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Knowledge on health consequences of early and late marriage among students at selected college, East Sikkim.
Nitte University Journal of Health Science. 2018 Mar; 8(1):22-26.Marriage is the blending together of two lives, two personalities of the opposite sex for as long as two shall live in this world. It is the building law of God and protects the mankind. But early and late marriage may have an adverse health consequence. A study was conducted to assess the knowledge on health consequences of early and late marriage among students at selected college of Sikkim. Investigators adopted the quantitative approach using the descriptive survey research design through convenient sampling technique. Structured knowledge questionnaire on health consequences of early and late marriage were developed and sent for validation to experts before collecting the data. Result shows that majority 84% and 49% has moderate knowledge, 12% and 47% has poor knowledge and 4% each has good knowledge on health consequences of early and late marriage respectively. The study reveals that there was no significant association of knowledge on heaIth consequences of early and Iate marriage.
Studies in Family Planning. 2018 Dec; 49(4):295-317.There is increasing interest in the ability of cash transfers to facilitate safe transitions to adulthood in low-income settings; however, evidence from scaled-up government programming demonstrating this potential is scarce. Using two experimental evaluations of unconditional cash transfers targeted to ultra-poor and labor-constrained households over approximately three years in Malawi and Zambia, we examine whether cash transfers delayed early marriage and pregnancy among youth aged 14 to 21 years at baseline. Although we find strong impacts on poverty and schooling, two main pathways hypothesized in the literature, we find limited impacts on safe transition outcomes for both males and females. In addition, despite hypotheses that social norms may constrain potential impacts of cash transfer programs, we show suggestive evidence that pre-program variation in social norms across communities does not significantly affect program impact. We conclude with policy implications and suggestions for future research.
Health and Human Rights. 2018 Jun; 20(1):295-301.Add to my documents.
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2018 Feb; 5(2):411-415.Early marriage forces girls into adulthood before they are emotionally and physically matured, and it has harmful effects on their health, educational, economic and social development. In many countries, 18 years is the legal age of marriage and Nigeria has made a constitutional effort to establish same as a minimum age for marriage. This narrative review examined the causes and consequences of early marriage with a view to establish framework to assess the perception on factors among Urhobos in Nigeria. Unpublished stories are appraised alongside news media and published literature to illustrate scenarios that exemplify discussed causes. Several causes of early marriage were noted and gender discrimination, ignorance, and unexpected pregnancy appear salient or are under-discussed. There is evidence that men and women prefer husbands to earn higher wages than wives and females are less ambitious. Although there are public health concerns in the literature, data on perception of parents, especially those in low socioeconomic status, regarding public health is lacking. Critical appraisal posits that early marriage is not only shrouded in legalities, but is also caused by multiple factors. The factors that cause or lead to early marriages need to be identified for each society to appropriately address the associated ramifications. The lack of data on perception of parents suggests that educational intervention needs to start with community needs assessment.
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2018 Mar; 5(3):1054-1059.Background: Nuptiality has a strong association with socio demographic and socio economic change in society. So, it has immense importance to study the female age at marriage in society. In order to study the nuptiality pattern in rural areas of Uttarakhand State, India, a number of measures like crude marriage rate, age sex specific marriage rates and similar other rates are used in the nuptiality tables. Methods: This paper deals with the study on the change in the nuptiality pattern through the life table approach in the seven cohorts 1931-40, 1941-50, 1951-60, 1961-70, 1971-80, 1981-90 and 1991-2000. It is observed that the rates are changing with time. We also calculate expected number of years of single life remaining to a single person at age x. It is also observed that the age at marriage is increasing as the time passes. The data for this has been collected through the primary collection technique and the paper includes all the nuptiality tables for the seven cohort systems. Results: It is observed that the rates are changing with time. No significant time trend has been observed in the nuptiality rates among the single population of hilly rural area of Uttarakhand. From the table we can see that initially, at the age group 10 the rate is small and it increases rapidly till it reaches to maximum at the age group 20. Conclusions: In the field of marriage for the Indian population, it is suggested that development and examination of nuptiality tables over various periods would constitute a distinct progression in the investigation of Indian nuptiality.
Culture, Health and Sexuality. 2018 Nov 29; 11 p.Polygyny is a matrimonial union in which a single man is simultaneously married to multiple wives. On a daily basis, women in polygynous unions suffer from financial, emotional and physical burdens. This study explores women's perceptions of this matrimonial regime and the factors influencing their sexual health decision-making in Cameroon. Drawing on interviews with twenty-three women aged 23 to 80 years living in polygynous unions, we explore women’s daily life and perceptions on polygyny. Using content analysis, meaning units relating to respondents’ experiences and perceptions were identified and condensed into codes and categories that were later grouped into themes. Five themes emerged – refusal and tolerance; heavy workload and responsibility; lack of power in sexual health decision-making; discrimination and unequal treatment of spouses; and emotional suppression. Women reported emotional suppression, limited rights, discrimination and poor living conditions as being the most significant problems that they encountered. Addressing the discrimination faced by women in polygynous unions will entail adopting and implementing laws to protect women’s rights and promote their empowerment.
Culture, Health and Sexuality. 2018 Oct; 20(10):1087–1101.Data from a six-year study of married women’s sexual health in a low-income community in Mumbai indicated that almost half the sample of 1125 women reported that they had a negative view of sex with their husbands. Qualitative interviews and quantitative survey data identified several factors that contributed to this diminished interest including: a lack of foreplay, forced sex, the difficulty of achieving privacy in crowded dwellings, poor marital relationships and communication, a lack of facilities for post-sex ablution and a strong desire to avoid conception. Women’s coping strategies to avoid husband’s demands for sex included refusal based on poor health, the presence of family members in the home and non-verbal communication. Factors that contributed to a satisfactory or pleasurable sexual relationship included greater relational equity, willingness on the part of the husband to not have sex if it is not wanted, a more ‘loving’ (pyaar karna) approach, women able to initiate sex and greater communication about sexual and non-sexual issues. This paper examines the ecological, cultural, couple and individual dynamics of intimacy and sexual satisfaction as a basis for the development of effective interventions for risk reduction among married women.
Mediating risk through young women’s marital arrangements and intimate relationships in low-income communities in urban India.
Culture, Health and Sexuality. 2018 Oct; 20(10):1055-1070.This paper draws on ethnographic data collected from two lowincome communities in Mumbai India to explore types of risk and intimacy associated with marital practices. A rapidly globalising India offers access to media, social networks and changing gender norms that create opportunities for young women. Concurrently, enduring patriarchal norms impact marriage and the development of intimacy. Young women whose parents decide on early arranged marriages face inequity and difficulties in establishing emotional and physical intimacy with their husbands. Some young women and their families delay an arranged marriage to ensure educational and/or career advancement, seeking a husband and family that will appreciate her independence. Young women in delayed arranged marriages are more prepared for marital relationships but may experience difficulties meeting family and career expectations and establishing intimacy. Young women who develop their own relationships that evolve into ‘love’ marriages can initially achieve high levels of intimacy, but the strains stemming from the loss of family support can later undermine the spousal relationship. Within and across these different marital types, there is also a great deal of fluidity and variation in young women’s experiences as they adapt to globalised and patriarchal norms in urban India.
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2018 Aug; 5(8):3185-3190.Background: This study was on the parental perception of early marriage amongst the Urhobos in the Central District of Delta State. World Health Organization (2013) defined early marriage, or child marriage, as the marriage or union between two people in which one or both parties are younger than 18 years of age. The aims of this research were to assess the parents on four themes including concept of early marriage as well as perceptions on causes, consequences and strategies to mitigate the problems. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey adopted questionnaire that comprised 4-themes and a critical review. A total 360 out of 384 samples were drawn from 8-communities within the local governments in the Central senatorial district of Delta State. The percentages of responses from the respondents categorized on the Likert scale groups were determined. Results: The analysis shows disagreements among respondents perception. 60% are yet to acknowledge gender discrimination in the underlying practice of early marriage. 77% admitted that ignorance is a factor. There is also some strong agreement that early marriage was due to unexpected pregnancy. A total of 62.5% of respondents admitted that their daughter married the boys who impregnated them, and all the girls were forced into it by their parents. Conclusions: The observation lays credence to the fact that unexpected pregnancy is the highest cause of early marriage. It is hereby inferred that there appear to be ignorance leading parents to force their girls into early marriage because of premarital pregnancy.
Determinants of high fertility among married women in Angacha District, Kambeta Tembero Zone, Southern Ethiopia.
Ethiopian Journal of Reproductive Health. 2018 Jul; 10(3):46-54.BACKGROUND: Fertility is the major component of population dynamics, which is used to show a major role in the size, and structure of a particular population. In Ethiopia, total fertility rate is 4.6 children per woman. This high fertility brings a significant problem on the health of mothers and children. OBJECTIVE: To identify the determinants of high fertility in Angacha District, Southern Ethiopia. METHOD: A community-based case-control study design was conducted from September 20 to October 10, 2017 in Angacha district, Southern Ethiopia. A total of 388 married women in Angacha district were selected using simple random sampling technique. Bi-variable and multi-variable logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULT: A total of 388 eligible women (129 cases and 259 controls) requested to interview, of which 126 cases and 255 controls participated. Educational status of women (AOR[95% CI] = 0.36 [0.160.83]), desire to have more children before marriage (AOR[95% CI] = 0.51[0.28, 0.93]), age at first marriage (AOR[95% CI] = 4.77[2.59, 8.78]), history of under-five mortality (AOR[95% CI] = 4.22[2.43, 7.31]) and not ever use of contraceptive methods (AOR[95% CI] = 4.55[2.21, 9.39]) were identified as determinants of high fertility. CONCLUSION: In this study educational status of women, age at first marriage, desire to have children before marriage, not ever use of contraceptive methods and experiencing under-five mortality were identified as determinants of high fertility. Therefore, all concerned bodies should intervene in improving the education level of women, increase age at first marriage, reduce child mortality and improve the access to contraceptive methods.
A comparative study between met and unmet need groups of contraception in rural area of Maharashtra, India.
Global Journal of Medicine and Public Health. 2013; 2(1):7 p.Objectives: To compare met and unmet need groups of contraception with socio-economic, demographic, accessibility & family Planning (FP) related factors. Methods: Community based cross-sectional, comparative study was conducted among 363 married women of reproductive age groups in rural area selected by stratified simple random technique. After collecting preliminary information, the study population then divided into two groups based on their contraceptive use i.e. MET Group & UNMET NEED Groups. Then the role of socio-economic, demographic, accessibility & family Planning (FP) related factors were studies to determine contraceptive use between these groups. Results: Mean age of study subjects was 24.12 +or- 4.45 years & average number of children per women was 2.02. Males were more literate than females (69.1% Vs 47.2%). 51.8% women were belonging to lower socio-economic status. Early marriages were still prevalent in this study (53.7%). Prevalence of met group of contraception was 59.2% & that of unmet need for contraception was 44.1%. Met groups were mainly from 20-29 years age group (46.6%); most of them (46.8%) were literate & were from high socio-economic group (30.9%) compared to unmet need groups. On comparison to unmet groups, most of the met group (33.9%) got married after 18 years of age, residing within 5km area (26.4%), had visited to FP centre (49.0%) & ever visited by FP staff (43.3%). Conclusion: Education, income, marriage age, accessibility, FP staff related factors definitely has role among met & unmet need groups in their contraceptive use.
Journal of Population Research. 2017 Sep; 34(3):279-301.This paper analyses the trends and regional variations in the target achievement of MDG 5 of improving maternal health in Bangladesh. Based on the analysis of secondary data a comparison is made between the rate of progress required for each indicator of the goal to achieve its target by 2015 from 2000, the current rate of progress (between 2000 and 2011) and the rate of progress required between 2011 and 2015 to achieve the targets. The findings suggest a substantial difference among the regions with respect to the adopted indicators of improving maternal health. For example, consistent with the highest and lowest levels of maternal mortality ratio (MMR), the divisions (administrative regions) of Khulna and Sylhet respectively also have the highest and lowest percentages of births delivered in health facilities and assisted by skilled health personnel. However, the second highest percentage of births delivered in a health facility in Chittagong does not accord with its high MMR. This kind of variation reveals that overall improvement in MMR may not necessarily result in complete achievement of the goal of improved maternal health. Rather, there are some gaps and challenges in each region, which need to be addressed and acted upon accordingly. The findings of this paper contribute to knowledge about the persistence of regional inequalities in MDG 5 in Bangladesh, even if the goals are met at the national level. The findings will also be useful in preparing a road map for ensuring the health and wellbeing of all mothers in Bangladesh under the new Sustainable Development Goals.
New York, Population Council, 2018 Aug. 4 p. (Evidence Brief)Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) has been frequently linked to marriageability and is thought to be related to the marriage of girls younger than age 18, known as early/child marriage. These practices threaten the health of girls and women in sub-Saharan Africa, their development, and quality of life. Few rigorous studies exist that can clarify the relationship between these two practices. More such research is needed to inform policymaking and initiatives aimed at ending FGM/C and early/child marriage, both targets of the global Sustainable Development Goals. To fill this gap, the Evidence to End FGM/C programme examined the association between FGM/C and early/child marriage in contexts where both are practised by conducting: 1) A rigorous review of existing research literature and 2) An analysis of data from recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) reflecting a nationally representative sample of women in 10 sub-Saharan African countries. This report summarizes the programme’s findings on the relationship between the two practices, highlighting what we know and what we still need to understand.
The Effect of Early Marriage Timing on Women's and Children's Health in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southwest Asia.
Annals of Global Health. 2017 May - Aug; 83(3-4):557-567.BACKGROUND: Age of marriage is a barrier to mother's health care around pregnancy and children health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: We provide evidence on the health benefits of postponing early marriage among young wives (from age 10-14 to age 15-17) on women's health care and children's health for sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and Southwest Asia (SWA). METHODS: We use data for 39 countries from the Demographic and Health Surveys to estimate the effects of postponing early marriage for women's health care and children's health outcomes and immunization using matching techniques. We also assess whether women's health empowerment and health constraints are additional barriers. FINDINGS: We found that in SSA, delaying the age of marriage from age 10-14 to age 15-17 and from age 15-17 to age 18 or older leads to an increase in maternal neotetanus vaccinations of 2.4% and 3.2%, respectively; gains in the likelihood of postnatal checks are larger for delayed marriage among the youngest wives (aged 10-14). In SWA, the number of antenatal visits increases by 34% and the likelihood of having a skilled birth attendant goes up to 4.1% if young wives postpone marriage. In SSA, the probability of children receiving basic vaccinations is twice as large and their neonatal mortality reduction is nearly double if their mothers married between ages 15-17 instead of at ages 10-14. The extent of these benefits is also shaped by supply constraints and cultural factors. For instance, we found that weak bargaining power on health decisions for young wives leads to 11% fewer antenatal visits (SWA) and 13% less chance of attending postnatal checks (SSA). CONCLUSIONS: Delaying age of marriage among young wives can lead to considerable gains in health care utilization and children health in SSA and SWA if supported by policies that lessen supply constraints and raise women's health empowerment. Copyright (c) 2017 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Determinants of marriage to first birth interval in Birjand, Iran: A retrospective-prospective cohort and survival analysis.
International Journal of Women's Health and Reproduction Sciences. 2018; 6(3):328-334.Objectives: The time-interval between marriage and first childbirth (IMF) can affect fertility and pave the way for decreased fertility in future. This study aimed to determine the effective factors on the time of first childbirth in married women of Birjand, Iran. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective and prospective cohort study incorporating a total of 180 couples from Birjand who were married in 2011. The data were collected by a checklist and subsequently assessed using survival analysis in STATA13 software. Results: From among the participants, 55.2% had a child and the rest were censored. The man’s age at the time of marriage, the interval between marriage contract to marriage ceremony, type of marriage, wife’s place of birth, application of modern methods of contraception, family income per month, and tendency to have a son were the determining factors affecting IMF. Conclusions: More than half of the freshmen admitted to universities across the country are women who will seek employment after they are graduated. Considerations must be made so that they can have their desired number of children, suitable education, and employment. © 2018 The Author (s).
Early-Life Nutrition Is Associated Positively with Schooling and Labor Market Outcomes and Negatively with Marriage Rates at Age 20-25 Years: Evidence from the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (APCAPS) in India.
Journal of Nutrition. 2018 Jan 1; 148(1):140-146.Background: India's Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) is among the world's largest public nutritional programs, providing daily nutritional supplements and other public health and educational services to pregnant and nursing women, children aged <6 y, and adolescent girls. Objective: We estimated the long-term association between early-childhood ICDS nutrition and adult outcomes. Methods: We used follow-up data from a controlled nutritional trial conducted during 1987-1990 in 29 villages near the city of Hyderabad. In 15 intervention villages, a balanced protein-calorie supplement-made from locally available corn-soya ingredients and called upma-was offered to pregnant women and to children <6 y old. No supplement was offered in the 14 control villages. During 2010-2012, adults born during the trial were re-surveyed (n = 715 in the intervention arm and n = 645 in the control arm). We used probit regression and propensity score-matching methods to estimate the association between birth in an intervention village and rates of secondary and graduate education completion, marriage, and employment or enrollment in higher education of these adults. Results: Adults born in the intervention group during the trial, compared with the control group, were 9% (95% CI: 0.04, 0.14; P < 0.01) more likely to complete secondary school and 11% (95% CI: 0.06, 0.15; P < 0.01) more likely to complete graduate education, were 6% (95% CI: -0.11, -0.01; P < 0.05) less likely to be ever-married at age 20-25 y, and were 5% (95% CI: 0, 0.11; P < 0.05) more likely to be employed or enrolled in higher education. The estimated associations for graduate education completion and employment-study rates were greater for men, whereas the associations for secondary education and ever-married rates were greater for women. Conclusion: Exposure to nutritional supplement in utero or during the first 3 y of life was associated with improved adult educational and employment outcomes and lower marriage rates in India. (c) 2018 American Society for Nutrition. All rights reserved.
Understanding Early Marriage and Transactional Sex In the Context of Armed Conflict: Protection at a Price.
International Perspectives On Sexual and Reproductive Health. 2016 Mar 1; 42(1):45-49.Add to my documents.
Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry. 2018; 1-16.Perinatal mental health problems such as depression and anxiety are prevalent in low and middle-income countries. In Mali, the lack of mental health care is compounded by few studies on mental health needs, including in the perinatal period. This paper examines the ways in which perinatal women experience and express mental distress in rural Mali. We describe a process, relying on several different qualitative research methods, to identify understandings of mental distress specific to the Malian context. Participants included perinatal women, maternal health providers, and community health workers in rural southwest Mali. Participants articulated several idioms of distress, including gèlèya (difficulties), tôôrô (pain, suffering), hamin (worries, concerns), and dusukasi (crying heart), that occur within a context of poverty, interpersonal conflict, and gender inequality. These idioms of distress were described as sharing many key features and operating on a continuum of severity that could progress over time, both within and across idioms. Our findings highlight the context dependent nature of experiences and expressions of distress among perinatal women in Mali. © 2018 The Author(s)
African Sociological Review. 2017; 21(2):58-80.The author's hypothesise that the prospects of gender revolution (GR) is rising in Nigeria and may be swaying marriage timing and fertility. The 1990 and 2013 NDHS data and 45 in-depth interviews were analysed. The analysis suggests that the prospects for the emergence of GR increased between 1990 and 2013. Women with high GR status positively predicted marriage timing in 2013 as against the inconsistent association observed in 1990. Similarly, high GR status negatively predicted children ever born (CEB) in 2013. Also, qualitative data suggest a general preference for completing education and participating in labour market before marriage among women. The findings suggest that as the proportion of women with improved GR status increases across Nigeria, delayed marriage is likely to soar and sustainable fertility decline achieved. Social policy to accelerate female education and labour force participation along with realistic economic recovery strategies are therefore of critical importance.
International Journal of Epidemiology. 2017 Apr 1; 46(2):662-675.Background: : Studies in South Asia suggest that child marriage is a strong risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV), but evidence outside the region is lacking. Methods: : This study uses standardized data from demographic and health surveys in 34 countries to test the hypothesis that young women (age 20-24) who married as children are at increased risk of past year physical and/or sexual IPV as compared with those women who married as adults. Results: : Globally, 9% of respondents were married before they turned 15; another 25% were married between the ages of 15 and 17. Past year physical and/or sexual IPV was higher among women who married as children (29%) compared with those who married as adults (20%). This difference persisted in logistic regression models that adjust for sociodemographic characteristics [odds ratio (OR) 1.41 (1.30-1.52) for marriage before 15, and 1.42 (1.35-1.50) for marriage at 15-17]. However, there was considerable heterogeneity between countries: marriage before age 15 was associated with a combined measure of past year physical and/or sexual IPV in nine countries; women married between 15 and 17 were at increased risk of physical and/or sexual IPV in 19 countries. This heterogeneity was most evident in sub-Saharan Africa, and warrants further investigation in so far as it may help identify protective policies and norms. Conclusion: : Substantial reductions in IPV will likely require interventions to combat child marriage itself and to protect women from IPV within child marriages. (c) The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association
Perceptions of teenage women about marriage in adolescence in an Iranian setting: A qualitative study.
Electronic Physician. 2018 Feb; 10(2):6292-6298.Background and aim: Early marriage threatens the health and human rights of millions of girls all around the world. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of Iranian teenage women about marriage in adolescence. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted based on the conventional content analysis approach on 14 teenage married women (aged13-19 years) who attended all urban-rural healthcare centers (4 centers) in Ardabil, Iran between May 2016 and Jan 2017. Data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. Purposeful sampling was continued until data saturation. The data were analyzed using the Graneheim and Landman strategies. Results: The mean age at marriage was 13.2 (SD=1.25) years and the duration of marital life ranged from 45 days to 3 years. During the data analysis, three main categories were extracted that each of them consisted of three sub-categories. The main categories, included "a false sense of sexual development", "death of dreams", and "threatened independence". Conclusion: Results of this study revealed that teenage women could not comprehend opportunities in life. These findings could help health care providers and policy makers to provide teenage women with special care and better support to prevent negative consequences of early marriage.
BMC Public Health. 2018 Mar 27; 18(1):407.BACKGROUND: Child marriage, defined as marriage before age 18, is associated with adverse human capital outcomes. The child marriage burden remains high among female adolescents in Indonesia, despite increasing socioeconomic development. Research on child marriage in Southeast Asia is scarce. No nationally representative studies thus far have examined determinants of child marriage in Indonesia through multivariate regression modeling. METHODS: We used data from the nationally representative 2012 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey and the Adolescent Reproductive Health Survey to estimate determinants of child marriage and marital preferences. We ran multivariate models to estimate the association between demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and the following early marriage outcomes: 1) ever been married or cohabited, 2) married or cohabited before 18 years, 3) married or cohabited before 16 years, 4) self-reported marital-age preferences and 5) attitudes approving female child marriage. RESULTS: Among the child marriage research sample (n = 6578, females aged 20-24 at time of survey), approximately 17% and 6% report being married before 18 and 16 years old respectively. Among the marital preferences research sample (n = 8779, unmarried females 15-24), the average respondent preferred marriage at approximately 26 years and 5% had attitudes approving child marriage. Education, wealth and media exposure have protective effects across marriage outcomes, while rural residence is a risk factor for the same. There are significant variations by region, indicating roles of religious, ethnic and other geographically diverse factors. CONCLUSION: This research fills a gap in understanding of child marriage determinants in Indonesia. There appears to be little support for child marriage among girls and young women, indicating an entry point for structural interventions that would lead to lasting change. Future research efforts should prioritize rigorous testing of gender-transformative education and economic strengthening interventions, including cost-effectiveness considerations to better understand how interventions and policies can be leveraged to deliver on ending child marriage in Indonesia and globally.
Epidemics. 2017 Jun; 19:53-60.The structure of the sexual network of a population plays an essential role in the transmission of HIV. Concurrent partnerships, i.e. partnerships that overlap in time, are important in determining this network structure. Men and women may differ in their concurrent behavior, e.g. in the case of polygyny where women are monogamous while men may have concurrent partnerships. Polygyny has been shown empirically to be negatively associated with HIV prevalence, but the epidemiological impacts of other forms of gender-asymmetric concurrency have not been formally explored. Here we investigate how gender asymmetry in concurrency, including polygyny, can affect the disease dynamics. We use a model for a dynamic network where individuals may have concurrent partners. The maximum possible number of simultaneous partnerships can differ for men and women, e.g. in the case of polygyny. We control for mean partnership duration, mean lifetime number of partners, mean degree, and sexually active lifespan. We assess the effects of gender asymmetry in concurrency on two epidemic phase quantities (R0 and the contribution of the acute HIV stage to R0) and on the endemic HIV prevalence. We find that gender asymmetry in concurrent partnerships is associated with lower levels of all three epidemiological quantities, especially in the polygynous case. This effect on disease transmission can be attributed to changes in network structure, where increasing asymmetry leads to decreasing network connectivity. Copyright (c) 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Washington, D.C., Population Council, Evidence Project, 2017 Oct. 4 p. (Policy Brief; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-13-00087)This brief is for policy makers and program designers interested in bringing low-cost child marriage prevention interventions to scale. It introduces the Child Census tool, which can be used to identify locations where the greatest numbers of girls are out-of-school and/or married, serve as a rapid baseline survey for project interventions, and monitor the impact of interventions in the areas with the highest rates of child marriage. This rapid tool assesses the status of both girls and boys in communities where it is undertaken, and allows programmers to create a tangible, data-driven justification for programmatic focus on girls. It can also contribute, generally, to evidence-driven programming for children and youth. The Child Census tool was developed as part of the Berhane Hewan program in Ethiopia, a partnership between the Ethiopian government and the Population Council.
No safe place: A lifetime of violence for conflict-affected women and girls in South Sudan. Main results report 2017.
[New York, New York], International Rescue Committee, What Works to Prevent Violence Against Women and Girls in Conflict and Humanitarian Crises [What Works], 2017. 100 p.As part of the What Works to Prevent Violence against Women and Girls consortium, the International Rescue Committee (IRC), the Global Women’s Institute at the George Washington University (GWI) and CARE International UK sought to obtain rigorous data on the prevalence, forms, and drivers of VAWG in South Sudan. The study used quantitative and qualitative methods to explore the situation of women and girls in five settings in South Sudan: Juba City, Juba County, Rumbek Centre, two Protection of Civilian (PoC) sites in Juba, and one PoC site in Bentiu. The household survey was conducted in three sites: Juba City, Juba PoCs, and Rumbek Centre. By using local partners trained to accurately and sensitively gather data from women, men, girls and boys across multiple diverse settings, the researchers were able to provide quantitative evidence demonstrating the widespread and severe nature of both non-partner and intimate partner violence, in addition to qualitative evidence that tells a clear story of the lifetime of violence women endure and the devastating consequences for their health and wellbeing.