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Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Condom Self-Efficacy Scale: application to Brazilian adolescents and young adults.
Revista Latino - Americana De Enfermagem. 2018 Jan 8; 25:e2991.OBJECTIVE: translate and adapt the Condom Self-Efficacy Scale to Portuguese in the Brazilian context. The scale originated in the United States and measures self-efficacy in condom use. METHOD: methodological study in two phases: translation, cross-cultural adaptation and verification of psychometric properties. The translation and adaptation process involved four translators, one mediator of the synthesis and five health professionals. The content validity was verified using the Content Validation Index, based on 22 experts' judgments. Forty subjects participated in the pretest, who contributed to the understanding of the scale items. The scale was applied to 209 students between 13 and 26 years of age from a school affiliated with the state-owned educational network. The reliability was analyzed by means of Cronbach's alpha. RESULTS: the Portuguese version of the scale obtained a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.85 and the total mean score was 68.1 points. A statistically significant relation was found between the total scale and the variables not having children (p= 0.038), condom use (p= 0.008) and condom use with fixed partner (p=0.036). CONCLUSION: the Brazilian version of the Condom Self-Efficacy Scale is a valid and reliable tool to verify the self-efficacy in condom use among adolescents and young adults.
Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2016 May. 32 p.PATH conducted a health systems assessment exploring opportunities and challenges related to the potential future introduction of the SILCS diaphragm in India. An opportunity to expand women’s options for contraceptive protection, this nonhormonal method could address the unmet reproductive health needs of many women in India.
Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2016 Sep. 8 p.This brief summarizes the results of a health systems assessment conducted in Uganda in 2010 that explored the perceived need for this method, how it could be integrated into the family planning system, and challenges that would need to be addressed prior to introduction.
Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2016 Sep. 8 p.This brief summarizes a 2013 health systems assessment in South Africa that examined the potential for SILCS introduction in the country. It explores the perceived need for this method, how it could be integrated into the family planning system, and challenges that would need to be addressed prior to introduction.
Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2016 Sep. 8 p.This brief summarizes the results of a health systems assessment conducted in 2012 that explored the feasibility of SILCS introduction in India. The assessment explored perceived need for this method, how it could be integrated into the family planning system, and challenges that need to be addressed prior to introduction.
Bethesda, Maryland, SHOPS Plus, 2017 Jun. 8 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-15-00067)Zambian Ministry of Health policy supports the use of pregnancy tests in family planning services. Pregnancy tests are procured by the government, sometimes available in public clinics, and widely available in private pharmacies and clinics. The SHOPS Plus project conducted a market shaping assessment of pregnancy tests in Lusaka, Zambia, which shows that there has been improvement since 2014 in the availability of pregnancy tests in public clinics. It also shows that, while the demand for pregnancy tests has increased, there are occasional and sometimes frequent stockouts of the tests at public clinics. (Excerpt)
Bethesda, Maryland, SHOPS Plus, 2017 Jul. 8 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-15-00067)Malawian reproductive health policies support the use of pregnancy tests in family planning services. The tests are widely available at private facilities. However, there is currently no public procurement by the Central Medical Stores Trust. The SHOPS Plus project conducted a market shaping assessment of pregnancy tests in Lilongwe, Malawi. The assessment shows that pregnancy tests are widely available in the private sector, which offers a range of different brands at varying price points. However, the tests are rarely available at public clinics, leading providers to send clients to the private sector or to ask them to return during their menses. In both scenarios, women may exit the health care system without ever obtaining a family planning method. (Excerpt)
Bethesda, Maryland, SHOPS Plus, 2017 Jul. 8 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-15-00067)Kenya Ministry of Health policy supports the use of pregnancy tests in family planning services. Pregnancy tests are widely available across the public and private sectors. Public procurement of these commodities for family planning service provision is done at the county level. The SHOPS Plus project conducted a market shaping assessment of pregnancy tests in the greater Nairobi area of Kenya. The assessment shows that pregnancy tests are widely available across the public and private sectors. However, prices in both sectors vary and may be high for some patients. (Excerpt)
Bethesda, Maryland, SHOPS Plus, 2017 Jul. 8 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-15-00067)The Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare supports the use of pregnancy tests in family planning services. The government procures the pregnancy tests, which are widely available in public clinics for free and in the private sector at a range of prices. The SHOPS Plus project conducted a market shaping assessment of pregnancy tests in India, which shows that the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare supports the use of pregnancy tests. The ministry actively procures the tests, and they are widely available in public clinics free of charge and in the private sector at a range of prices. (Excerpt)
TwoDay Method® market research: Report on IRH experience, evidence, and recommendations; and interviews with stakeholders, donors, and possible future collaborators.
Washington, D.C., Georgetown University, Insitute for Reproductive Health, 2010 Jun. 85 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. GPO-A-00-07-00003-00)The TwoDay Method® (TDM) is an effective, fertility awareness method of family planning developed and tested by the Institute for Reproductive Health at Georgetown University (IRH). This simple method, based on a woman’s naturally occurring signs of fertility, involves a woman checking her cervical secretions on a daily basis to identify the fertile days of her menstrual cycle. To avoid pregnancy with this method, the woman and her partner use a barrier method or abstain if she notices any secretions today OR noticed any secretions yesterday. Following a research-to-practice model, IRH first established the theoretical basis for the TDM, then tested it in a multi-country clinical trial, and conducted small introduction studies to further test the method in service delivery settings. Results indicate that the TDM is 96% effective with correct use and about 86% in typical use. Clients describe the method as easy-to-use and providers report it is easy to teach others to use. Study results are further described in peer-reviewed journals and international guidance documents. Tested program and training materials as well as prototype tools for clients, providers and outreach are also available. To further develop and test the TDM, and respond to programmatic needs for a non-commodity method of family planning, IRH conducted a market research project to: Part 1: Review IRH experience with TDM through staff interviews, synthesize TDM evidence as reported in scientific articles and reports, identify any gaps in TDM resources, and summarize findings and recommendations for future TDM activities. Part 2: Analyze the potential for increasing awareness, availability and access to the TDM, identify opportunities and challenges for integrating the TDM into programs, and synthesize opinion research (phone surveys) with stakeholders, funders and potential collaborators regarding the feasibility and viability of integrating the TDM. The findings are summarized in this two-part report as well as in supporting documents developed in conjunction with this report to highlight details regarding key next steps. (excerpt)
Applying a total market lens: increased IUD service delivery through complementary public-and privat-sector interventions in 4 countries.
Global Health: Science and Practice. 2016 Aug 11; 4(Suppl 2):S21-S32.Increasing access to the intrauterine device (IUD), as part of a comprehensive method mix, is a key strategy for reducing unintended pregnancy and maternal mortality in low-income countries. To expand access to IUDs within the framework of informed choice, Population Services International (PSI) has historically supported increased IUD service delivery through private providers. In applying a total market lens to better understand the family planning market and address major market gaps, PSI identified a lack of high-quality public provision of IUDs. In 2013, PSI started a pilot in 4 countries (Guatemala, Laos, Mali, and Uganda) to grow public-provider IUD service delivery through increased public-sector engagement while maintaining its ongoing focus on private providers. In collaboration with country governments, PSI affiliates carried out family planning market analyses in the 4 pilot countries to identify gaps in IUD service delivery and create sustainable strategies for scaling up IUD services in the public sector. Country-specific interventions to increase service delivery were implemented across all levels of the public health system, including targeted advocacy at the national level to promote government ownership and program sustainability. Mechanisms to ensure government ownership were built into the program design, including a proof-of-concept approach to convince governments of the feasibility and value of taking over and scaling up interventions. In the first 2 years of the pilot (2013-2014), 102,055 IUD services were provided to women at 417 targeted public-sector facilities. These preliminary results suggest that there is untapped demand for IUD service delivery in the public sector that can be met in part through greater participation of the public sector in family planning and IUD provision.
Handbook for research on the family planning market. Volume 2: Tools and resources for an in-depth analysis of the family planning market.
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2016 Jun.  p. (TR-16-131B; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-13-00087)To thoroughly plan for a total market approach for family planning, it is advisable to conduct an in-depth analysis of the family planning market. Volume 1 of this handbook covers key TMA indicators, data requirements and measurement issues for the key indicators, data sources, how to analyze patterns and trends in key indicators, measurement of government capacity to steward the TMA process, and approaches to advocate and disseminate findings from an in-depth analysis of the family planning market. This second volume includes several tools and resources (such as computer syntax to calculate various wealth indices, model questionnaires, etc.) that can help facilitate such an in-depth analysis of the family planning market. The tools and resources are intended to be used in conjunction with the main body of the handbook. .
Handbook for research on the family planning market. Volume 1: Using data to inform a total market approach to family planning.
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2016 Jun.  p. (TR-16-131A; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-13-00087)USAID envisions that by 2020 all the priority countries they support will have “the capacities to design, implement, and sustain high-performing family planning programs that include all three sectors for information, product and service delivery in a rational, efficient, and equitable way." This document will contribute to that goal by enhancing the in-country capacity to conduct market analyses to inform the design of TMA program. The specific aims are to advise TMA planners about the data that should be collected to inform the TMA plan, to promote the standardization of indicators, to provide general guidance for basic data analyses. Since this document focuses on data analyses to inform TMA planning, it is likely to be most useful to local researchers who will be responsible for collecting and analyzing the data that will be used to inform a subsequent TMA plan, and for communicating the findings of the analysis to various TMA stakeholders. The secondary audience consists of the various stakeholders, including program implementers, policy-makers, government officials, donors, and other researchers.
Assessing the potential market for a progesterone contraceptive vaginal ring (PCVR) as a new contraceptive option in Sub-Saharan Africa using needs-based market segmentation.
New York, Population Council, 2014. 36 p.The market segmentation analysis presented in this report aims to clarify the PPFP landscape in Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal and aid PCVR’s effective introduction with an emphasis on increasing access to those under-served. This exercise’s specific objectives are: 1) to estimate the proportion of PCVR consumers in each country (women aged 15 to 49) likely to use the method based on their fertility experiences and intentions, 2) to describe the segments of consumers through demographic and socio-economic characteristics, and 3) to forecast segment-specific PCVR use estimates by evaluating both current and future need for the product.This report is based on secondary analysis of nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data for Kenya from 2008 to 2009, Nigeria in 2008, and Sénégal in 2005. The total number of women interviewed in their respective Surveys is 8,444 in Kenya, 33,385 in Nigeria, and 14,602 in Sénégal. Since need drives market behavior, a needs-based segmentation analysis was performed with the DHS data. Segmentation research is valuable for the PCVR because it permits definition of very specific needs-based market segments into which its entire consumer universe, both present and potential, can be discerned. The market segmentation analysis includes three steps and involves cross-tabulation. (excerpt)
Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2015.  p.This is part of a series of reports discussing the activities, milestones, and outcomes of the Protection Options for Women Product Development Partnership (2011-2015) dedicated to expanding access to the Woman’s Condom. This report focuses on our work shaping and strengthening markets for the Woman’s Condom in South Africa.
Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2015.  p.This is part of a series of reports discussing the activities, milestones, and outcomes of the Protection Options for Women Product Development Partnership (2011-2015) dedicated to expanding access to the Woman’s Condom. This report focuses on our work shaping and strengthening markets for the Woman’s Condom in China.
Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2015.  p.This is part of a series of reports discussing the activities, milestones, and outcomes of the Protection Options for Women Product Development Partnership (2011-2015) dedicated to expanding access to the Woman’s Condom. This report focuses on global activities and strategies designed to develop sustainable markets for the Woman’s Condom.
Willingness to pay for lipid-based nutrient supplements for young children in four urban sites of Ethiopia.
Maternal and Child Nutrition. 2015 Dec; 11(Suppl 4):16-30.Malnutrition in children under 5 years of age is pervasive in Ethiopia across all wealth quintiles. The objective of this study was to determine the willingness to pay (WTP) for a week's supply of Nutributter® (a lipid-based nutrient supplement, or LNS) through typical urban Ethiopian retail channels. In February, 2012, 128 respondents from 108 households with 6-24-month-old children had the opportunity to sample Nutributter® for 2 days in their homes as a complementary food. Respondents were asked directly and indirectly what they were willing to pay for the product, and then participated in market simulation where they could demonstrate their WTP through an exchange of real money for real product. Nearly all (96%) of the respondents had a positive WTP, and 25% were willing to pay the equivalent of at least $1.05, which we calculated as the likely minimum, unsubsidized Ethiopian retail price of Nutributter® for 1 week for one child. Respondents willing to pay at least $1.05 included urban men and women with children 6-24 months old from low-, middle- and high-wealth groups from four study sites across three cities. Additionally, we estimated the initial annual market size for Nutributter® in the cities where the study took place to be around $500,000. The study has important implications for retail distribution of LNS in Ethiopia, showing who the most likely customers could be, and also suggesting why the initial market may be too small to be of interest to food manufacturers seeking profit maximization.
[Manila, Philippines], Chemonics International, PRISM2 Project, .  p.USAID Philippines through the Private Sector Mobilization for Family Health-Phase 2 (PRISM2) project assessed the potential for introduction and widespread use of OiU in the Philippines. A field study was conducted on the acceptability and feasibility of using OiU for the prevention of PPH. The objective was to generate evidence to help policymakers and planners make informed decisions regarding the introduction and scale-up of the product in the Philippines. In tandem with field activities, a complete landscaping review was conducted to evaluate sustainable market opportunities and potential for local manufacturing was explored. This technical brief describes the methodology, results, and conclusion.
A total market approach for condoms in Myanmar: the need for the private, public and socially marketed sectors to work together for a sustainable condom market for HIV prevention.
Health Policy and Planning. 2015 Mar 1; 30(Suppl 1):i14-i22.BACKGROUND: Concerns about appropriate pricing strategies and the high market share of subsidized condoms prompted Population Services International (PSI)/Myanmar to adopt a total market approach (TMA). This article presents data on the size and composition of the Myanmar condom market, identifies inefficiencies and recommends methods for better targeting public subsidy. METHODOLOGY: Data on condom need and condom use came from PSI/Myanmar's (PSI/M's) behavioral surveys; data for key populations' socioeconomic status profiles came from the same surveys and the National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey. Data on market share, volumes, value and number of condoms were from PSI/M's quarterly retail audits and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). RESULTS: Between 2008 and 2010, the universal need for condoms decreased from 112.9 to 98.2 million while condom use increased from 32 to 46%. Free and socially marketed condoms dominated the market (94%) in 2009-11 with an increase in the proportion of free condoms over time. The retail price of socially marketed condoms was artificially low at 44 kyats ($0.05 USD) in 2011 while the price for commercial condoms was 119-399 kyats ($0.15-$0.49 USD). Equity analyses demonstrated an equal distribution of female sex workers across national wealth quintiles, but 54% of men who have sex with men and 55% of male clients were in the highest two quintiles. Donor subsidies for condoms increased over time; from $434 000 USD in 2009 to $577 000 USD in 2011. CONCLUSION: The market for male condoms was stagnant in Myanmar due to: limited demand for condoms among key populations, the dominance of free and socially marketed condoms on the market and a neglected commercial sector. Subsidies for socially marketed and free condoms have prevented the growth of the private sector, an unintended consequence. A TMA is needed to grow and sustain the condom market in Myanmar, which requires close co-ordination between the public, socially marketed and commercial sectors.
Bethesda, Maryland, Abt Associates, Strengthening Health Outcomes through the Private Sector [SHOPS], 2015 Jan.  p. (Primer; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. GPO-A-00-09-00007-00)This primer presents a framework for developing and implementing a total market strategy for condom programming. A total market strategy uses the comparative advantages of all sectors -- public, nonprofit, and commercial -- to strengthen programs that distribute condoms for the prevention of HIV. Such efforts can increase the number of condom users, reduce the need for subsidies, increase access to condoms, and reduce the financial burden of HIV prevention activities on the public sector. The primer discusses supply- and demand-side indicators for identifying the development stage of a country’s condom market, identifies total market interventions based on the market stage, and provides additional resources for forecasting condom needs.
Nicaragua family planning market segmentation analysis. Prepared for the Enhancing Equity and Sustainability of Public-Sector Family Planning project.
Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2013 Feb.  p.To support a total market approach to family planning in Nicaragua, PATH is helping to enhance the equity and accessibility of family planning services. This study in Nicaragua segments public- and private-sector users into different subgroups, each with its own profile, and makes recommendations about how best to meet the needs of each group. The document highlights not only demographic and economic variations but also differences in values and attitudes, all of which are key drivers of family planning demand.
Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2013 Jul.  p. (Technology Solutions for Global Health)Part of the Technology Updates series, this fact sheet describes the the Woman's Condom project at PATH, including the health need, the technology solution and the current status and results.
Hanoi, Vietnam, USAID, 2014 Jul.  p.This fact sheet describes the Healthy Markets Activity project, funded by the US Agency for International Development and implemented by PATH, which is designed to grow the commercial market for HIV-related goods and services to meet the needs of Vietnam's most-at-risk populations. The project offers market research, policy and regulatory support, technical assistance, and private-sector engagement opportunities to encourage innovation and investment.
Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2014 Feb 6.  p. (PATH Update; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-11-00051)This report describes how PATH, in collaboration with partners, undertakes distinct activities at each phase of the value chain -- from research to scale-up -- to shape the global market for basic neonatal resuscitation equipment for developing countries, as well as some potential risks and mitigation plans going forward.