a long time, standing for a long time, and video operation were risk factors for gynecological diseases, and the prevalence rate of gynecological diseases increased with age. Exposure to occupational hazards, night shifts, staying up late, and sitting for a long time were risk factors for abnormal menstruation. Exposure to occupational hazards was a risk factor for infertility. Medium-grade professional title or above was a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Married state, medium-grade professional title or above, standing for a long time, and high mobility in job form and state were risk factors for pregnancy complications. Conclusion: Exposure to occupational hazards, job form and state, and unhealthy behavioral habits may affect reproductive health status in female workers in the railway system.
Impact of a community health worker HIV treatment and prevention intervention in an HIV hotspot fishing community in Rakai, Uganda (mLAKE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials. 2017 Oct 23; 18(1):494.BACKGROUND: Effective yet practical strategies are needed to increase engagement in HIV treatment and prevention services, particularly in high-HIV-prevalence hotspots. We designed a community-based intervention called "Health Scouts" to promote uptake and adherence to HIV services in a highly HIV-prevalent fishing community in Rakai, Uganda. Using a situated Information, Motivation, and Behavioral skills theory framework, the intervention consists of community health workers, called Health Scouts, who use motivational interviewing strategies and mobile health tools to promote engagement in HIV treatment and prevention services. METHODS/DESIGN: The Health Scout intervention is being evaluated through a pragmatic, parallel, cluster-randomized controlled trial with an allocation ratio of 1:1. The study setting is a single high-HIV-prevalence fishing community in Rakai, Uganda divided into 40 contiguous neighborhood clusters each containing about 65 households. Twenty clusters received the Health Scout Intervention; 20 clusters received standard of care. The Health Scout intervention is delivered within the community at the household level, targeting all residents aged 15 years or older. The primary programmatic outcomes are self-reported HIV care, antiretroviral therapy, and male circumcision coverage; the primary biologic outcome is population-level HIV viremia prevalence. Follow-up is planned for about 3 years. DISCUSSION: HIV treatment and prevention service engagement remains suboptimal in HIV hotspots. New, community-based implementation approaches are needed. If found to be effective in this trial, the Health Scout intervention may be an important component of a comprehensive HIV response. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02556957 . Registered on 20 September 2015.
HIV-1 transmission networks in high risk fishing communities on the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda: A phylogenetic and epidemiological approach.
PloS One. 2017; 12(10):e0185818.BACKGROUND: Fishing communities around Lake Victoria in sub-Saharan Africa have been characterised as a population at high risk of HIV-infection. METHODS: Using data from a cohort of HIV-positive individuals aged 13-49 years, enrolled from 5 fishing communities on Lake Victoria between 2009-2011, we sought to identify factors contributing to the epidemic and to understand the underlying structure of HIV transmission networks. Clinical and socio-demographic data were combined with HIV-1 phylogenetic analyses. HIV-1 gag-p24 and env-gp-41 sub-genomic fragments were amplified and sequenced from 283 HIV-1-infected participants. Phylogenetic clusters with >/=2 highly related sequences were defined as transmission clusters. Logistic regression models were used to determine factors associated with clustering. RESULTS: Altogether, 24% (n = 67/283) of HIV positive individuals with sequences fell within 34 phylogenetically distinct clusters in at least one gene region (either gag or env). Of these, 83% occurred either within households or within community; 8/34 (24%) occurred within household partnerships, and 20/34 (59%) within community. 7/12 couples (58%) within households clustered together. Individuals in clusters with potential recent transmission (11/34) were more likely to be younger 71% (15/21) versus 46% (21/46) in un-clustered individuals and had recently become resident in the community 67% (14/21) vs 48% (22/46). Four of 11 (36%) potential transmission clusters included incident-incident transmissions. Independently, clustering was less likely in HIV subtype D (adjusted Odds Ratio, aOR = 0.51 [95% CI 0.26-1.00]) than A and more likely in those living with an HIV-infected individual in the household (aOR = 6.30 [95% CI 3.40-11.68]). CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of HIV sexual transmissions occur within house-holds and within communities even in this key mobile population. The findings suggest localized HIV transmissions and hence a potential benefit for the test and treat approach even at a community level, coupled with intensified HIV counselling to identify early infections.
HIV self-testing values and preferences among sex workers, fishermen, and mainland community members in Rakai, Uganda: A qualitative study.
PloS One. 2017; 12(8):e0183280.HIV self-testing may encourage greater uptake of testing, particularly among key populations and other high-risk groups, but local community perceptions will influence test uptake and use. We conducted 33 in-depth interviews and 6 focus group discussions with healthcare providers and community members in high-risk fishing communities (including sex workers and fishermen) and lower-risk mainland communities in rural Uganda to evaluate values and preferences around HIV self-testing. While most participants were unfamiliar with HIV self-testing, they cited a range of potential benefits, including privacy, convenience, and ability to test before sex. Concerns focused on the absence of a health professional, risks of careless kit disposal and limited linkage to care. Participants also discussed issues of kit distribution strategies and cost, among others. Ultimately, most participants concluded that benefits outweighed risks. Our findings suggest a potential role for HIV self-testing across populations in these settings, particularly among these key populations. Program implementers will need to consider how to balance HIV self-testing accessibility with necessary professional support.
Bangkok, Thailand, ESCAP, 2017. 107 p.The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development strives for more balanced development by addressing the economic, social and environmental dimensions holistically. The momentum set forth by this agenda provides an historic opportunity for reducing inequality and closing gender gaps. Gender, The Environment and Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific examines the intersections between gender and the environment at the household, work, community and policy levels, particularly in the spheres of food security and agriculture, energy, water, fisheries and forestry, with a view to providing strategic entry points for policy interventions. Based on a grounded study of the reality in the Asia-Pacific region, this report assembles good practices and policy lessons that could be capitalized on to advance the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic in agrarian, trading, and fishing communities in Rakai, Uganda: an observational epidemiological study.
Lancet. HIV. 2016 Aug; 3(8):e388-96.BACKGROUND: Understanding the extent to which HIV burden differs across communities and the drivers of local disparities is crucial for an effective and targeted HIV response. We assessed community-level variations in HIV prevalence, risk factors, and treatment and prevention service uptake in Rakai, Uganda. METHODS: The Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS) is an open, population-based cohort of people aged 15-49 years in 40 communities. Participants are HIV tested and interviewed to obtain sociodemographic, behavioural, and health information. RCCS data from Aug 10, 2011, to May 30, 2013, were used to classify communities as agrarian (n=27), trading (n=9), or lakeside fishing sites (n=4). We mapped HIV prevalence with Bayesian methods, and characterised variability across and within community classifications. We also assessed differences in HIV risk factors and uptake of antiretroviral therapy and male circumcision between community types. FINDINGS: 17 119 individuals were included, 9215 (54%) of whom were female. 9931 participants resided in agrarian, 3318 in trading, and 3870 in fishing communities. Median HIV prevalence was higher in fishing communities (42%, range 38-43) than in trading (17%, 11-21) and agrarian communities (14%, 9-26). Antiretroviral therapy use was significantly lower in both men and women in fishing communities than in trading (age-adjusted prevalence risk ratio in men 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.97; women 0.53, 0.42-0.66) and agrarian communities (men 0.55, 0.42-0.72; women 0.65, 0.54-0.79), as was circumcision coverage among men (vs trading 0.48, 0.42-0.55; vs agrarian 0.64, 0.56-0.72). Self-reported risk behaviours were significantly higher in men than in women and in fishing communities than in other community types. INTERPRETATION: Substantial heterogeneity in HIV prevalence, risk factors, and service uptake in Rakai, Uganda, emphasises the need for local surveillance and the design of targeted HIV responses. High HIV burden, risk behaviours, and low use of combination HIV prevention in fishing communities make these populations a priority for intervention. FUNDING: National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the National Institute of Child Health and Development, and the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases Division of Intramural Research, National Institutes of Health; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; and the Johns Hopkins University Center for AIDS Research. Copyright (c) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Environmental Development. 2017 Jun; 22:166-174.The Gulf of Mexico Large Marine Ecosystem (GoM LME) is shared by the United States, Mexico and Cuba and requires collaborative work based on ecosystem science for integrated management scenarios to conserve its natural assets, socioeconomic value and derived benefits to multiple societies, as well as to foster the overall regional economic wealth. The large marine ecosystem approach is grounded in multi-national collaboration and the creation of a strong scientific community of practice. The United States has the most coordinated and directed ocean policies. Mexico's marine research institutions are joined in a consortium that will enhance coordination of activities in Mexico and also with the United States and Cuba. Intersection of these efforts will cross boundaries for an integrated approach to the maintenance of the resiliency of the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem and its sustainability for all stakeholders.
Design and Implementation of a Community Health Worker HIV Treatment and Prevention Intervention in an HIV Hot Spot Fishing Community in Rakai, Uganda.
Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care. 2017 Sep/Oct; 16(5):499-505.Innovative approaches are needed to increase engagement in HIV treatment and prevention services, particularly in HIV hot spots. Here, we detail our design, training approach, and early implementation experiences of a community-based HIV intervention called "health scouts." The intervention, utilizing a novel, theory-based approach, trained 10 community residents in an HIV hot spot fishing community to use motivational interviewing strategies and a mobile phone-based counseling application. During the first 3 months, 771 residents (median 82/health scout, range 27-160) were counseled. A directly observed Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity scale-based evaluation found adequate performance (median score 20/25, range 11-23). The health scout intervention was feasible to implement in a high HIV-prevalence fishing community, and its impact on HIV care outcomes will be evaluated in an ongoing cluster randomized trial. If found to be effective, it may be an important strategy for responding to HIV in high-burden settings.
Changes in breastfeeding and nutritional status of Nigerian children between 1990 and 2008, and variations by region, area of residence and maternal education and occupation.
Paediatrics and International Child Health. 2016 Nov; 36(4):248-259.BACKGROUND: Inadequate breastfeeding practices contribute to malnutrition in young children. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study examined changes in breastfeeding practices and the nutritional status of children (0-35 months, n = 37154) using data from the nationally-representative Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys for 1990-2008. METHODS: The study estimated the relative changes in the proportion of children meeting recommended breastfeeding practices and the anthropometric indices of the children during the study period, by region, place of residence, maternal education and maternal occupation. RESULTS: In each study year, over 97% of the children were ever breastfed. The proportion of infants breastfed within 1 hour and 1 day of birth increased from 34% to 45.8%, and from 63.8% to 82.3%, respectively. Overall, breastfeeding for >/= 12 months changed from 88.9% to 95.2%, an increase of 7%; however, an increase of 14% was observed in the northern region (from 86.1% to 97.8%) while a decline of 7% was observed in the southern region (from 97.1% to 89.9%). Over the study period, the prevalence of all the assessed indicators of malnutrition (stunting, wasting and underweight) increased in the northern region while the southern region experienced a decline in all except severe wasting. In both urban and rural areas, stunting and wasting increased, while underweight declined. Children of non-formally educated and unemployed mothers were more malnourished in all the study years. CONCLUSION: Improvement in some breastfeeding practices did not result in improvement in the nutritional status of Nigerian children during 1990-2008, particularly in northern Nigeria and among socially disadvantaged mothers. Improving maternal education and employment, and integrating messages on techniques and benefits of optimal infant feeding with other maternal and child healthcare services could be beneficial.
Health seeking behavior on child care among fishermen community of Kovalam Village, Tamil Nadu, India.
Online Journal of Health and Allied Sciences. 2015 Jul-Sep; 14(3): p.While progress has been made to reduce under-five mortality in India from 52 to 39 per thousand live births by 2015 to meet Millennium Development Goal, it is unequally distributed between regions and remains insufficient to reach by 2015. Further, fishermen community possesses unique characteristics features, and remains homogeneous in socioeconomic and cultural matters. Objectives: 1) To assess the health seeking behaviour of parents for child care in children under five years of age among the fisherman community of Kovalam. 2) To assess the factors associated with health seeking behaviour among the above mentioned population. Material and methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study conducted among 260 parents of children under five years of age in fishermen community with six months recall period in Kovalam, India during May to October, 2014 using pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Prevalence of common childhood illness in the previous six months was 93.46% for ARI, 77.69% for ADD, and 69.23% for fever. Majority of them took their sick children (90.82%) immediately to health care facility especially. Conclusion: Health seeking behaviour among parents of children of this specific population was fairly adequate but the prevalence of childhood illnesses was quite high which needs further evaluation.
Life at the River is a Living Hell: a qualitative study of trauma, mental health, substance use and HIV risk behavior among female fish traders from the Kafue Flatlands in Zambia.
BMC Women's Health. 2017 Mar 7; 17(15):1-15.Background: In Western settings, the relationship between trauma history, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance use, and HIV risk behavior, is well established. Although female fish traders in Zambia are affected by HIV at rates estimated to be 4-14 times higher than the national prevalence, no studies have examined the co-occurring issues of trauma, substance use and HIV risk behavior among this vulnerable population. The current study examined: 1) trauma history, trauma symptoms and HIV risk behaviors and 2) the relationship between these co-occurring issues among female fish traders from the Kafue Flatlands in Zambia. Methods: Twenty individual semi-structured qualitative interviews and a focus group discussion (n = 12 participants) were conducted with female fish traders in the Kafue Flatlands of Zambia. Template analysis was used to examine the data. Results: The findings indicate that female fish traders in Zambia are at risk of multiple and ongoing traumatic events and daily stressors, severe mental health symptoms (including western conceptualizations of disorders such as anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complicated grief, as well as local idioms of distress), substance abuse, and HIV sexual risk behaviors. The results suggest a relationship between trauma and HIV sexual risk behavior in this population. Conclusions: The indication of these co-occurring issues demonstrates the need for HIV prevention intervention efforts, which account for trauma, mobility, and psychosocial outcomes in order to reduce HIV sexual risk behavior among female fish traders in Zambia.
HIV prevalence and uptake of HIV/AIDS services among youths (15-24 Years) in fishing and neighboring communities of Kasensero, Rakai District, South Western Uganda.
BMC Public Health. 2017 Mar 14; 17(1):251.BACKGROUND: Although fishing communities have a significantly higher HIV prevalence than the general population, there is paucity of data on the burden of HIV and service utilization, particularly among the youth. We assessed the HIV prevalence and utilization of HIV prevention and treatment services among youth in Kasensero fishing community and the neighboring communities. METHOD: Data were derived from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS) surveys conducted between 2013 and 2014. The RCCS is a population-based household survey that collects data annually from individuals aged 15-49 years, resident in 48 communities in Rakai and neighboring districts in Uganda. For this analysis, socio-demographic, behavioral and HIV-related data were obtained for 792 individuals aged 15-24 years. We used logistic regression to conduct bivariate and multivariable analysis to determine the factors that are independently associated with HIV-positive status and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Data were analyzed using STATA version 13. RESULTS: Overall HIV prevalence was 19.7% (n = 155); higher in Kasensero (n = 141; 25.1%) and Gwanda (n = 8; 11%) than in Kyebe (n = 6; 3.9%), p < 0.001 and among females (n = 112; 26.0%) than males (n = 43; 12.0%), p < 0.001. Uptake of HIV testing was high in both HIV-positive (n = 136; 89.5%) and HIV-negative youth (n = 435; 92%). Consistent condom use was virtually non-existent in HIV-positive youth (n = 1; 0.6%) compared to HIV-negative youth (n = 20; 4.2%). Only 22.4% (n = 34) of the HIV-positive youth were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 2013-2014; higher in the HIV-positive females (n = 31; 28.4%) than HIV-positive males (n = 03; 6.7%). Slightly more than half of males (n = 134; 53.8%) reported that they were circumcised; the proportion of circumcised youth was higher among HIV-negative males (n = 122; 58%) than HIV-positive males (n = 12; 27.9%). Factors significantly associated with HIV-positive status included living in Kasensero landing site (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] = 5.0; 95%CI: 2.22-13.01) and reporting one (aOR = 5.0; 95%CI: 1.33-15.80) or 2+ sexual partners in the past 12 months (aOR = 11.0; 95% CI; 3.04-36.72). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HIV is high especially among young females and in landing site communities than in the peripheral communities. Uptake of HIV prevention and treatment services is very low. There is an urgent need for youth-friendly services in these communities.
Challenging HIV vulnerability discourse: the case of professional and entrepreneurial women in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
Culture, Health and Sexuality. 2017 May; 19(5):572-586.A poverty-HIV narrative has dominated many HIV prevention strategies in Africa despite epidemiological data showing higher prevalence of infection among educated and wealthier women in several African countries. This paper examines the perspectives of professional and entrepreneurial women on HIV risk and vulnerability based on their knowledge and lived experiences, comparing this to the HIV discourse evident in five strategic documents that shape intervention in Tanzania. The purpose is to uncover the confluence and dissonance between the discourses of government and those of professional women themselves. Qualitative research methods included critical discourse analysis of five strategic documents and thematic analysis of 37 in-depth interviews with women. The findings challenge fixed representations of women and notions of vulnerability embedded in the poverty-HIV discourse. Women described using their sexuality and sexual agency as a means to elevate their position in ways that made them vulnerable to sexual harassment and coercion. This is explored through two intersecting themes: non-marital sexual exchanges to gain an education or employment, and marriage. The intersecting social positions and constructions of female sexuality and agency expressed by the women in this study provide insights into other avenues and forms of HIV vulnerability.
Reproductive tract infections: Attitude and barriers among marginalized fisher women in Kerala, South India.
Health Care For Women International. 2017 Apr; 38(4):361-378.Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) are the cause of severe gynecological and maternal morbidity in India. In marginalized communities, women persevere quietly when faced with a culturally sensitive health issue such as an RTI. To hypothesize on the differential health behavior and low levels of reported incidents among women living in marginalized communities, we undertake an exploratory study in a coastal fishermen community in South India. We identify barriers influencing decisions to seek curative and preventive medical care. Public health practitioners and social workers may find our recommendations relevant for addressing health issues in marginalized communities.
Voluntary medical male circumcision for HIV prevention in fishing communities in Uganda: the influence of local beliefs and practice.
African Journal of AIDS Research. 2016 Sep; 15(3):211-8.Local beliefs and practices about voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) may influence uptake and effectiveness. Data were gathered through interviews with 40 people from four ethnically mixed fishing communities in Uganda. Some men believed that wound healing could be promoted by contact with vaginal fluids while sex with non-regular partners could chase away spirits - practices which encouraged unsafe sexual practices. Information given by providers stressed that VMMC did not afford complete protection from sexually-transmitted infections, however, a number of male community members held the view that they were fully protected once circumcised. Both men and women said that VMMC was good not just for HIV prevention but also as a way of maintaining hygiene among the men. The implementation of VMMC in high-HIV prevalence settings needs to take account of local beliefs about circumcision, working with local religious/social group leaders, women and peers in the roll-out of the intervention.
Journal of Family Violence. 2017 Jan 1; 32(1):55-67.Violence against women, especially spousal violence is a common phenomenon in India which is significantly increasing over the years. In the name of socialization, male dominated orthodox Indian society raises girls to endure male aggression without protest. Indian social norms within this conservative environment discourage women’s employment; consequently, employed women are subjected to more abuse compared to their unemployed counterparts. The current study, based on the National Family Health Survey data, documents the nature and extent of spousal violence against married employed women across job categories. The study reveals that the majority of employed women are skilled or unskilled manual workers, and most of them are subjected to spousal violence. Furthermore, higher category jobs do not protect women from spousal violence. Women’s empowerment, higher education and/or occupation compared to their partner, and partner’s alcoholism further induce cruelty on employed women. However, standard of living and a husband having a comparatively better job are found to reduce spousal violence.
The gender pay implications of institutional and organisational wage-setting practices in Banking – a case study of Argentina and Chile.
International Journal of Human Resource Management. 2017 Jan 18; 1-28.This research explores the extent to which the interaction among payment systems and institutional arrangements together with internal and external labour market (ELM) dynamics influence gender pay processes and career progress for men and women graduates in the banking sectors of Argentina and Chile. The research follows a qualitative methods approach for the banking sector. The more inclusive Argentinian industrial relations system, reinforced by above-market collective pay agreements in banking and the economic instability of recent years, has restricted inter-firm mobility and generated a more gender-neutral distributional pay effect for graduates. By contrast, the more decentralised and individually-driven Chilean wage-setting system incentivises Chilean graduates to be more reactive to ELM opportunities to improve their wages. However, this greater mobility tends to benefit more men than women graduates because women tend to be more attached to their organisations. They also find their wage bargaining position weakened as a result of gender stereotyping, which reflects employer prejudices constructed in reaction to family support policies that are more generous than those in Argentina. Finally, the research argues that the more inclusive Argentinian industrial relations system limits gender bias in pay by providing more formalisation, centralisation and transparency in pay decisions compared to the more discretionally-driven decisions of the Chilean HRM system.
Jaboya (“Sex for Fish”): A Qualitative Analysis of Contextual Risk Factors for Extramarital Partnerships in the Fishing Communities in Western Kenya.
Archives of Sexual Behavior. 2017 Jan 20; 1-14.Extramarital partnerships exacerbate high HIV prevalence rates in many communities in sub-Saharan Africa. We explored contextual risk factors and suggested interventions to reduce extramarital partnerships among couples in the fishing communities on Lake Victoria, Kenya. We conducted 12 focus group discussions with 9–10 participants each (N = 118) and 16 in-depth interviews (N = 16) with fishermen and their spouses. Couples who participated were consented and separated for simultaneous gender-matched discussions/interviews. Interview topics included courtship and marriage, relationship and sexual satisfaction, extramarital relationships and how to intervene on HIV risks. Coding, analysis, and interpretation of the transcripts followed grounded theory tenets that allow analytical themes to emerge from the participants. Our results showed that extramarital partnerships were perceived to be widespread and were attributed to factors related to sexual satisfaction such as women needing more foreplay before intercourse, discrepancies in sexual desire, and boredom with the current sexual repertoire. Participants also reported that financial and sociophysical factors such as family financial support and physical separation, contributed to the formation of extramarital partnerships. Participants made suggestions for interventions that reduce extramarital partnerships to minimize HIV risks at the community, couple, and individual level. These suggestions emphasized improving community education, spousal communication, and self-evaluation for positive behavior change. Future studies can draw upon these findings as a basis for designing community-owned interventions that seek to reduce community-level HIV risk through a reduction in the number of sexual partners.
Such Behaviors Are Not in My Home Village, I Got Them Here: A Qualitative Study of the Influence of Contextual Factors on Alcohol and HIV Risk Behaviors in a Fishing Community on Lake Victoria, Uganda.
AIDS and Behavior. 2016 Mar; 20(3):537-47.In Uganda, elevated HIV prevalence in fishing communities along Lake Victoria have been attributed in part to heavy alcohol use, but qualitative research is needed to understand the contextual factors influencing alcohol and sexual risk. Eight focus group discussions were conducted (n = 50; 23 male, 27 female) in Gerenge, Uganda with five occupational groups: fishermen, fishmongers, alcohol-sellers, commercial sex workers, and restaurant owners. Data was analyzed using content analysis. Alcohol use was prevalent and said to influence risky sex. Sex-related alcohol expectancies and occupational factors influenced individuals to drink during sex and structural factors related to the built environment, economy, and policy were identified as key contributors to both alcohol use and sexual risk in general. The findings highlight alcohol reduction as an important component of HIV/AIDS prevention and suggest structural interventions should be prioritized in this context.