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Maternal and Child Health. 2018 Sep 11;  p.The Essential Nutrition Actions (ENA) framework is an evidence-based set of cost-effective, integrated tools for training health and community workers to promote optimal nutrition practices for the first 1,000 days. This ENA pilot project (ENAPP) was implemented with United States Agency for International Development (USAID) funding from August 2008 to September 2009 in six unions of the working area of an existing USAID-funded, Title II programme in southern Bangladesh. ENAPP, which targeted governmental and non-governmental service providers, was intended to strengthen the behaviour change component of the nutrition strategy of this project. Following a qualitative review of ENAPP's activities, this evaluation uses administrative (growth monitoring) data and propensity score matching of pre-intervention characteristics to create multiple counterfactuals for difference-in-difference estimations of the impact of ENAPP on child nutritional status. Records indicated that government and community healthcare workers received intensive training, and these staff reported that they could effectively integrate ENA messages into their existing responsibilities. Both longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses indicate that ENAPP was successful in increasing children's weight-for-age z-scores, and the difference in z-scores between the treatment and the comparison group increased with time. The materials and methods used in this pilot project should be scaled up, based on the success of these tools and the project's ability to link with and influence the local health system.
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center [CPC], MEASURE Evaluation, 2018 Jun. 4 p. (FS-18-278a; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Office of Population and Reproductive Health is pursuing a total market approach (TMA) to family planning (FP) programs. The agency is working to help countries build their capacity to “design, implement, and sustain high-performing FP programs” to provide “information, product, and service delivery in a rational, efficient, and equitable way”. This approach calls for programs to include all sectors, and it is embraced by USAID-funded MEASURE Evaluation, which also operates holistically. The objective of TMA is to engage all sectors of the FP market, in order to increase overall use of FP products and services, by better targeting free or subsidized products, reducing inefficiencies and overlaps, and creating space for the private sector to increase provision of FP commodities. Rigorous monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is essential to the success of FP programs. This resource outlines nine key indicators that USAID implementing partners can use to inform the M&E of FP programs supporting activities in the TMA priority area. Each indicator featured in this resource contains a definition as well as any calculations, suggested disaggregations, or reference periods. For routine monitoring, program managers and evaluators should select a few relevant indicators that both are important to program objectives and easy to collect and interpret. The indicators may be supplemented or tailored to reflect a program’s unique context and objectives.
Development in Practice. 2018; 28(4):574-583.The discourse on domestic violence has steadily moved from solely the realm of private family affairs into the institutional domain, through changing perceptions and the enactment and enforcement of laws. This article aims to understand how women approach institutions and how institutions perceive, translate, and respond to complaints within human rights discourses. The study analysed all cases registered in a family counselling centre in Rajasthan, India, with ten cases then randomly selected for in-depth interviews. The institutions are a catalyst of social change; however, they need to partner with specialists for medical interventions, and network with line departments more effectively to improve social resilience. © 2018 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Working in partnership to improve children's safety and well-being. The May’khethele Programme in South Africa.
[Baltimore, Maryland], 4Children, 2018. 20 p. (Case Study on Strengthening Referral Systems for Children Orphaned or Made Vulnerable by HIV (OVC); USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-14-00061.)The case study is one in a series of case studies highlighting different aspects of a case management system and referral mechanisms utilized by OVC programs. The case studies aim to provide useful information that can inform the work of policymakers and practitioners engaged in programs serving vulnerable children and families.
Low sustainability, poor governance, and other challenges encountered by grassroots non-governmental organizations targeting HIV prevention for men who have sex with men in China - a nation-wide study.
AIDS Care. 2017 Dec; 29(12):1480-1490.Grassroots non-governmental organizations (NGOs) played pivotal roles in HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Their governance and sustainability issues were under-studied. This nation-wide study surveyed leaders of 202 of the HIV related NGOs in China.58.4% of the leaders believed that their NGO would last for =5 years; which was negatively associated with perceived good relationship with CDC. 65.3% mentioned >/=3 non-sustainability issues; associated factors included perceived inadequacies in prevention skills, management skills, policy support, technical support, operational support, and CDC's support; a reverse association was found for frequent collaboration with organizations in China. 30.6% of the leaders mentioned >/=7 governance issues; a stepwise model found a positive association with having no office and negative associations with number of full-time staff and core volunteers. These problems would severely limit the effectiveness of HIV prevention among MSM. Related improvements and support are warranted.
Are service-delivery NGOs building state capacity in the Global South? Experiences from HIV/AIDS programmes in rural Uganda.
Development Policy Review. 2018; 36:O378-O399.Service-delivery NGOs are often attacked for abandoning the pursuit of ‘alternative development’ in favour of ‘technocratic’ forms of development. Yet some commentators argue that these organizations can have progressive impacts on political forms and processes. We investigate this debate through the lens of state building. Research into The AIDS Support Organisation's (TASO) work with the Ugandan government reveals that its state capacity building effects were both uneven and temporary. Although TASO played important roles in strengthening the bureaucratic ability of targeted hospitals to deliver HIV/AIDS services and increased the state's embeddedness in society in the targeted districts, it was less successful in expanding the infrastructural reach of the state in rural Uganda. We conclude that NGOs need longer time-frames to achieve state building goals. © The Authors 2017. Development Policy Review © 2017 Overseas Development Institute
Women's Studies International Forum. 2018; 67:1-9.Gender justice is experiencing a moment of heightened visibility in India in the wake of the anti-rape protests of 2012/13. This paper seeks to understand this widening of the terrain of gender justice through an exploration of the work of young gender justice workers in Delhi. These young people practiced diverse politics and feminisms that challenge generational arguments of lost radicalism and linear conceptions of feminist history. Further, the messy hybridity of the feminisms and politics of individuals and organizations challenges neat conceptualizations of pure, authentic feminisms and co-opted, depoliticized feminisms. However, in the approach of some young people there is evidence of a distancing from the political and an individualizing and psychologizing of structural problems associated with choice, post and corporate feminisms. This transformation of gender justice into a matter of self-work points to potential risks of an overly inclusive feminism. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd
Prioritising sexuality education in Mississippi and Nigeria: The importance of local actors, policy windows and creative strategy.
Global Public Health. 2018 Dec; 13(12):1807-1819.Mississippi and Nigeria are two socially conservative places unlikely to prioritise sexuality education. Nonetheless, Mississippi passed a bill in 2011 mandating all school districts to offer sexuality education, and Nigeria approved a national sexuality education curriculum in 2001. To identify the factors that drove the process of prioritisation of sexuality education in each context, we conducted more than 70 semi-structured interviews with nongovernmental organisations/nonprofits, donor organisations and federal and state ministries involved in the prioritisation and implementation of sexuality education in Mississippi and Nigeria. Prioritisation of sexuality education occurred for similar reasons in both Mississippi and Nigeria: (1) local individuals and organisations committed to sexuality education and supported by external actors; (2) the opening of a policy window that made sexuality education a solution to a pressing social problem (teen pregnancy in Mississippi and HIV/AIDS in Nigeria) and (3) strategic action on the part of proponents. We conclude that promoting sexuality education in challenging contexts requires fostering committed local individuals and organisations, identifying external resources to support implementation costs and building on existing relationships of trust between actors, even if those relationships are unrelated to sexuality education.
Does the new 'jungle' migrant camp in Calais meet the intra-agency working group (IAWG) minimum standards for sexual and reproductive health (MISP) in an emergency situation?
Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2016 Jun; 92(4):291.Add to my documents.
'Pure' drug users, commercial sex workers and 'ordinary girls': gendered narratives of HIV risk and prevention in post-Soviet Ukraine.
Culture, Health and Sexuality. 2018 Feb 8; 1-14.International best practices call for a gender-responsive approach to HIV prevention for women, including those who use drugs and those who engage in sex work. This paper draws on multiple qualitative data sources collected over five years in Ukraine to explore the notions of gender, women and family that buttress HIV-related programs for women. Our analysis reveals that service providers often cast women as hapless victims of unfortunate family circumstances and troubled personal relationships that produce sudden poverty, or social strivers who seek access to wealth and privilege at the expense of their health. Women are portrayed as most vulnerable to HIV when they lack a male ‘protector’. We argue that the programs constituted around these stereotypes of women and their vulnerabilities reflect new forms of institutional power that deflect attention away from gendered socio-economic processes that contribute to women’s HIV vulnerability, including job insecurity and unemployment, workplace discrimination, unreliable social benefits and power imbalances within their relationships. We explore how to transform HIV prevention efforts to better address the causes of women’s increased vulnerability to HIV in Ukraine and in Eastern Europe more generally.
Getting off on the wrong foot? How community groups in Zimbabwe position themselves for partnerships with external agencies in the HIV response.
Globalization and Health. 2017 Jun 1; 13(1):29.BACKGROUND: Partnerships are core to global public health responses. The HIV field embraces partnership working, with growing attention given to the benefits of involving community groups in the HIV response. However, little has been done to unpack the social psychological foundation of partnership working between well-resourced organisations and community groups, and how community representations of partnerships and power asymmetries shape the formation of partnerships for global health. We draw on a psychosocial theory of partnerships to examine community group members' understanding of self and other as they position themselves for partnerships with non-governmental organisations. METHODS: This mixed qualitative methods study was conducted in the Matobo district of Matabeleland South province in Zimbabwe. The study draws on the perspectives of 90 community group members (29 men and 61 women) who participated in a total of 19 individual in-depth interviews and 9 focus group discussions (n = 71). The participants represented an array of different community groups and different levels of experience of working with NGOs. Verbatim transcripts were imported into Atlas.Ti for thematic indexing and analysis. RESULTS: Group members felt they played a central role in the HIV response. Accepting there is a limit to what they can do in isolation, they actively sought to position themselves as potential partners for NGOs. Partnerships with NGOs were said to enable community groups to respond more effectively as well as boost their motivation and morale. However, group members were also acutely aware of how they should act and perform if they were to qualify for a partnership. They spoke about how they had to adopt various strategies to become attractive partners and 'supportable' - including being active and obedient. CONCLUSIONS: Many community groups in Zimbabwe recognise their role in the HIV response and actively navigate representational systems of self and other to showcase themselves as capable actors. While this commitment is admirable, the dynamics that govern this process reflect knowledge encounters and power asymmetries that are conditioned by the aid architecture, undermining aspiring efforts for more equitable partnerships from the get-go.
Infant and young child feeding in emergencies: organisational policies and activities during the refugee crisis in Lebanon.
Maternal and Child Nutrition. 2018 Jan 8; 1-8.Appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) is key to reducing mortality amongst children aged under 2. Facilitating adherence to recommended IYCF practices during emergencies includes having relevant policies to support breastfeeding and complementary feeding as well as regulating the distribution of breast milk substitutes. In the current crisis, more than 1.2 million Syrian refugees are in Lebanon and it is timely to examine organizational IYCF policies and programs. One hundred and thirty-five non-governmental organizations providing humanitarian aid in Lebanon were invited to participate in an online survey about organizational policies and programmatic activities on IYCF. Responses were obtained from 54 organizations: 29 International Non-Governmental Organizations (INGOs) and 25 Local Non-Governmental Organizations (LNGOs). In total, 8 (15%) reported having a written policy on IYCF, but only 1 policy (in draft format) was available for inspection. Twelve (8 INGOs and 4 LNGOs) indicated endorsing an external IYCF policy, but only 6 listed a valid policy. Four organizations (3 INGOs and 1 LNGO) had programme objectives that indicate protection, promotion, and support of IYCF. Three LNGOs reported receiving infant formula donations and 5 organizations (2 INGOs and 3 LNGOs) indicated distributing infant formula; 2 (1 INGO and 1 LNGO) did so in accordance with international and national policies. Few organizations violated IYCF guidance but organizational policies and activities on IYCF are not well established. In order to improve response in the current refugee crisis in Lebanon, there is a need to ensure policies are in place and implemented so that interventions support, promote, and protect IYCF.
Linkages between public and non-government sectors in healthcare: A case study from Uttar Pradesh, India.
Global Public Health. 2016 Dec; 11(10):1216-1230.Effective utilisation of collaborative non-governmental organisation (NGO)-public health system linkages in pluralistic health systems of developing countries can substantially improve equity and quality of services. This study explores level and types of linkages between public health sector and NGOs in Uttar Pradesh (UP), an underprivileged state of India, using a social science model for the first time. It also identifies gaps and challenges for effective linkage. Two NGOs were selected as case studies. Data collection included semi-structured in-depth interviews with senior staff and review of records and reporting formats. Formal linkages of NGOs with the public health system related to registration, participation in district level meetings, workforce linkages and sharing information on government-supported programmes. Challenges included limited data sharing, participation in planning and limited monitoring of regulatory compliances. Linkage between public health system and NGOs in UP was moderate, marked by frequent interaction and some reciprocity in information and resource flows, but weak participation in policy and planning. The type of linkage could be described as 'complementarity', entailing information and resource sharing but not joint action. Stronger linkage is required for sustained and systematic collaboration, with joint planning, implementation and evaluation.
New institutional formation in the intersection of Tanzanian decentralization and HIV/AIDS interventions.
Journal of Eastern African Studies. 2017 Oct 2; 11(4):692-713.Assessments of sub-Saharan African decentralization processes often overlook change experienced and facilitated by technical institutions operating in recipient countries on behalf of major donor interventions. This change affects public service delivery at different government levels and the decentralization-oriented exchanges between those levels. This article examines these institutions as well as the change they experience and facilitate. It does so from the perspective of program implementing units (PIUs) contracted by donors to support technical public service delivery. The selected PIU cases are those contracted by the Tanzanian operations of the American President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). PEPFAR Tanzania played an instrumental role in the national health sector’s HIV/AIDS policy shift from a focus on prevention of and care for those with the virus to the adoption and implementation of a national treatment policy. Complicating treatment in Tanzania were expectations for homogenous national distribution of HIV/AIDS requiring extensive, consistent service support at every point of care. The government’s decentralization strategy introduced the PIUs as core HIV/AIDS service institutions. The PIUs’ resulting position in decentralization structures facilitated their own institutional change as well as change in relevant decentralization stakeholders’ exchanges that altered the government’s decentralization-by-devolution strategy.
Development in Practice. 2017 Oct 3; 27(7):927-939.This article employs research conducted with the Kivulini Women’s Rights Organization in Tanzania to discuss opportunities, constraints, and broader lessons about the role of women’s NGOs as intermediaries in development projects. Findings reveal that women’s NGOs often have insecure positions in development projects and are undervalued by executing agencies because advocating for gender equality is perceived as a “natural” extension of women’s roles in patriarchal societies. Women’s NGOs are “feminised” and consequently trivialised in their role as intermediaries, putting gender equality objectives at risk of attrition or abandonment. Under certain circumstances, women’s NGOs can be pushed out of partnership projects altogether.
Development in Practice. 2017 Oct 3; 27(7):913-926.The guiding principle of Agenda 2030 is the commitment to “leave no one behind”. However, as the Millennium Development Goals experience has demonstrated, there remains a “rhetoric-implementation gap” where local stakeholders struggle to realistically respond to policies formulated at the global level. This article proposes a way forward for NGOs seeking to translate the rhetoric of Agenda 2030 into reality. It presents an integrated and multi-sectoral approach to meet the challenges of an NGO working to ameliorate the basic needs of women who are affected by HIV/AIDS and limited WaSH provisions in the impoverished rural community of Lyantonde, Uganda.
Annals of Community Health. 2014 Jul-Sep; 2(3):2-3.A Maternity Waiting Home (MWH) is a residential facility located near the delivery point where ‘high risk’ pregnant women can wait for delivery. It is an effective means to ‘bridge the geographical gap’ and reduce Out of Pocket Spending (OOPS). They provide limited accommodation with food to the expecting mothers and attendants. Medical care is provided round the clock with provision of transfer facility to the delivering hospital. It is generally run in partnership mode in vulnerable areas with low institutional deliveries. An analysis shows some important strengths and weakness. The authors conclude that though there are no concrete community trials suggesting the effectiveness of such an initiative, opportunities can be utilised for further improvement of the MWHs keeping aside the hurdles and bottlenecks. External evaluation of the functioning of the Maternity Waiting Homes can also provide evidences. Operational research can provide a good direction to the whole process.
Emergency contraception: Four country case studies on the introduction and scale-up of emergency contraception.
Washington, D.C., Evidence to Action Project (E2A), 2014 Jul. 58 p.Although much has been written about emergency contraception and its importance as a contraceptive option for women, much less information has been shown regarding its introduction and scale-up in different country contexts. Countries are therefore left with few resources from which to learn. This report seeks to address this challenge and add to the existing literature on emergency contraception by illustrating ways in which governments, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector have worked together and separately to introduce and scale up emergency contraception within their respective countries. The report includes a literature review which gives a comprehensive background on emergency contraception, and then examines the introduction and scale-up of emergency contraceptive pills in four geographically disparate countries: Mexico, Bangladesh, Kenya, and Senegal. Each country experience is analyzed using two frameworks – the International Consortium for Emergency Contraception’s 9 Steps and the World Health Organization’s Building Blocks for Health Systems Strengthening. Following the case studies, a further analysis compares and contrasts the various elements within each effort that led to successful introduction, and later, scale-up, and provides corresponding recommendations based on the analysis.
Costing essential services package provided by a non-governmental organization network in Bangladesh.
Health Policy and Planning. 2017 Dec 1; 32(10):1375-1385.The health profile of Bangladesh has improved remarkably, yet gaps in delivering quality health care remain. In response to the need for evidence to quantify resources for providing health services in Bangladesh, this study estimates unit costs of providing the essential services package (ESP) in the not-for-profit sector. This study used a stratified sampling approach to select 18 static clinics, which had fixed facilities, from 330 non-profit clinics under Smiling Sun network in Bangladesh. Costs were estimated from the providers' perspective, using both top-down and bottom-up methods, from July 2014 to June 2015. In total, there were 1115 observations (clients) for the 13 primary care services analysed. The estimated 2015 average costs per visit were: antenatal care ($7.03), postnatal care ($4.57), control of diarrheal diseases ($1.32), acute respiratory infection ($1.53), integrated management of child illness ($2.02), sexually transmitted infections ($4.70), reproductive tract infections ($3.56), tuberculosis ($41.65), limited curative care ($4.30), immunization ($2.23), family planning ($0.72), births by normal delivery ($29.45) and C-section ($114.83). Unit costs varied widely for each service, both between individual patients and among clinic level means. The coefficient of variation for the 13 services averaged 66%, implying potential inefficiencies. In addition, 32.9% of clients were not offered any lab test during the first antenatal visit. The unit cost of essential services differed by the type and location of clinics. Ultra clinics, on average, incurred 37% higher costs than vital (outpatient type) clinics, and urban clinics spent 40% more than rural clinics to deliver a unit of service. The study suggests that inefficiency and quality concerns exist in health service delivery in some facilities. Increasing the volume of clients through demand-side mechanisms and standardization of services would help address those concerns. Unit costs of services provide essential information for estimating resource needs for scaling up the ESPs. (c) The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Delivering culturally sensitive, sexual health education in western Kenya: a phenomenological case study.
African Journal of AIDS Research. 2017 Sep; 16(3):193-202.While generic programmes have been created to raise sexual health awareness, these cannot always be applied to communities whose cultures and circumstances make them especially vulnerable to infection. Taking a phenomenological approach, this paper examines the circumstances of the Gusii people of Kisii, Kenya, and examines the specific challenges of providing sexual health education to the community as experienced by an ethnic Gusii woman, Joyce Ombasa. Joyce's story reveals that the Gusii living in and around rural villages have several cultural characteristics that make them susceptible to HIV/AIDS and that render community health education problematic, especially if offered by a female educator of the same ethnicity. Women cannot teach men. Discussions of sex and condom use, and viewing the naked bodies of the opposite sex are taboo. Promiscuity is commonplace and there is a reluctance to use condoms and to undergo HIV testing. Female circumcision persists and there is a high rate of sexual violence, incest and intergenerational sexual intercourse. In addition, government policies and legislation threaten to exacerbate some of the sexually risky behaviours. Bringing HIV education and female empowerment to the rural Gusii requires a culturally sensitive approach, discarding sexual abstinence messages in favour of harm minimisation, including the promotion of condom use, regular HIV testing and the rejection of female circumcision and intergenerational sex. Trust needs to be built through tactics such as adopting a complex and fluid outsider identity and replacing formal sex education with training in income generating skills and casual discussions regarding condoms and sexual health.
Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs, Health Communication Capacity Collaborative, 2017 Sep. 42 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement #AID-OAA-A-12-00058)The goal of the study was to determine the I-Kit’s contributions toward strengthening the local PP capacity to design and implement state-of-the-art SBCC programs. The study’s specific objectives were to: 1) Further understand how the I-Kit was used and adapted by each organization in its particular project, context and work circumstances; 2)Identify local knowledge, skills and practices strengthened, collectively or individually, through using the I-Kit; 3) Identify knowledge, skill and practice gaps that were identified and addressed through using the I-Kit; 4) Identify challenges experienced using the I-Kit and how they were addressed; and 5) Identify, from the participants’ perspectives, the most important changes in PP organizations’ work as a result of using the I-Kit. Study findings, conclusions and recommendations shaped and informed an I-Kit Supplement.The supplement includes tips on using the I-Kit, gathered from PPs, and aims to improve the I-Kit experience for future users.
Indian Journal of Community Medicine. 2017 Jul-Sep; 42(3):134-137.Violence on women has been present in our society since times immemorial. The ethics, the values, the morals, the culture of the society has been framed in such a way or we can say structured in such a way so as to promote exploitation of this segment which is in reality the root of the society. The concept of STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE was introduced by Johan Galtung in 1969. It refers to a form of violence wherein some http://www.studylecturenotes.com/social-sciences/sociology/370-social-institution -definitions-a-structure-of-social-institution social institution may harm people by preventing them from meeting their basic needs. Violence against women has taken the form of a global epidemic which has taken its toll on the physical, psychological, sexual and economic life of the female. Johan Galtung in "Violence, Peace and Peace Studies", 1969 has rightly remarked "when one husband beats his wife, there is a clear case of personal violence, but when one million husbands keep one million wives in ignorance, there is structural violence". India has been slow in its pace for action against violence on women, but the brutal gang- rape of a 23 year old Delhi girl on December 2012 aroused the Indians from their deep slumber on this issue. Structural violence is a demon against women that is devouring the society. The combined efforts of Government NGO's and most important, the sufferers of this violence, the women have to take a major step to fight this dragon.
Atlanta, Georgia, CARE, 2017 May. 24 p.While advancements in gender equality have been made globally in the past two decades, there are still pockets lacking progress and more intractable aspects of women’s rights that lag in progress. CARE has found that there are persistent gender inequitable behaviors that are not changing despite working on attitudes and providing information, and where good policies are in place. CARE sought out to test whether a deeper understanding of social norms could shed new light on what is holding certain behaviors in place, and lead to more effective strategies for transforming gender norms and behaviors that seem stuck. This paper focuses on CARE’s journey to understand social norm theory from academia, and apply it in development practice. Since 2014, a small team within CARE came together to look at how to shift and measure changes in gendered social norms more systematically and precisely. The journey included an initial training on social norms theory and measurement from some of the leading expert researchers from the University of Pennsylvania Social Norms Group (UPenn SoNG). CARE has since been adapting the theory into practical implementation design and measurement approaches and tools that can be more easily applied to international development programs in resource constrained settings.
Dying for Money: The Effects of Global Health Initiatives on NGOs Working with Gay Men and HIV/AIDS in Northwest China.
Medical Anthropology Quarterly. 2016 Sep; 30(3):414-30.Drawing on 17 months of ethnographic fieldwork (2007-2011), this article critically examines the consequences of two global health initiatives (GHIs), the Global Fund and the Gates Foundation, on NGOs engaged in HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment among gay men in northwest China. I argue that a short-term surge in funding provided by GHIs between 2008 and 2010 exacerbated preexisting conflicts between NGOs by promoting a neoliberal process in which the state outsourced public health services to civil society organizations, deliberately encouraging a climate of competition among NGOs. I also show how GHIs encouraged the bureaucratization and medicalization of one grassroots gay NGO, channeling its activities away from broader political and social objectives and compelling the group to develop a narrower and more entrepreneurial emphasis on HIV testing and treatment. This article contributes to a deeper ethnographic understanding of the complex and perhaps unintended consequences of GHIs. (c) 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.
[The social marketing models and policy advices for HIV rapid testing initiated by non-govermental organization]
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]. 2016 Oct 06; 50(10):846-849.Currently, a growing number of community-based organizations are providing rapid HIV testing service in various forms, some people with specific needs also purchase HIV rapid test papers through online sales channels, those imply that the demand of HIV self-test is in increasing year by year.In this paper, aims to understand the current situation of HIV rapid test led by CBOs and the approach, strategies and results of social marketing by means of expert interviews and site visits. Hope to illustrate the current situation, and make recommendations for future work.