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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    [Tanzania: the ravages of AIDS] Tanzanie: les ravages du SIDA.

    Manicot C

    REVUE DE L INFIRMIERE. 1991 May 21; 41(10):27-32.

    The coordinator and nurse of the anti-AIDS program of the Red Cross in Tanzania relates that families affected by the disease are helped with food, clothes, and moral support. The new illness appeared in 1983 in a zone at the Tanzanian-Ugandan frontier. The first victim of AIDS was a Ugandan merchant, and the infection spread to the large cities of the country mostly by heterosexual transmission facilitated by the prevalent practice of having multiple sexual partners. According to January 1991 WHO figures there were 7128 cases reported in the country among 24 million inhabitants, but this figure ought to be multiplied by 2 or more. 30% of women were found seropositive at Kigali in the north and 20% in Dar-es-Salaam. Certain informal sources project 64,000 AIDS cases for 1992. If the WHO estimation that 50-100 seropositive persons hide behind 1 patient with AIDS is correct, one could calculate 3.2-6.4 million of seropositive people for 1992. Officially, this is not admitted because of the hesitation to tarnish the image of the country trying to attract tourists. The Muhimbili Hospital in Dar-es-Salaam has 45 beds, but it can accommodate 60 patients on mattresses. Hospitalization is mostly for opportunistic infections, and often for tuberculosis. AZT is very expensive, even in countries where it is available. The association WAMATA, in existence since 1989, offers help to seropositive people or AIDS victims trying to stress prevention and educate people about the use of the condom, although the modification of people's behavior in a culture where sexuality and fertility are closely linked is difficult. The government budget is not sufficient for buying condoms for protecting the whole population. The National AIDS Control Program has the objective of sensitization of young people by sex education and by belatedly discouraging traditional wedding ceremonies where guests get drunk and engage in love-making.
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    [AIDS in the world] AIDS nel mondo.

    Di Nola F

    MINERVA GINECOLOGICA. 1991 Dec; 43(12):609-10.

    AIDS continues to pose a grave global problem because it is spreading in the general population by increasing heterosexual transmission and vertical transmission from seropositive mothers to fetuses. A minor rate of transmission has been observed from blood transfusion and blood products. On October 31, 1990 WHO data indicated that a total of 298,914 AIDS cases had been reported. In Africa there were 75,642 cases: 15,569 were in Uganda, 11,732 in Zaire, 9139 in Kenya, 7160 in Malawi, 3647 in the Ivory Coast, 3494 in Zambia, and 3134 in Zimbabwe, with the rest averaging less than 4% of the total African caseload. There were 180,663 cases in the Americas: 149,498 in the US, 11,070 in Brazil, 4941 in Mexico, 4427 in Canada, 2456 in Haiti, 1368 in the Dominican Republic, 870 in Venezuela, 743 in Honduras, 710 in Argentina, 648 in Trinidad an Tobago, 643 in Colombia, 507 in the Bahamas, and 203 in Panama, the rest being less than 200. Asia had only 790 cases: 290 in Japan, 116 in Israel, 48 in India, 45 in Thailand, 37 each in Turkey and the Philippines, 31 in Lebanon, and 27 in Hong Kong. Europe had 39,526 cases: 9718 in France and 6701 in Italy as of June 30, 1990, however, by December 31, 1990 there were 8227 cases reported of whom 4074 had died. There were 6210 in Spain, 5266 in the German Federal Republic, 3798 in England, 1462 in Switzerland, 1443 in the Netherlands, 999 in Romania, 764 in Belgium, 663 in Denmark, 481 in Portugal, 450 in Austria, 443 in Sweden, and 347 in Greece. Little attention has paid to notification in eastern Europe: 40 cases in the USSR, 43 in Poland, 23 in Czechoslovakia, 22 in the German Democratic Republic, 42 in Hungary which is contrasted to 999 cases in Romania. Oceania had 2293 cases: 2040 in Australia, 207 in New Zealand, 16 in French Polynesia, 14 in New Caledonia, 13 in New Guinea, 2 in Tonga, 1 in Fiji, and 1 in the Federated States of Micronesia.
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  3. 3

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection codes and new codes for Kaposi's sarcoma. Official authorized addenda ICD-9-CM (revision no. 2). Effective October 1, 1991.

    United States. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]


    The addenda for Volumes 1 and 2 of the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) were reported by the Collaborating Center for Classification of Diseases for North America at the National Center for Health Statistics. This was the second revision of these codes for the classification of HIV infection. THe addenda, effective October 1, 1991, replace the addendum containing codes for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that went into effect January 1, 1988. The structure of the classification, the codes within the classification, and the use of the codes remained the same. 3 basic modifications were accepted. A new 3-digit category was created for Kaposi's sarcoma; several new clinical conditions were added (acute or subacute endocarditis, microsporidiosis, acute or subacute myocarditis, bacterial and pneumococcal pneumonia, histiocytic or large cell lymphoma, secondary cardiomyopathy and nephritis and nephropathy); and several categories of HIV manifestations were expanded to include similar conditions (viral pneumonia, encephalitis, encephalomyelitis and myelitis). These modifications will improve the accuracy of reporting and allow public health officials, clinical researchers, and agencies which finance health care to monitor diagnoses of AIDS and other manifestations of HIV infection. HIV infection is divided into 3 categories: HIV infection with specified secondary infections or malignant neoplasms, or AIDS; HIV infection with other specified manifestations; and other HIV infections not classifiable above. AIDS is not synonymous with HIV infection or with such terms as pre-AIDS or AIDS-related complex. To use these codes correctly, the physician must provide complete information and state the relationship between HIV infection and other conditions.
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  4. 4

    Adapting data systems of multimethod programs to incorporate natural family planning.

    Cuervo LI

    In: Natural family planning: current knowledge and new strategies for the 1990s. Proceedings of a conference, Part II, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., December 10-14, 1990, edited by John T. Queenan, Victoria H. Jennings, Jeffrey M. Spieler, Helena von Hertzen. [Washington, D.C.], Georgetown University Institute for International Studies in Family Planning, [1991]. 82-3.

    Natural family planning (NFP) is being practiced in several countries throughout Latin America, with a significant number of reported acceptors initiating and maintaining the practice of the method through International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) Western Hemisphere Region (WHR) family planning associations (FPAs). IPPF/WHR has taken advantage of a recent updating and simplification of its service statistics system to incorporate NFP listed as a distinct method just like the others offered by the FPAs. The FPAs were therefore credited with providing NFP. This explicit inclusion of NFP in the service statistics forms and in the accompanying IPPF Service Statistics Manual will likely prompt FPAs to register NFP acceptors. More FPAs will also probably consider offering this method to clients. To incorporate NFP into a multimethod data system, family planning programs are recommended to use the power of demonstration, provide reporting space in statistical forms, and gather, tabulate, analyze, and publicize results.
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