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Discovery of nano-piperolactam a: A non-steroidal contraceptive lead acting through down-regulation of interleukins.
Nanomedicine. 2018 Nov 6;Elevated serum interleukins (IL-6, IL-1beta) over baseline concentration help in blastocyst adhesion to the uterine endometrium in the early phase of pregnancy. A nano PLA (Piperolactam A)-HPBCD (2-hydroxy-propyl-beta-cyclodextrin) inclusion complex, was developed as an interleukin down-regulator that exhibited 100% anti-implantation activity in rodents at a dose as low as 2.5-5.0mg/kg. On metabolomics study, among major glyco-lipo-protein metabolites, only serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels revealed alteration by the formulation. Administration of PLA-HPBCD did not cause changes in serum estrogen and progesterone levels. However, IL-6 and IL-1beta failed to increase post PLA-HPBCD administration, hence is assumed to be the mode of the drug's abortifacient action. In addition, absence of signs of either acute or chronic toxicity suggests the formulation considerably non-toxic. Therefore, the nano-PLA conjugate promises as a non-steroidal contraceptive lead apart from ormeloxifene, the only non-steroidal anti-fertility agent currently available globally. Copyright (c) 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
A study of traditional contraceptive techniques with special reference to dharmundhi and its practice by women in three villages of Haryana.
Health and Population Perspective and Issues. 2006 Apr-Jun; 29(2):90-101.Using both qualitative and quantitative techniques, this study analyses the practice of Dharmundhi, a traditional contraceptive method in ialpur sub-centre in Haryana. Some traditional methods discussed in this paper include: (i) micturition, (ii) use of indigenous herbal medicines, (Hi) coitus interrupts, and (iv) Dharmundhi. The above four methods used by the community were 25.2, 5.4, 30.6 and 5.4 per cent respectively. The study further reveals that about 41 per cent of the women had ever used a traditional contraceptive method and fifty-four per cent of the respondents didn't have correct knowledge about the safe-period.
African Journal of Reproductive Health. 2017 Dec; 21(4):33-44.Plants are commonly used during the antenatal stage in pregnancy to manage different ailments in Africa. In Uganda, both medicinal and food plants are used to handle common pregnancy related conditions. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Iganga district, eastern Uganda. Seven traditional birth attendants (TBA) and 46 mothers were interviewed. Data was collected using structured questionnaires and household interviews. The TBAs were identified using snowball sampling. A total of 33 plant species, belonging to 23 families were documented. Out of these, the pregnant mothers used 45.5 % as both food and medicine. The most frequently used plant life form was herbs (58.8%). The leaves are the most commonly used plant parts (59%). Most of the plants (58.8%) were semi cultivated and were being domesticated in crop fields and home gardens. Most of the plants were used to manage anaemia and for child development and good health among the pregnant women. The pregnant women and TBAs in Namungalwe sub County have diverse knowledge on medicinal and nutri-medicinal plants in the management of common pregnancy related diseases, which can be used to supplement modern antenatal services, inspite of the ban of the activities of TBA. Further research on the bioavailability of nutrients, efficacy and safety of the medicinal plants used by pregnant women should be done.
Comprehensive Child and Adolescent Nursing. 2017; 40(Suppl 1):128-136.Diarrhea is the most common cause of death in children. For diarrhea, home treatment should be administered by parents to prevent diarrheal complications. The purpose of this research was to investigate the traditional method of diarrhea treatment in Tegal regency, Central Java, Indonesia. A descriptive study was conducted with the aim of describing the traditional method of home treatment for diarrhea in children. The study sample included families with children who were experiencing or had experienced diarrhea and had received traditional medicine. The participants were randomly selected based on cluster random sampling, and the results showed that traditional diarrheal treatment involved the use of Psidium guajava leaves, curcumic (turmeric), and tea. P. guajava leaves and curcumic were processed by pounding or shredding and then squeezing to obtain the extracts. Some of the respondents also added salt to the mixture. Most traditional medicine could be found in the garden or by purchase, and friends and family were the most common information resources. Most respondents assumed that traditional medicine was effective to treat diarrhea. It is expected that this research can provide information about diarrheal management by traditional method in the community.
Bioactive compounds in Pinang Yaki (Areca vestiaria) fruit as potential source of antifertility agent.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017 Sep; 30(5(Supplementary)):1929-1937.Fruits of Pinang Yaki (Areca vestiaria) are used by the people around Bogani Nani Wartabone as contraseption for men. Extracts from the fruit contain tannin, triterpenoid, flavonoid and saponin which are potential as bioactive compounds. This research aimed at exploring the fractions or bioactive compounds contained in the fruit. The extract was prepared by fractionation using hexane. The fractions were separated and analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The fractions revealed the presence of five compounds. These compounds were identified by interpretation of mass spectra and comparing their retention time and covate indexes with those from literature. The five compounds are pentadecane, methyl-dodecanate, methyl-tetradecanoate, hexadecanoic acid and methyl-octadecanate.
African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines. 2016; 13(4):123-131.BACKGROUND: The use of medicinal herbs whose efficacy and toxicities are not known by HIV-positive people in Lesotho is a threat to the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment. This study explored some medicinal herbs used by HIV-positive people in Lesotho and the reasons for their use. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study based on a questionnaire distributed to purposively-sampled HIV-positive people in Leribe and Maseru districts of Lesotho. The participants' socio-demographic and clinical variables were summarized using frequency tables in Stata version 13 statistical software. Data variables for medicinal herbs used, frequency of use, uses by the participants and in the literature, parts of plants used and the method of preparation were also explored. RESULTS: Out of 400 questionnaires distributed to the participants, 389 were returned with data acceptable for analysis. Ages of the participants ranged from 18 to 75 years (Mean=43 + 11.6). Out of the 272 (69.9%) participants who conceded that they had used medicinal herbs at least once, 30 (7.7%) participants used medicinal herbs frequently while 242 (62.2 %) rarely used the herbs. At least 20 plant species belonging to 16 families were reportedly used by the participants. Asteraceae was the most common plant family reportedly used by the participants. Allium sativum and Dicoma anomala, reportedly used by 21.0% and 14.3% respectively, were the most commonly used medicinal herbs in this population. In addition, boosting the immune system and treating gastrointestinal ailments, apparently cited by 32% and 28% participants respectively, were the most commonly reported reasons for using medicinal herbs. CONCLUSION: A considerable proportion (69.9%) of HIV-positive people use medicinal herbs in this population, and 7.7% use them frequently. At least 20 plant species belonging to 16 families were reportedly used by the participants. HIV counselling protocols in Lesotho should emphasize the dangers of using medicinal herbs whose safety and compatibility with antiretroviral drugs is not known. The efficacy and toxicity profiles of the medicinal plants identified in this study need to be investigated. Furthermore, the effects of these plants on antiretroviral treatment outcomes including herb-drug interactions need to be explored.
The use of traditional medicine in maternity care among African women in Africa and the diaspora: a systematic review.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2017 Aug 02; 17(1):382.BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of literature describing traditional health practices and beliefs of African women. The purpose of this study was to undertake a systematic review of the use of traditional medicine (TM) to address maternal and reproductive health complaints and wellbeing by African women in Africa and the diaspora. METHOD: A literature search of published articles, grey literature and unpublished studies was conducted using eight medical and social science databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, Infomit, Ovid Medline, ProQuest, PsychINFO, PubMed and SCOPUS) from the inception of each database until 31 December 2016. Critical appraisal was conducted using a quality assessment tool (QAT). RESULT: A total of 20 studies conducted in 12 African countries representing 11,858 women were included. No literature was found on African women in the diaspora related to maternal use of TM or complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The prevalence of TM use among the African women was as high as 80%. The most common TM used was herbal medicine for reasons related to treatment of pregnancy related symptoms. Frequent TM users were pregnant women with no formal education, low income, and living far from public health facilities. Lack of access to the mainstream maternity care was the major determining factor for use of TM. CONCLUSION: TM is widely used by African women for maternal and reproductive health issues due to lack of access to the mainstream maternity care. Further research is required to examine the various types of traditional and cultural health practices (other than herbal medicine), the beliefs towards TM, and the health seeking behaviors of African women in Africa and the diaspora.
Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2016 Nov; 25:155-163.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a Malaysian antenatal population and its impact on obstetric outcome. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Obstetric Unit, Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Setar, Kedah. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Women attending antenatal clinic and Patient Admission Centre (PAC) above 30 weeks gestation were given structured questionnaires to fill. Pregnancy outcome measures were documented and analyzed in relation to the information gathered through the questionnaire. SPSS Version 21 was used to analyze all data obtained. RESULTS: Out of 447 women, the overall prevalence of CAM usage in pregnancy was 85.2%. It was popular among pregnant mothers aged between 26 and 35 years old and most commonly used in the third trimester (p = 0.0.010) to facilitate labour. Other sociodemographic factors such as race, parity, education, occupation and residence were not significantly important. Traditional herbs was the commonest type of CAM used in pregnancy (58.3%) followed by selusuh (24.3%). About 78.5% of the CAM users delivered vaginally (p = 0.020) but a significant proportion (14.3%) had fetal distress (p = 0.035) compared to non CAM users. The most common type of herbs used was akar kayu bunga Fatimah (37.7%) and gamat (13.4%). In our study, usage of selusuh product and akar kayu bunga Fatimah had a significant impact in achieving vaginal delivery and shortened the duration of labour particularly in multiparae. The usage of Kacip Fatimah and Salindah was associated with preterm labour (p = 0.04)Tongkat Ali herbal coffee had a significant association with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (p = 0.011) and fetal distress (p = 0.04) Meanwhile, the usage of Jamu Mustika Ratu was significantly associated with low birth weight in grandmultiparae (p = 0.026)and spirulina was significantly associated with oligohydramnios (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Usage of CAM in pregnancy in the Malaysian population is of high prevalence CAM in pregnancy has beneficial and adverse obstetric outcomes. More research is needed to establish the safety of usage of various forms of CAM in pregnancy. Copyright (c) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Journal of Medicinal Food. 2017 Jun; 20(6):592-600.Acacia catechu Willd. is a plant diffused in India and other Asian countries, where it is used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several ailments including diarrhea, one of the most common pathologies worldwide. In this study, we determined the chemical composition of Acacia catechu Willd. extract (AC) and evaluated its effect on spontaneous and induced contractility in isolated Guinea pig ileum and proximal colon. Preliminary data about its antimicrobial effect against some pathogen agents versus some microbiota intestinal strain have been also reported. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of catechins, such as (-)-Epicatechin and (+)-Catechin. AC extract reduced frequency and amplitude of colon smooth muscle spontaneous contractility, in a concentration-dependent manner. A weaker effect of the extract was exerted toward ileum smooth muscle spontaneous contractility. The observed calcium antagonistic effect was more potent in proximal colon than in ileum. The extract showed a noncompetitive reversible antagonism to carbachol, both in proximal colon and ileum, with a higher potency in proximal colon. The antimicrobial effects of AC extract were observed toward Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp., while Bifido and Lactobacillus were not affected by treatment. These effects, however, occurred at concentrations fivefold higher than those inhibiting ileum and colon contractility. In conclusion, our results suggest that AC affects intestinal contractility without affecting intestinal bacterial flora and this may result in clinical benefits in patients suffering from nonbacterial diarrhea.
Prevalent use of herbs for reduction of labour duration in Mwanza, Tanzania: Are obstetricians aware?
Tanzania Journal of Health Research. 2017 Apr; 19(2): p.Background: The use of herbs during pregnancy and labour is rapidly increasing because the herbs are considered to be natural and therefore free of risks. Despite of this perception, a number of herbs have been reported to have negative effects to the new-borns and the mothers. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with the use of herbs during labour among women in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods: The study involved women who delivered at Bugando Medical Centre and Sekou Toure Hospital in Mwanza, north-western Tanzania. Data were collected using questionnaires. Comparison of prevalence of herb use by various factors was done. Results: A total of 178 women were involved in the study. The mean age of participants was 26.6 +or- 5.4 years. The prevalence of herb use was found to be 23.0%. The use of herbs was significantly associated with marital status (p = 0.011) and the use during previous deliveries (p = 0.000). Conclusion: The study findings signify that, about a quarter of women in Mwanza use herbs during childbirth and the use encourages recurrent use of these herbs in subsequent pregnancies. A large scale survey is recommended to determine the extent of use of traditional herbs during pregnancy and childbirth countrywide. Studies to determine the toxic profile of the herbs which are used are also needed so as to address the matter to the community.
Prevalence and associated factors of herbal medicine use among pregnant women on antenatal care follow-up at University of Gondar referral and teaching hospital, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2017 Feb 01; 17(1):86.BACKGROUND: Improving maternal and child health is one of the public health priorities in several African countries including Ethiopia. However, research on herbal medicine use during pregnancy is scarce in Ethiopia. The present study aimed at assessing the prevalence and correlates of herbal medicine use among pregnant women on antenatal care (ANC) follow-up at Gondar university referral hospital, Ethiopia METHODS: An institutional-based cross sectional study was conducted on 364 pregnant women attending ANC clinic from March to May 2016 at University of Gondar referral and teaching hospital, northwest Ethiopia. Data on socio-demography, pregnancy related information as well as herbal medicine use was collected through an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to determine prevalence and associated factors of herbal medicine use. RESULTS: From 364 respondents, 48.6% used herbal medicine during current pregnancy. ginger (40.7%) and garlic (19%) were the two most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. Common cold (66%) and inflammation (31.6%) were the most common reasons for herbal use. Majority of herbal medicine users (89.8%) had not consulted their doctors about their herbal medicine use. Rural residency (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.15, Confidence interval (CI): 1.17-6.14), illiteracy (AOR: 4.05, CI: 2.47-6.62) and average monthly income less than 100 USD (AOR: 3.08CI: 1.221-7.77) were found to be strong predictors of herbal medicine use. CONCLUSIONS: The use of herbal medicine during pregnancy is a common practice and associated with residency, level of education and average monthly income. From the stand point of high prevalence and low disclosure rate, the health care providers should often consult pregnant women regarding herbal medicine use.
Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2017 Feb; 30:54-60.Objective This study was conducted to determine the herbal product use of pregnants as there is not adequate information relating to the rate of herbal product use during pregnancy in Turkey and what is thought about effects and side effects thereof. Methods It is a descriptive study consisted of 366 pregnants admitted to hospital for childbirth in gynaecology and obstetrics clinics of a public hospital or a university hospital. Data were collected with individual information form and question form of herbal product use in pregnancy. We conducted number, percentage, chi-square analyses. Results It was determined that 47.3% of the women had used at least one herbal product during pregnancy; the relationship between education level, working status, family structure, and status of herbal product use is statistically significant (p < 0.05). Linden, peppermint-lemon, ginger are the first three herbs used due to common cold-influenza frequently in pregnancy during 1 st and 2nd trimesters. More than half of the pregnants stated that they had started herbal product use without any suggestions from anyone, and profoundly low healthcare professional suggestion was detected. Conclusion Our study has showed that almost half of women use at least one herbal product during pregnancy. So few healthcare professionals give information to pregnants thereabout. Thus, providing information in general health education to pregnant women about benefits and damages of herbal product use, planning researchers on effectiveness of herbal products, assessment of healthcare professionals relating to the matter and provision of available guidelines and in-service education relating to herbal products that can be used during pregnancy may be suggested.
Infant feeding practices during the first 6 months of life in a low-income area of the Western Cape Province.
South African Journal of Child Health. 2014; 8(2):50-54.Background. Exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life protects against infant morbidity and mortality. Few studies describe the infant feeding practices of mothers living in low-income areas of the Western Cape Province of South Africa (SA). Objective. To describe the infant feeding practices of mothers of infants younger than 6 months in two low-income communities of SA. Methods. A cross-sectional community-based study using a structured questionnaire, and seven focus group discussions were conducted from February to August 2011 in Avian Park and Zwelethemba in Worcester, an urban area in the Western Cape. Results. Seventy-seven per cent of participants (n=108) had initiated breastfeeding. At the time of the study, 6% (n=8) breastfed exclusively. Ninety-four per cent (n=132) applied suboptimal breastfeeding practices: 36% (n=51) breastfed predominantly, 27% (n=38) breastfed partially and 31% (n=43) did not breastfeed. Ninety per cent (n=126) of the mothers had introduced water, of whom 83% (n=104) had done so before their infants were 1 month old. Forty-four per cent (n=61) of the mothers had introduced food or formula milk, of whom 75% (n=46) had done so before their infants were 3 months old. Qualitative findings indicated that gripe water, Lennon’s Behoedmiddel and herbal medicines were also given to infants. Nutritive liquids and/or food most commonly given as supplementary feeds were formula milk and commercial infant cereal. Conclusion. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) during the first 6 months of life was a rare practice in these low-income communities. Water, non-prescription medicines and formula milk and/or food were introduced at an early age.
Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 2001 Oct; 35(10):1283-1288.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the knowledge and practice among private pharmacy staff in Hanoi regarding case management of mild acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children. METHODS: Sixty private pharmacies in Hanoi were randomly selected. Knowledge was assessed through interviews with pharmacy staff using a questionnaire; practice was assessed through the Simulated Client Method. RESULTS: In the questionnaire, 20% of the pharmacy staff stated that they would dispense antibiotics. In practice, 83% of the pharmacies dispensed antibiotics. Only 36% of the cases were handled according to guidelines. In the questionnaire, 81% of interviewees stated that antibiotics are not effective in short therapeutic courses. In practice, 48% of the antibiotics were dispensed in courses less than five days. Traditional herbal medicines were dispensed in 41% of the encounters. In the questionnaire, 53% of the pharmacy staff stated that they would ask the patient about difficulty of breathing. In practice, questions related to difficulty of breathing were asked in less than 10% of the encounters. CONCLUSIONS: Dispensing of antibiotics for mild ARI was common practice among private pharmacies, and there was a significant difference between knowledge and practice. Interventions are needed to improve pharmacy practice in Hanoi.
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2016 Jul; 22(7):503-8.OBJECTIVES: To briefly describe the postpartum practices among the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia and to identify commonalities in their traditional postpartum beliefs and practices. METHODS: This narrative review collated information on traditional postpartum practices among Malaysian mothers through a literature search for published research papers on traditional postpartum practices in Malaysia. RESULTS: This review shows that Malaysian mothers have certain postpartum practices that they considered to be important for preventing future ill health. Despite the perceived differences in intra-ethnic postpartum practices, most Malaysian mothers, although from different ethnicities, share similarities in their postpartum regimens and practices in terms of beliefs and adherence to food taboos, use of traditional postpartum massage and traditional herbs, and acknowledgment of the role of older female family members in postpartum care. CONCLUSIONS: Health care providers should be aware of multiethnic traditional postpartum practices and use the commonalities in these practices as part of their postpartum care regimen.
A review of traditional knowledge on foods and plants supposed to increase lactation in pregnant women: A descriptive study.
African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. 2016; 13(3):27-32.Background: While both the proportion of infants exclusively fed breast milk and the duration of suckling increased worldwide and in Turkey, the addition of another product to breast milk in the first six months of the infant\'s life is still widespread. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a descriptive, cross-sectional study to identify the traditional methods intending to increase breast milk in pregnancy. The sample group consisted of 100 pregnant women in their last trimester who visited the obstetrical outpatient clinics of a State Hospital of Zonguldak. Data were collected on a data collection form during a face to face interview. Results: The methods for increasing lactation in pregnant women that the subjects had heard about consisted of the ingestion of abundant water and fluid food (94.0%), green leafy vegetables (such as lettuce) (38%), sweet foods (26%) and milk or other dairy items (19%). Of the pregnant women questioned, 19.0% declared that they would not do anything in particular to increase their milk, 33% that they would drink more fluids, 14% that they would ingest apricot compost and 12% herbal teas. No significant differences among groups were detected between age, educational status, family type, parity and live children number on one side and the subjects\' planning to use special foods or fluids (p>0.05). Conclusion: The subjects believed that in addition to an abundant consumption of water and fluid foods, seen as essential, eating green leafy vegetables, chiefly lettuce, and a particular type of sesame halva would increase lactation.
African Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2015; 9(2):47-50.Background: There are many documented roles of Nigella sativa and honey in treatment of diseases but the least expected are the potentials in curing HIV infection. Materials and Method: A 27 years old HIV infected woman was diagnosed during ante-natal care (ANC) at General Hospital (EIA) and confirmed with Western blot in 2004 at National Institute of Medical Research, Lagos (NIMR). She could not benefit from free antiretroviral therapy because her CD4 count was above 200 cells/ µL (350 cells/ µL) thus herbal therapist commenced her on Nigella sativa and honey therapy (60: 40 respectively) of 10mls thrice daily for a year. Result: The repeat serology tests for HIV infection (EIA and Western blot) since 2005 were negative with undetectable viral (HIV-RNA) load. The woman had 3 children (2007, 2010 and 2012) that were breastfed without any of the children infected with HIV and none of the repeat CD4 count was less than 750 cells/ µL. Conclusion: It was concluded by this report that HIV infection in this 27 years old woman completely sero-reverted by a year therapy of Nigella sativa and honey.
African Journal of Health Sciences. 2014 Jul-Sep; 27(3):239-248.Ethno-medical practice has been part of human development in the treatment of diseases as well as providing other health benefits, the commonest being use of herbs. Arthrospira platensis, is an alga used as food supplement said to confer health benefits to the users. It was not clear if this supplement had adverse affects on HIV infected adults, hence this study was carried-out. This was a controlled prospective study where the findings of individual patients before and after intervention were paired. Consenting Patients with CD4+ T-cell counts above 250 cells/µl were enrolled in Nyanza Provincial Hospital, Kenya. The patients were divided into 5 groups where 4 groups used different doses of A. platensis (study groups) while 1 group used multi-vitamin (control group). Twenty-three patients completed the study. The results showed that there were no significant changes in the laboratory findings among the patients. It was concluded that A. platensis was well tolerated by HIV positive adults when used for a period of 4 weeks and a maximum dry dose of 4.5 g/day. It is recommended that a larger population using the supplement for a longer period is needed for a more conclusive evidence of the safety of this supplement among HIV patients.
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2016; 16(4):11310-11330.The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has a devastating impact on the victims’ health, nutrition and food security. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS and other opportunistic infections calls for research into natural products to find solutions to this pandemic. This involves exploration of the readily available wild food plant species (WIFPs) and promotion of their consumption especially among the vulnerable and marginalised groups of people. In Nakisunga sub-county, WIFPs are consumed by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) because of their presumed nutrition and health benefits. Despite exploitation of WIFPs by PLWHA, there have been no empirical studies to document the indigenous knowledge on WIFPs' usage in Nakisunga sub-county. This study aimed at providing information regarding the consumption of WIFPs by PLWHA in Nakisunga sub-county because of their presumed nutritional and health benefits. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in which 60 semi-structured questionnaires were administered. A snowball sampling approach was used to identify other PLWHA in their respective villages since these people always met on clinic days and knew where each of them resided. Individual interviews were supplemented with direct observations and 3 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) guided by a checklist of questions. Eighty-four WIFPs from 66 genera and 41 families were identified. Priority species were Abrus precatorius L., Amaranthus spinosus L., Physalis angulata L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Solanum nigrum L. Fifty-six WIFPs were used as food only and 28 species served as food and medicine. The majority (43%) of WIFPs were herbaceous and mainly collected from the wild (75%). The most frequently consumed plant parts were the fruits (34%) and leaves (33%). These were consumed as snacks (23%) and vegetables (24%), respectively. Boiling (37%) was the commonest method of preparation used. Documentation of this indigenous knowledge on WIFPs’ consumption by PLWHA will help promote them for wider usage and initiate scientific validation of their nutrient quality. In conclusion, there is a diversity of WIFPs in this area which are being added to the diets of PLWHA because of their presumed nutritional significance. These species need to be taken further for scientific validation of their nutrient quality and conservation measures devised for their sustainable production.
Economic Botany. 2016 Jun; 70(2):145-159.Medicinal Plants Used for Treating Reproductive Health Care Problems in Cameroon, Central Africa. Approximately 80% of the African population uses traditional plants to deal with health problems, basically because of their easy accessibility and affordability. This study was carried out to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used by traditional healers and elders in the treatment of reproductive health care in the Bamboutos Division of the West Region in Cameroon, Central Africa. The research methods used included semi-structured interviews and participative field observations. For the interviews, 70 knowledgeable respondents (40 traditional healers and 30 elders) were selected via purposive sampling. Voucher specimens were collected with the help of respondents, processed into the Cameroon National Herbarium in Yaounde following standard methods, identified with the help of pertinent floras and taxonomic experts, and submitted to Department of Botany at the University of Dschang. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze and summarize ethnobotanical information obtained. Informant consensus factors (ICF) were used to elucidate the agreement among informants on the species to be used in the treatment within a category of illness. The results showed that a total of 70 plant species from 37 families (mostly of the Asteraceae [8 species], Euphorbiaceae , and Acanthaceae and Bignoniaceae [4 each]) are used in the treatment of 27 reproductive ailments, with the highest number of species (37) being used against venereal diseases, followed by female (29) and male infertility (21), respectively. Leaves (47.3%) were the most commonly harvested plant parts and the most common growth forms harvested were the herbs (45.7%), followed by shrubs (30%). Sixty percent of plant material was obtained from the wild ecosystems. Herbal remedies were mostly prepared in the form of decoction (66.2%) and were taken mainly orally. Informant consensus about usages of medicinal plants ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 with an average value of 0.91. It can be concluded that medicinal plants have played and will continue to play major roles in the management of reproductive healthcare in the study area.
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. 2016; 17(11):974-985.Background In recent years, rapid population growth and unsafe abortions have emerged as controversial health issues in some countries. Hence, safe and effective contraceptive methods or agents have attracted a great deal of attention and the corresponding market has been widely expanded. Objective In this study, we present a review profiting from Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM) to introduce expedient plants as efficient contraceptive agents. Methods Medicinal plants suggested as contraceptive agents were obtained from ITM text books and they were also investigated using search engines to confirm their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. Results According to credible Iranian medical literature a wide spectrum of plants possesses contraceptive activity and among them, Ruta graveolens, Ricinus communis, Piper nigrum, and Physalis alkekengi were found to be more efficient. Conclusion Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), particularly herbal remedies have received a lot of attention because of their truly healing properties. Focusing on ITM knowledge, there are various comments based on medicinal plants to reduce unsafe abortions leading to better public health in the society.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016 Jul; 29(4):1331-1338.HIV or AIDS is a major threat for humanity in the world especially in developing countries. The causative factor of the syndrome is HIV, which infects and destroys one of the cellular components of the immune system, the T cells, causing deficiency in the immunological surveillance and ultimately leading to AIDS. According to WHO, around 35 million people were living with HIV in 2013 and since the start of epidemic 39 million people have died due to AIDS. Center for disease control and prevention estimated in 2014 that 1,201,100 people aged 13 and above were suffering from HIV infection Worldwide. The most effective approach is the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) containing the combined use of drugs having different mechanisms of action. However, complete eradication of HIV from the body does not occur by HAART, but it lead to long term toxicity occurs and emerges as drug resistant. Despite the recent development of various new antiretroviral compounds, there is still a need to develop need to search for new alternatives which are equally efficient and less expensive as compared to the contemporary treatment available. This review provides an overview and a summary of herbal medicines for HIV infection and summarized the efficacy and medicinal use of different plants used in the treatment of HIV infection. The objective of this review is to enlighten the recent advances in the exploration of medicinal plants used for treatment of HIV/AIDS.
Use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnancy: a cross-sectional survey on Iraqi women.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2016 Jul 7; 16(191):1-7.Background: Due to the lack of strong evidence on safety and efficacy of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches, the use of CAM in women during pregnancy could be hazardous for mother and fetus. Meanwhile, little is known regarding the patterns, the reasons and the factors affecting use of CAM among pregnant women in Iraq. Methods: A cross sectional survey design was used to carry out face-to-face interviews with 335 consecutive pregnant women. The questionnaire comprised of three sections: socio-demographic characteristics, pregnancy-related aspects and the patterns and attitudes towards use of CAM. Determinants of CAM use were assessed through the logistic regression analysis. Results: Three hundred thirty-five pregnant women completed the questionnaire. 56.7 % reported using at least one form of CAM modalities. In total, 24 different types of CAM were used; with herbal medicine (53.7 %) and multivitamins (36.3 %) the most commonly used modalities. From the logistic regression analysis, the variables positively associated with CAM use were: rural residence (odds ratio (OR) 2.0, p < 0.01), no occupation (OR 2.7, p < 0.05), high income (OR 2.0, p < 0.05), perceived healthy status (OR 2.6, p < 0.05) and ever use of contraception (OR 2.0, p < 0.01). Only 0.5 % of CAM users disclosed their CAM use to physicians. Conclusions: The proportion of CAM users among pregnant women is relatively high and it is important to learn what types of CAM they use. However, disclosure of CAM use was extraordinarily low. Given the low rate of disclosure, it should be ensured that physicians establish good level of communication with pregnant women and have adequate knowledge of CAM.
Maturitas. 2015 Dec; 82(4):436-40.Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is characterized by recurrent, moderate-to-severe affective, physical, and behavioral symptoms that develop during the luteal menstrual cycle and disappear within a few days of menstruation. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe and disabling condition that can affect personal relationships and occupational activities. PMS occurs in 30-40% of reproductive-age females; PMDD affects 3-8% of this population. Although the etiology of PMS is unclear, several theories suggest increased sensitivity to normal hormonal changes and neurotransmitter abnormalities. The diagnostic method of PMS is the Daily Record of Severity of Problems, which women with PMS can use to self-report several symptoms and their severity. Although combined oral contraceptives and serotonergic antidepressants are effective drugs, each is a different option for treating PMS/PMDD. Serotonergic antidepressants are the drugs of choice for improving both physical and mood symptoms. Combined oral contraceptives appear to primarily improve physical symptoms. Clinicians should consider each patient's situation individually. Other treatment options include lifestyle modification, cognitive behavioral therapy, and herbal medicine (e.g., chasteberry). Copyright (c) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tradition in treating taboo: Folkloric medicinal wisdom of the aboriginals of Purulia district, West Bengal, India against sexual, gynaecological and related disorders.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2015 Jul 1; 169:370-86.ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In order to explore the traditional medicine practised by the ethnic communities residing in the topographically and climatically challenged Purulia, an underprivileged district of West Bengal, India, a quantitative ethnobiological approach was adopted to document the folkloric use of ethnomedicinals against different sexual, gynaecological and related ailments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethnobiological surveys were conducted during 2012-2015 by interviewing 82 informants or traditional healers with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. The survey included questions on botanical and non-botanical ingredients and additives mixed with monoherbal and polyherbal formulations, vernacular names of the plants and animals, methods of preparation and administration and restrictions during medications. Additional quantitative indices such as use value, informants consensus factor and fidelity level were used for data analysis. RESULTS: Twenty eight sexual and gynaecological disorders were found to be treated with 18 monoherbal and 31 polyherbal formulations consisting of a total number of 96 plant species from 86 genera and 47 families and four animal species. A variety of additives, either botanicals or non-botanicals were used with the formulations for higher efficacy and taste enhancement. Fabaceae (16 species) was found to be the most common family of medicinal plants whereas herbs (42.7%) and roots (32%) were the most common habit type and plant part used respectively. Use value, informants consensus factor and fidelity level indicate frequency and coherence of citations. CONCLUSION: Age old belief on traditional medicine prevails in the studied area due to its efficacy, inexpensive price and the remoteness of tribal villages from conventional medical centres. Traditional healers had detailed knowledge of preparations, doses, methods of administration, restrictions during medications, safety and efficacy of using folkloric therapeutics against sexual and gynaecological disorders. Possible synergistic interactions among phytochemicals and additives were indicated to explain enhanced therapeutic efficacy of mixed herbal formulations. Copyright (c) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.